Hypermasculine Sexual Behavior and the Fear of the Feminine by Aaron Oravetz Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Counseling Psychology Pacifica Graduate Institute 20 February 2016 ProQuest Number: 10104084 All rights reserved INFORMATION TO ALL USERS The quality of this reproduction is dependent upon the quality of the copy submitted. In the unlikely event that the author did not send a complete manuscript and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if material had to be removed, a note will indicate the deletion. ProQuest 10104084 Published by ProQuest LLC (2016). Copyright of the Dissertation is held by the Author. All rights reserved. This work is protected against unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States Code Microform Edition © ProQuest LLC. ProQuest LLC. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway P.O. Box 1346 Ann Arbor, MI 48106 - 1346 ii © 2016 Aaron Oravetz All rights reserved iii I certify that I have read this paper and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a product for the degree of Master of Arts in Counseling Psychology. ____________________________________ Angela Mohan, M.A., L.M.F.T. Portfolio Thesis Advisor On behalf of the thesis committee, I accept this paper as partial fulfillment of the requirements for Master of Arts in Counseling Psychology. ____________________________________ Avrom Altman, M.A., L.M.F.T., L.P.C. Research Associate On behalf of the Counseling Psychology program, I accept this paper as partial fulfillment of the requirements for Master of Arts in Counseling Psychology. ____________________________________ Jemma Elliot, M.A., L.M.F.T., L.P.C.C. Director of Research iv Abstract Hypermasculine Sexual Behavior and the Fear of the Feminine by Aaron Oravetz This thesis examines the relationship between hypermasculine sexual behavior and a fear of the archetypal Feminine. Using hermeneutic methodology, hypermasculine sexual behavior, such as the sexual objectification of women and treating sex as a conquest, is explored in relation to classical Jungian psychological concepts such as complexes and the anima. The psychological development of a male around sexuality and gender is addressed in relation to hypermasculine sexual behavior. Hypermasculine thoughts, feelings, and actions regarding women are examined as responses to a fear of the archetypal Feminine and its projection onto females. A psychological understanding of the motivations behind hypermasculine sexual behavior may assist hypermasculine clients and the clinicians who provide treatment to them. v Acknowledgments This thesis would not have come to fruition without the assistance and support of my thesis adviser and Pacifica Graduate Institute professor Angela Mohan. I would also like to thank Barbara Boyd, also a professor at Pacifica Graduate Institute, for her guidance. I have sincere gratitude for my editor Rebecca Pottenger and the help she has given me along the way. Finally, I would not have been able to complete this process without the love and support of Rachel and Cypress Couch. vi Table of Contents Chapter I Introduction ..................................................................................................1 Area of Interest ........................................................................................................1 Guiding Purpose.......................................................................................................1 Rationale ..................................................................................................................3 Methodology ............................................................................................................3 Research Problem ........................................................................................3 Research Question .......................................................................................4 Methodological Approach ...........................................................................4 Ethical Considerations .............................................................................................4 Overview of Thesis ..................................................................................................5 Chapter II Literature Review.........................................................................................6 Introduction ..............................................................................................................6 The Masculine and Feminine Principles ..................................................................6 Hypermasculinity: A Caricature of Masculinity ......................................................7 Hypermasculine Behavior as a Natural Development .............................................9 Masculinity and Status ...........................................................................................10 A Multidimensional Approach to Studying Hypermasculinity .............................11 Subscribing to a Hypermasculine Sexual Behavior ...............................................12 The Complex..........................................................................................................13 The Mother of all Complexes ................................................................................15 Fear of the Feminine ..............................................................................................16 