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Geog3371w s20 Research Paper

Geog3371w. Lindeke. Spring 2020.
Research Project Instructions
Research Project
Draft due 3/26, final paper due 4/23
Why do a research project?
The goal of your research project is to complement the content of GEOG 3371 by focusing on one
particular issue in one urban place. It is designed to enhance your skills in assembling relevant data,
harnessing explanatory arguments, and practicing presenting your findings in a concise written report.
The report has to be in the form of a formal research paper.
For tips on the difference between academic and other forms of writing, how to
recognize scholarly sources, as well as guidance on many other aspects of
effective writing, visit the Department of Geography Writing and Style Guide:
Project components
Your research project will have five components, each with its own point value and due date:
-- Topic statement and annotated bibliography (25% of grade) due 2/27
-- Initial draft (25% of grade) due 3/26
-- Research paper (50% of grade), due 4/23
To do outside class (most of your project work is outside class)
A) Choose a topic from the list in Appendix A, or propose a topic of your own, as follows:
Note: If you want to suggest your own topic, submit a short proposal (250 words) via email
(linde082@umn.edu) by 4:00 pm, Thursday 2/21. I highly recommend choosing a topic that you
will be excited about! You may also modify a topic according to a specific interest or emphasis
but if you choose to do so, describe your modification on your annotated bibliography.
B) Prepare an annotated bibliography and a provisional, working title for the paper, due in class
Thursday 2/27. Separate instructions for the annotated bibliography will be provided to you. The
annotated bibliography is a list of 5 works you will use as sources for your research, along with a short
summary of each work and how you will use it. Of these works 4 must be scholarly publications (i.e.,
peer reviewed). Your research paper, however, should use at least 10 sources (excluding required
readings), 6 of which must be scholarly publications. Apart from these rules you may draw widely on
research materials available both in conventional form (scholarly books and journal articles, newspaper
and magazine articles, government documents including statistics, etc.) and from the Internet. Appendix B
provides a list of useful urban journals.
(NOTE: The Internet can be an excellent source of contemporary information. But some of it is
low quality, unreliable, and has no place in scholarly inquiry. Where the Internet is concerned, be
careful that material is drawn only from reputable sites. All Internet sources should be cited
fully and accurately and should include the date on which the site was accessed. In addition,
you need to avoid excessive reliance on Internet sources. No more than 1/3 of references used
in this research project should be drawn from the Internet.)
C) Collect statistical information for your research project and look for or make at least one
illustrative figure (e.g. map, photograph, or other visual representation). Statistical information for
Geog3371w. Lindeke. Spring 2020.
Research Project Instructions
your topic should be collected from statistical sources (e.g. government documents), books, journal
articles and the Internet. As stated below, you must construct at least one numerical table or graph to
include in your paper, but the statistics you collect may be useful elsewhere in the paper as well.
D) Write a research paper adhering to the following parameters. The paper should be 8-10 typed
pages of text (double-spaced, 12 point font, 1 inch margins) plus at least one table or graph, one figure
such as a map, photograph, or other visual representation, and a bibliography. Give your paper a title that
reflects the central problem or question addressed.
You will receive a separate handout with information on how to structure and write an
effective short research paper. Make sure to read this before you write your paper.
The bibliography should contain complete citations of all the books, articles and websites (web
address, plus date) used in the research. Each citation in the bibliography needs to be referenced
in the text. Reference style should follow the University of Chicago Manual of Style “AuthorDate” system. See Appendix C.
You are responsible for understanding academic honesty and university rules on plagiarism,
and must hand in a written paper that is entirely your own work.
Draft is due Thursday 3/26
Final draft with revisions is due Thursday 4/28
The paper will be graded for content, organization, clarity and coherence of argument, use of sources,
and grammar and spelling. We expect that you 1) provide supporting empirical evidence for your thesis,
including statistical information when appropriate; and 2) that in your explanations/interpretations of a
particular fact, event, or process, you draw on concepts and explanatory frameworks learnt in class, in
class readings, or other scholarly sources. Finally, we expect that your paper 3) makes clear why your
thesis is significant.
Organize the paper so that the reader can easily follow your argument. I highly recommend using 3-5
‘sections,’ each with its own title, to guide your writing. This means that you should make sure that there
is an overall flow to the structure of your argument. In terms of clarity and coherence of argument and
writing, we expect coherence both within and across paragraphs.