The Anima .............................................................................................................17 Anima Development ..............................................................................................19 The Anima’s Relation to Sexuality ........................................................................20 Conclusion and Prelude to Chapter III...................................................................21 Chapter III Findings and Clinical Applications............................................................22 Introduction ............................................................................................................22 Hypermasculine Sexual Behavior as a Dimension Explored This Thesis .................................................................................................23 Masculine and Feminine: Not Male and Female .......................................23 Connection or Differentiation ................................................................................24 Failure to Give Up Heroic Masculinity .................................................................26 The Anima and Male Psychological Development ...............................................27 Devaluing the Feminine as a Response to Fear .....................................................30 Sexual Objectification of Women ..........................................................................32 Sex as Conquest .....................................................................................................34 Overcompensation and the Fear of Feminine Sexuality ........................................35 vii Phallic Narcissism..................................................................................................37 Conclusion and Clinical Application .....................................................................38 Chapter IV Summary and Conclusions ........................................................................40 Summary ................................................................................................................40 Conclusions ............................................................................................................42 Contribution of the Research to the Field of Psychology ......................................43 Avenues for Further Research ...............................................................................44 References ..........................................................................................................................45 Chapter I Introduction Area of Interest This thesis is an examination of an aspect of hypermasculine behavior that involves sexuality and gender. I use the term hypermasculine sexual behavior to describe a dimension of hypermasculinity that focuses on attitudes toward sex and beliefs about gender. Colloquially, my research examines the way some men talk about females when women are not present. This thesis explores the psychological dynamics that relate to hypermasculine sexual behavior. For the purpose of this thesis, such behavior includes the sexual objectification of women, treating sex as a conquest, bragging about sexual encounters, making crude jokes about sex and females, and the devaluation of femininity. Guiding Purpose The guiding purpose of this thesis is to bring awareness to the psychological dynamics behind hypermasculine sexual behavior. Men who engage in hypermasculine sexual behavior are the victims of their own behavior: Treating sex as a conquest and consistently devaluing femininity prevents them from engaging with half of the population in a mature, complementary way. In this way, men who engage in hypermasculine sexual behavior place themselves in a bubble of thought and belief, isolated from women and men who perceive value in relationships with females. As a male, research for this thesis was an important part of understanding my own psychological development and concept of masculinity. Akin to most men, I have felt a 2 pull toward proudly identifying as a masculine male and, with other men I have known, have felt shame implicitly cast upon me when I appeared to identify with anything other than staunch masculinity. The process of writing this thesis has allowed me a more complete understanding of both masculinity and femininity while shedding light upon hypermasculine sexual behavior. I have known women who struggle in relationships with men who engage in hypermasculine sexual behavior and have known men who feel conflicted about engaging in such behavior. I have also known men who engage in hypermasculine sexual behavior even though they also express frustration around a lack of connection to others in their lives. My hope is that this thesis will assist in clarifying the roots of hypermasculine sexual behavior in order to make people more mindful of the implications of such behavior with regard to individuals and society. As a clinician, I am privy to the private thoughts and feelings of many men and have experienced how a man’s identity is tied to his concept of masculinity. I hope that this thesis presents clinicians with a deeper understanding of how the concept of masculinity develops on both an individual and societal level. For clinicians who are baffled by clients who exhibit hypermasculine sexual behavior, I hope this