Geog3371w. Lindeke. Spring 2020.
Research Project Instructions
Appendix A
List of Topics
Note: A topic is different from an argument. Your paper must make an argument concerning your
choice of topic.
If you wish to modify your choice of topic from the list below, in accordance with a particular interest
or emphasis, you must describe your modification in your Annotated Bibliography.
1. Conflicts over use of public space / homelessness. In recent decades conflicts have arisen over the
use and definition of public space – homeless encampments in urban parks, and the regulation of political
protest on public streets are two examples. Choose up to two U.S. cities where the definition and use of
public space has become a contentious issue, and respond to the following questions: What happened that
made the use and definition of public space contentious? Who were the parties that came in conflict with
each other? What makes their contentiousness difficult to resolve (i.e., what are the different “rights” or
justifications claimed by the contending parties)? What insights can you draw about the meaning and
value of public space today that someone who doubts the value of public space ought to know?
2. Suburbanization of poverty. During the first decade of the 21st century, the geography of U.S. poverty
shifted. As a whole, suburbs of metropolitan areas experienced the greatest growth in their poor
population and by 2008 had become home to the largest share of the nation’s poor. Choose one state
whose suburbs have seen significant growth in poverty and respond to the following questions: 1) What is
the extent of the suburbanization of poverty in the state – Where is it? Why is it happening? Who is
experiencing it? 2) What aspects of suburban poverty make it different from poverty in inner city areas?
3) What have been the responses to suburban poverty and do they seem to be effective?
3. Environmental justice / segregation. The Environmental Justice movement has led the way in
connecting environmental and social justice issues in US cities, especially linking the legacy of racial
discrimination and/or other manifestations of social marginalization to environmental problems. For
example, environmentally harmful and polluting projects and land uses are usually placed in areas where
they are “cheapest” and disproportionally impact the poor, who have the least ability to resist and cope
with these harms. This project should: 1) Briefly explore the history of environmental justice and/or
segregation in your choice of metro area (e.g. what have been the economic, environmental and social
problems associated with environmental justice in the area?); 2) Identify one or two current
environmental justice issues and segregation in your metro area. 3) Identify and assess potential measures
put in place or considered, in order to address these problems. NOTE: you could use this topic to discuss
how climate change will impact different urban populations.
4. Gentrification / affordable housing. The issue of gentrification and affordable housing is one of the
most contentious and heated debates in US cities. Affordable housing has been consistently under attack
at different levels during the 20th and 21st centuries, and the construction of affordable housing is rarely
easy, as cities and neighborhoods often say “Not In My Backyard!” Often these debates are closely linked
to gentrification, where affordable housing is “driven out” of a neighborhood due to rising property
values. This project should: 1) Briefly explore the history of affordable and/or public housing programs in
your choice of metro area, including identifying who funds these programs; 2) Identify current debates
over gentrification and/or public/affordable housing in your chosen metro area, including the economic,
environmental and social problems that have been associated with lack of affordable housing; 3) Identify
and assess potential measures put in place or considered to address these problems.
5. Economic restructuring and economic revitalization In the US, “economic restructuring” is a term
that describes how older industrial cities have been hit hard by changes in the spatial relationships of
capitalism, as jobs and investment have left “rustbelt” areas in favor of more business-friendly places in
the US sunbelt or in other countries. This has often left large parts of US cities with abandoned factories,
few jobs, and few resources to cope with social problems This project should examine: 1) the history of
economic restructuring in your choice of metro area, including its manufacturing history and how it has
Geog3371w. Lindeke. Spring 2020.
Research Project Instructions
changed in recent decades; 2) some social, political, or economic consequences of this restructuring; 3)
current attempts to “revitalize” the city and how these have impacted the consequences of restructuring.
6. The “Black Lives Matter” (BLM) movement What is BLM – who originated it and how and why did
it originate? How has this movement changed since its inception? In what cities is BLM strongest and
why? What are the urban planning and political causes of today’s structural problems around policing?
Develop a comparative study of BLM in two American Cities, noting differences and similarities with
respect to origins, activities, goals, and tactics.
7. The “Sanctuary City” What is a “Sanctuary City” and how and where did this idea originate? What
controversies have arisen around the “Sanctuary City” as a concept and practice? Choose a city that has
become a “Sanctuary City”: Who were the principle people involved in proclaiming the city a sanctuary?