thesis provides an impetus toward empathy for these men, as well as understanding the behavior and its place in psychological development. Because the field of therapy traditionally opposes hypermasculine identity as grandiose and unhealthy, it may be difficult for a male who engages in hypermasculine sexual behavior to find a therapist who is willing and able to work past biases toward progress. Hypermasculine men may be resistant to change in a clinical setting and my hope is that clinicians will be able to create a 3 therapeutic alliance toward progress if they are able to empathize with these men and have an understanding of the psychology behind their hypermasculinity. Rationale Addressing the problem of hypermasculinity is crucial to individual and social wellbeing. Psychologists Charles Corprew III, Jamaal Matthews, and Avery Mitchell (2014) noted the link between hypermasculinity and behaviors that are detrimental to society, including aggression toward females, aggression toward men who reject a hypermasculine doctrine, dangerous sexual behavior, drug abuse, and depression (p. 106). An examination of psychic content relating to sex and gender may therefore provide more of an understanding of hypermasculine behavior regarding sex, women, and femininity. My hope is that men, whose hypermasculinity has prevented them from entering into complementary instead of dominance-based relationships with others, can be offered psychotherapeutic help in healing the underlying dynamics of their behaviors. Methodology Research problem and questions. This thesis examines how hypermasculine men relate to the challenges of psychological maturation that all men face, including the task of integrating the feminine principle (defined in Chapter II). It explores the reasons some men develop an identity that exclusively engages in hypermasculine sexual behavior and some do not. The research question driving this thesis is: In what way is hypermasculine sexual behavior related to a fear of the feminine principle? This question is explored in addressing the following related queries: How do men develop a relationship to the feminine principle? What causes men to identify so strongly with the masculine principle that they exhibit a hypermasculine persona? What aspects of the 4 psyche are related to hypermasculine sexual behavior and how do they function? What is behind attempts to devalue women and the feminine principle? Methodological approach. Through the use of hermeneutic methodology, the thesis examines and draws relationships between concepts from theory on the nature of the psyche and psychological development, research on sexuality and identity, and literature that views the subject from a sociocultural perspective. In order to properly examine such relationships, a text must be fully comprehended. Humanistic psychologist Clark Moustakas (1994) stated that “hermeneutic analysis is required in order to derive a correct understanding of the text” (p. 9). According to Moustakas, hermeneutics leads a researcher to correct understanding by leaving bias behind and examining the true meaning in texts. “In the hermeneutic circle, our prejudgments are corrected in view of the text, the understanding of which leads to new prejudgments” (p. 10). Thus, a hermeneutic approach involves the search for meaning in and between texts while correcting biases through examining and understanding evidence. This thesis examines examples and instances of hypermasculine sexual behavior as well as psychological concepts related to sexuality and gender. Hermeneutics suggests that there is something behind patterns in behavior and that this pattern may be understood better through research of related topics (Moustakas, 1994). A hermeneutic approach assists in identifying related concepts and motivation for behavior, even if unconscious. Ethical Considerations A hermeneutic approach is only ethical if a research review is thorough enough to create a correct understanding. Although a hermeneutic approach lends itself to disprove 5 prejudgments, it is always possible that a researcher is convinced that no prejudgments exist as he or she enters research. In such cases, biases likely remain throughout the process without being filtered by a hermeneutic methodology. A researcher’s mindfulness of his or her prejudgments is therefore an ethical consideration when conducting hermeneutic research. The research in this thesis is concerned with, reflective of, and responsive to the U.S. Western cultural milieu. Moreover, the research has been conducted from a male perspective. Thus, the findings inherently are limited in scope and intended to contribute to rather than circumscribe an understanding of hypermasculinity. This thesis addresses hypermasculinity as an expression of the culturally instilled polarity between masculine/male and feminine/female. In doing so, it recognizes that masculine and feminine are nongender-specific qualities within each individual’s psyche and that culture has created gender-specific associations for them. Overview of Thesis Chapter II of this thesis includes a definition of the feminine and masculine principles and hypermasculine sexual behavior as a dimension of hypermasculinity. It addresses the prevalence of and beliefs about hypermasculine sexual behavior in society. It reviews Jungian concepts relevant to a man’s psychological development and sexuality, and discusses