What does this “Sanctuary City” actually do and these practices unique or similar to other such cities?
Has this “Sanctuary City” been successful – why or why not?
Geog3371w. Lindeke. Spring 2020.
Research Project Instructions
American Quarterly
International Journal of Urban and Regional Research
Journal of Urban Planning and Development
Urban Geography
Journal of Urban Affairs
Regional Studies
Journal of Advanced Transportation
Journal of Public Transportation
Journal of Transportation and Land Use
Journal of Transport Geography
Journal of Transportation and Statistics
Journal of Transport Economics and Policy
Journal of Transportation Planning and Technology
Journal of Urban Economics
Journal of Urban Planning and Development (ACSE)
Mass Transit
Transport Geography
Urban Studies
Economic Geography
Environment and Planning A
Environment and Planning D: Society and Space
Journal of Historical Geography
Progress in Human Geography
Journal of Urban History
Race and Society
Urban Review
Useful UMN library resources include:
An Article database called Academic Search Premier (Start with this one!) under the ‘Database’ tab
An online catalog called MNCAT Classic available under the ‘Books’ tab
The online statistical reference site called geodata.gov
The online reference site called CIA World Factbook
Geog3371w. Lindeke. Spring 2020.
Research Project Instructions
University of Chicago Manual of Style: Author-Date Style Citations
The following examples illustrate citations using the author-date system. Each example of a reference
list entry is accompanied by an example of a corresponding parenthetical citation in the text. For
more details and many more examples, see chapter 15 of The Chicago Manual of Style.
One author
Pollan, Michael. 2006. The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals. New York: Penguin.
(Pollan 2006, 99–100)
Two or more authors
Ward, Geoffrey C., and Ken Burns. 2007. The War: An Intimate History, 1941–1945. New York: Knopf.
(Ward and Burns 2007, 52)
For four or more authors, list all of the authors in the reference list; in the text, list only the first author,
followed by et al. (“and others”):
(Barnes et al. 2010)
Editor, translator, or compiler instead of author
Lattimore, Richmond, trans. 1951. The Iliad of Homer. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
(Lattimore 1951, 91–92)
Editor, translator, or compiler in addition to author
García Márquez, Gabriel. 1988. Love in the Time of Cholera. Translated by Edith Grossman. London:
(García Márquez 1988, 242–55)
Chapter or other part of a book
Kelly, John D. 2010. “Seeing Red: Mao Fetishism, Pax Americana, and the Moral Economy of War.” In
Anthropology and Global Counterinsurgency, edited by John D. Kelly, Beatrice Jauregui, Sean T.
Mitchell, and Jeremy Walton, 67–83. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
(Kelly 2010, 77)
Chapter of an edited volume originally published elsewhere (as in primary sources)
Cicero, Quintus Tullius. 1986. “Handbook on Canvassing for the Consulship.” In Rome: Late Republic
and Principate, edited by Walter Emil Kaegi Jr. and Peter White. Vol. 2 of University of Chicago
Readings in Western Civilization, edited by John Boyer and Julius Kirshner, 33–46. Chicago:
University of Chicago Press. Originally published in Evelyn S. Shuckburgh, trans., The Letters of
Cicero, vol. 1 (London: George Bell & Sons, 1908).
(Cicero 1986, 35)
Preface, foreword, introduction, or similar part of a book
Rieger, James. 1982. Introduction to Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus, by Mary Wollstonecraft
Shelley, xi–xxxvii. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Geog3371w. Lindeke. Spring 2020.
Research Project Instructions
(Rieger 1982, xx–xxi)
Book published electronically
If a book is available in more than one format, cite the version you consulted. For books consulted online,
list a URL; include an access date only if one is required by your publisher or discipline. If no fixed page
numbers are available, you can include a section title or a chapter or other number.
Austen, Jane. 2007. Pride and Prejudice. New York: Penguin Classics. Kindle edition.
Kurland, Philip B., and Ralph Lerner, eds. 1987. The Founders’ Constitution. Chicago: University of
Chicago Press. http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/.
(Austen 2007)
(Kurland and Lerner, chap. 10, doc. 19)
Journal article
Article in a print journal
In the text, list the specific page numbers consulted, if any. In the reference list entry, list the page range
for the whole article.
Weinstein, Joshua I. 2009. “The Market in Plato’s Republic.” Classical Philology 104:439–58.
(Weinstein 2009, 440)
Article in an online journal
Include a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) if the journal lists one. A DOI is a permanent ID that, when
appended to http://dx.doi.org/ in the address bar of an Internet browser, will lead to the source. If no DOI
is available, list a URL. Include an access date only if one is required by your publisher or discipline.
Kossinets, Gueorgi, and Duncan J. Watts. 2009. “Origins of Homophily in an Evolving Social Network.”
American Journal of Sociology 115:405–50. Accessed February 28, 2010. doi:10.1086/599247.
(Kossinets and Watts 2009, 411)
Article in a newspaper or popular magazine
Newspaper and magazine articles may be cited in running text (“As Sheryl Stolberg and Robert Pear
noted in a New York Times article on February 27, 2010, . . .”), and they are commonly omitted from a
reference list. The following examples show the more formal versions of the citations. If you consulted
the article online, include a URL; include an access date only if your publisher or discipline requires one.
If no author is identified, begin the citation with the article title.
Mendelsohn, Daniel. 2010. “But Enough about Me.” New Yorker, January 25.
Stolberg, Sheryl Gay, and Robert Pear. 2010. “Wary Centrists Posing Challenge in Health Care Vote.”
New York Times, February 27. Accessed February 28, 2010. http://www.nytimes.com/2010/02/28/us/
(Mendelsohn 2010, 68)
(Stolberg and Pear 2010)
Book review
Geog3371w. Lindeke. Spring 2020.
Research Project Instructions
Kamp, David. 2006. “Deconstructing Dinner.” Review of The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of
Four Meals, by Michael Pollan. New York Times, April 23, Sunday Book Review. http://
(Kamp 2006)
Thesis or dissertation
Choi, Mihwa. 2008. “Contesting Imaginaires in Death Rituals during the Northern Song Dynasty.” PhD
diss., University of Chicago.
(Choi 2008)
Paper presented at a meeting or conference
Adelman, Rachel. 2009. “ ‘Such Stuff as Dreams Are Made On’: God’s Footstool in the Aramaic
Targumim and Midrashic Tradition.” Paper presented at the annual meeting for the Society of Biblical
Literature, New Orleans, Louisiana, November 21–24.
(Adelman 2009)
A citation to website content can often be limited to a mention in the text (“As of July 19, 2008, the
McDonald’s Corporation listed on its website . . .”). If a more formal citation is desired, it may be styled
as in the examples below. Because such content is subject to change, include an access date or, if
available, a date that the site was last modified. In the absence of a date of publication, use the access date
or last-modified date as the basis of the citation.
Google. 2009. “Google Privacy Policy.” Last modified March 11. http://www.google.com/intl/en/
McDonald’s Corporation. 2008. “McDonald’s Happy Meal Toy Safety Facts.” Accessed July 19. http://
(Google 2009)
(McDonald’s 2008)
Blog entry or comment
Blog entries or comments may be cited in running text (“In a comment posted to The Becker-Posner Blog
on February 23, 2010, . . .”), and they are commonly omitted from a reference list. If a reference list entry
is needed, cite the blog post there but mention comments in the text only. (If an access date is required,
add it before the URL; see examples elsewhere in this guide.)
Posner, Richard. 2010. “Double Exports in Five Years?” The Becker-Posner Blog, February 21. http://
(Posner 2010)
E-mail or text message
E-mail and text messages may be cited in running text (“In a text message to the author on March 1, 2010,
John Doe revealed . . .”), and they are rarely listed in a reference list. In parenthetical citations, the term
personal communication (or pers. comm.) can be used.
(John Doe, e-mail message to author, February 28, 2010)
(John Doe, pers. comm.)
Geog3371w. Lindeke. Spring 2020.
Research Project Instructions
Item in a commercial database
For items retrieved from a commercial database, add the name of the database and an accession number
following the facts of publication. In this example, the dissertation cited above is shown as it would be
cited if it were retrieved from ProQuest’s database for dissertations and theses.
Choi, Mihwa. 2008. “Contesting Imaginaires in Death Rituals during the Northern Song Dynasty.” PhD
diss., University of Chicago. ProQuest (AAT 3300426).