the fear of the feminine. Chapter III includes a hermeneutic evaluation of the relationship between hypermasculine sexual behavior, male psychological development around sex and gender, and its consequences for sex and relationships. Chapter IV provides a summary of the research and a conclusion around the research question. Clinical implications are discussed as are recommendations for future research on the subject. Chapter II Literature Review Introduction This chapter defines hypermasculinity and examines research and literature on the subject. Further discussion includes how hypermasculine sexual behavior is one dimension of hypermasculinity. Included in this chapter are discussions around how hypermasculine individuals view themselves and others and how these views are socially supported. This chapter also examines literature on related psychological concepts such as the masculine and feminine principles, complexes, the mother complex, the fear of the feminine, the anima and its development, and the anima’s relation to sexuality. The Masculine and Feminine Principles To understand hypermasculine sexual behavior, one must be able to comprehend the concepts of the masculine principle and its counterpart, the feminine principle. Founder of analytical psychology C. G. Jung (1909-1951/2003) described how the masculine and feminine principles respectively relate to the energies of Logos and Eros: For purely psychological reasons I have . . . tried to equate the masculine consciousness with the concept of Logos and the feminine with that of Eros. By Logos I meant discrimination, judgment, insight, and by Eros I meant the capacity to relate. (p. 85) Although he admitted that there are exceptions and that this generalization does not wholly define the two principles, Jung’s concept of Logos and Eros are meant to highlight the general character of the masculine and feminine. In their most simple forms, the feminine relates to “being” whereas the masculine relates to “doing” (Sullivan, 1989). 7 Within this thesis, the masculine principle refers to discriminating, differentiating actions and the feminine principle denotes accepting and uniting behaviors. Jungian analyst Barbara Stevens Sullivan (1989) described the masculine principle as synonymous with actions and willpower. The author stated that such masculine traits are a necessary part of the ability to separate from the dependency of youth and begin to develop into an individual (p. 18). Comparative mythologist Joseph Campbell (1991) posited that this process of separating from one’s family of origin and developing an individual identity is present in cultures throughout the human race as a natural occurrence. He stated that each individual must go through a psychological transformation that involves leaving the state of dependency (p. 152). Campbell (1991) related the separation from the state of childhood to the archetypal process of the hero and the development toward maturity: “That’s the basic motif of the universal hero’s journey—leaving one condition and finding the source of life to bring you forth into a richer or more mature condition” (p. 152). This journey involves the drive to separate from the dependence that defines one’s childhood as one embarks on a quest to make one’s own mark on the world. As Sullivan (1989) and Campbell (1991) have noted, the masculine principle assists an individual in moving toward individuality by identifying with actions, will, and the heroic journey. Much of this chapter and Chapter III explore how overidentifying with masculine and heroic energies relates to an individual’s sexual behavior and relation to the feminine principle. Hypermasculinity: A Caricature of Masculinity Mythopoetic author and Jungian analyst Marion Woodman (2004) described how supposed masculine characteristics that comprise patriarchy are often represented by 8 stereotypes of masculine traits that have little to do with the psychological masculine principle. “I don’t think patriarchy has anything to do with masculinity. It is a power principle that becomes a parody of itself” (para. 16). Thus, patriarchy is a caricature of misunderstood aspects of the masculine principle. Woodman referred to the way in which by overemphasizing masculinity, the patriarchal system has created its own principle. The next section of this chapter examines research that describes how hypermasculinity is a parody of itself based on accentuating stereotypical aspects of masculinity. Researchers in the psychology of personality Donald Mosher and Mark Sirkin (1984) identified hypermasculinity as emphasizing stereotypical masculine attitudes such as being strong, decisive, and unresponsive to emotions. Thus, hypermasculine behavior is distinct from and not an overemphasis of the masculine principle related to action and will as defined by Sullivan (1989), or Logos (Jung, 1909-1951/2003, p. 85). According to Mosher and Sirkin (1984), hypermasculine behavior involves a callous disposition toward women and idealization of masculine strength, decisiveness, and independence while viewing the feminine as a weaker, inferior alternative. Hypermasculinity is synonymous with the terms misogyny, macho, and machismo that are often used in research and discussion. For the purposes of this thesis, the term hypermasculine sexual behavior denotes particular aspects of hypermasculinity that address sexual practices, thoughts and beliefs on sexuality, and perspectives on female sexuality. Mosher and personality theorist Silvan Tomkins (1988) observed that many people believe that either the masculine or feminine principle is better or more important than the other. They offered evidence that a hypermasculine male sees two mutually exclusive categories of personal identity in which the feminine signifies weakness. This 9 perception causes the male to protect his gendered identity by championing masculine traits. “Intolerant of any ambiguity in the dichotomous classification mandated by the criterion of his ideals, he understands the world is divided into the strong and the weak, the masculine and the feminine” (p. 69). The hypermasculine male perceives the masculine principle to be superior to its feminine counterpart; this perception informs his self-image and presentation, becoming the foundation of his external behavior. Chapter III discusses how imagining the feminine as being inferior to the masculine relates to hypermasculine sexual behavior and the fear of the feminine. Hypermasculine Behavior as a Natural Development Hypermasculinity seems to derive from a patriarchal perception of the superiority of masculinity and the threat of feminine characteristics to a one-sided masculine identity (Mosher & Sirkin, 1984; Woodman, 2003). Jungian analyst Beverley D. Zabriskie (1990) explored the notion that such patriarchal behavior is a natural byproduct of the physical differences between genders and was necessary during the evolution of civilization. This evolution took the form of championing characteristics of the masculine principle such as physical action and cognition represented by logic and orientation toward clear goals. As the race’s relation to nature evolved from one of extraction and enhancement of life’s necessities to the reshaping of matter through strength and domination, those energies viewed as more male than female, more masculine than feminine, were increasingly emphasized. (p. 268) As the human race evolved, obvious physical differences changed the way males and females were valued as male dominance naturally progressed (Zabriskie, 1990). Meanwhile, masculine, goal-oriented, logical thinking patterns became emphasized. “Physical size and strength and phallic, single-minded aggression were admired and idealized” (p. 268). The evolution of civilization caused an emphasis on masculine traits 10 as feminine ones were forsaken, yielding a time in history when masculine qualities appeared to be more desirable than feminine ones. Although she argued that hypermasculinity has roots in the history of the human race, Zabriskie stated that such a psychological imbalance is unhealthy for the psyche of the individual or group and that humankind must return to an honoring of the feminine (p. 270). Embracing the masculine is functional for certain aspects of goal-oriented development; continued overidentification with the principle leads to a one-sided, unhealthy consciousness. Chapter III discusses how this pattern is mirrored on an individual level. Masculinity and Status Mosher and Tomkins (1988) asserted that hypermasculine behavior is fueled by the belief that men who do not display such attitudes and actions are part of an inferior subgroup. According to the authors, overemphasizing supposed masculine traits is an attempt to signify membership in a group that holds high status. Macho ideology honors the “superior, masculine” affects and humiliates the displayer of “inferior, feminine” affect. Thus, macho scripts exaggerate masculine gender role. . . . Not just a male, and not just masculine, the macho must be hypermasculine in ideology and action. The essentialist claim is made that that’s just how “real men” are. (p. 64) Interpreting status in such a way causes many to idealize the masculine principle while feminine attributes are forsaken. Evidence described by Mosher and Tomkins demonstrates that, for these individuals, taking any other action is to demonstrate weakness by aligning with femininity and to lose social status and group belonging. The negative perception of females contributes to the hypermasculine individual’s idealization of masculinity and the devaluation of traits that are considered nonmasculine. Researchers and psychologists Avi Ben-Zeev, Liz Scharnetski, Lann Chan, and Tara 11 Dennehy (2012) summarized ways in which hypermasculine men attempt to distance themselves from attitudes or behaviors that they or those around them consider to be feminine. These attempts include identifying exclusively with heterosexuality and degrading other sexual orientations and purposefully avoiding behaviors that are thought to be feminine in order to accentuate masculine characteristics (p. 54). The authors concluded that such behaviors are the result of a cultural paradigm that assigns inferior status to groups that identify with anything other than masculine and heterosexual. Chapter III includes further discussion of the hypermasculine belief in male superiority and examines this belief’s relationship to the fear of the feminine. A Multidimensional Approach to Studying Hypermasculinity In examining hypermasculinity as intertwined with the concepts of gender and sexuality, it is necessary to understand that under the subject of hypermasculinity, several categories of behavior exist. The many attitudes and behaviors of hypermasculinity have been the subject of numerous bodies of research. Although hypermasculinity may be imagined as one single behavior, psychologists Charles Corprew III, Jamaal Matthews, and Avery Mitchell (2014) demonstrated that it is necessary to differentiate between separate characteristics of the phenomenon. For this reason, a multidimensional approach to hypermasculinity is adopted in addressing the thesis research question. Corprew et al. described the validity of this approach to examining hypermasculinity: “A multidimensional approach implies that males can endorse varying levels of the distinct dimensions of hypermasculinity, thus facilitating a plausible argument for multiple hypermasculinities” (p. 107). Evidence that validates the multidimensional approach 12 toward understanding hypermasculine behavior reveals that individuals may exhibit one, several, or all aspects of hypermasculinity. Psychologists Linnea Burk, Barry Burkhart, and Jason Sikorski (2004) also argued that a multidimensional approach to examining hypermasculine behavior is needed. “There is a necessity to differentiate between men who are physically aggressive, sexually aggressive, and those who may endorse hypermasculine attitudes but may not commit a crime” (p. 5). Thus, a male who exhibits hypermasculinity around sexuality may not necessarily have a disposition toward violence. Burk et al. used a multidimensional approach in their study of hypermasculinity and identified sexual identity as one of these dimensions of hypermasculine behavior. This thesis addresses hypermasculine sexual behavior as a dimension and does not aim to examine other aspects of hypermasculinity. Subscribing to a Hypermasculine Sexual Behavior Researchers such as Burk et al. (2004) have demonstrated that sexual identity constitutes a large dimension of hypermasculinity. Likewise, a study by political scientists Nicole Krassas, Joan Blauwkamp, and Peggy Wesselink (2003) revealed the prevalence of this dimension in society. Krassas et al. demonstrated how consumers are able to reassure themselves of a masculine, superior status by reading material that validates their perspective. In their study of Maxim and Stuff magazines, Krassas et al. described how by purchasing and reading the magazines, males may literally subscribe to hypermasculine sexual doctrine, partaking of pages littered with images and words that validate their beliefs. The authors noted that these periodicals, which are essentially how- 13 to guides for hypermasculinity, are bought in mass quantities. Their content supports the notion that being macho, misogynistic, and hypermasculine is normal and healthy. Maxim and Stuff frame sexuality and sexual practice in limited ways that reinforce the objectification of women and privilege heterosexuality. Women are important as objects of sexual desire and conquest, these articles say, but their pleasure is a secondary consideration, intended only to ensure that men’s supply of sex continues unabated. Men need a lot of sex with many female partners to be satisfied, and they should not be constricted by relationships or monogamy. (Krassas, Blauwkamp, & Wesselink, 2003, p. 114) According to Krassas et al. (2003), the magazines studied do not present this behavior as optional but as imperative. The magazines send the message that this sexual behavior is normal, natural, and how men “should” behave whereas any other identity is considered inferior. The conclusion Krassas et al. came to demonstrates how hypermasculine sexual behavior is bought, sold, and shared in the social sphere. Examining the psychology underneath the perception of this sexual behavior as natural, the next section explores how thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that seem normal and instinctual are actually the product of unconscious processes known as complexes. The Complex Jungian analyst Murray Stein (2013) described complexes as residing in the unconscious and being made up of feelings, perceptions, desires, and personal memories that disturb conscious thought processes. The author wrote that complexes are the result of inner images and personal experience combining to form thoughts and feelings that seem natural or instinctual. “Complexes are what remain in the psyche after it has digested experience and reconstructed it into inner objects. In human beings, complexes function as the equivalent of instincts in other mammals” (Stein, 1998, p. 49). When the 14 material forming a complex is incompatible with the conscious attitude or sense of self, it is split off into the unconscious (Jung, 1948/1969, p. 96). Complexes are organized around and given meaning by the archetypal content of the psyche (Jung, 1948/1969, p. 101). Archetypes reside within the deepest, collective layer of the unconscious as an inheritance of the universal motifs that have informed the history of humankind (Jung, 1921/1971a, p. 443). Jacobi (1957/1959) described archetypes as “not inherited representations, but inherited possibilities of representation” (p. 52). With roots emerging from archetypal possibilities, a complex does not reveal itself but instead makes a person feel their thoughts come from a natural, internal drive (Stein, 1998). Complexes exist as a bridge between the psychic blueprints of the archetypes and the sensations and memories from individual lives. The fundamental task of the complex is to serve as vehicle and vessel of transformation, whereby the archetypal essence is brought into living reality. The complex brings archetypal core and personal experience to bear on each other, uniting them in the flow of psychic life. (Shalit, 2002, p. 68) Comprised of both collective, unconscious material and sensations unique to each individual, the complex becomes an interpretation for the experience of an individual life. Analytical psychologist Erel Shalit’s (2002) explanation reveals how the formation of complexes is a tool that is necessary to navigate this life. Although complexes are necessary and inherent to the psyche, Jungian analyst Jolande Jacobi (1957/1959) noted that their negative aspects can only be overcome if one is able to successfully integrate them into consciousness. “Everything depends on whether the conscious mind is capable of understanding, assimilating, and integrating the complex, in order to ward off its harmful effects” (p. 27). Because an unconscious 15 complex is charged with both emotional and archetypal energy, it acts autonomously from the conscious will (Jung, 1948/1969, pp. 103-104). If an individual is not able to complete the process of integration, the complex is able to claim ownership of the person, disrupting thoughts, feelings, and behavior in such a way as to rectify each situation in a way that satisfies the complex. As such, Jung (1937/1969) noted that the complex compensates for the one-sided perspective of the conscious attitude (pp. 122-123). In this way, much of conscious thought that is believed to derive from rational thought is instead a reflection of unconscious material such as emotions and experiences (Jacobi, 1957/1959). For example, the hypermasculine identity appears to rest on a belief that this personality type is the only logical way to go about in the world. Although simplifying a person to a set of gender roles seems to make sense to a hypermasculine person in whom feminine qualities have been split off into an unconscious complex, it is clear that rational thought may justify feelings that are the result of a complex. Chapter III examines the unconscious processes related to hypermasculine sexual behavior. The following sections add to the foundation of that examination in discussing how the mother complex relates to the fear of the feminine. The Mother of all Complexes The mother complex is especially important to the development of the individual. Jung (1925-1957/1982) described the role a male’s mother plays in the development of his ideas around the masculine and feminine principles: The mother is the first feminine being with whom the man-to-be comes in contact, and she cannot help playing, overtly or covertly, consciously or unconsciously, upon the son’s masculinity, just as the son in his turn grows increasingly aware of his mother’s femininity, or unconsciously responds to it by instinct. (pp. 113-114) 16 These interactions form what Jung referred to as the mother complex (Sharp, 1991). As described in the above quotation, because the complex appears as a natural reaction to stimuli, a male’s response to his mother remains an unconscious process to him. Archetypal psychologist James Hillman (1989) wrote that an individual’s mother contributes greatly to the way in which a person’s psyche develops and interacts with the external world. “The mother archetype itself is responsible for personalistic psychology and for loading the burdens of the archetypal upon personal figures, personal relations and personal solutions, and for taking oneself so personally, one’s problems and fate always as ‘mine’” (p. 224). A man’s personal relationships are impacted by the way in which his experiences with his mother combine with archetypal feminine images. In this way, his relationship with his mother determines his experience of the feminine principle. Fear of the Feminine Jungian analyst Erich Neumann (1959/1994) wrote that the experience of the feminine principle is related to the safety the mother provides for a child. “For the human child and consequently for the human ego, the normal, primal situation of security is one guaranteed by the mother—i.e., by a feminine quality—characterized by the primal relationship to the Feminine” (p. 232). A man’s experience with his mother has such an impact due to the nature of the relationship between a child and the woman that gives birth to him. Shalit (2002) summarized that a child naturally experiences its mother as a powerful provider of safety and care, but also recognizes the other side of the mother’s omnipotence: “The archetype of the Great Mother has both a generative, creative aspect and a devouring, killing side (the Terrible Mother)” (p. 88). As Jung (1925-1957/1982), Hillman (1989), Shalit (2002), and Neumann (1959/1994) have demonstrated, a child’s 17 positive and negative feelings toward the feminine principle are rooted in his or her experience with the mother. Thus, the fear of the feminine begins with the mother. The fear of the feminine derives from an individual’s understanding of the power of the mother. Neumann (1959/1994) explained that for an infant, the mother is omnipotent and for the first phase of its life a baby is unable to separate its mother from its concept of the self. Although the initial fear of the feminine arises from an understanding of the omnipotence of the mother, it evolves into a fear of the unconscious feminine inherent within a person’s psyche, which Jung called the anima (1954/1969, p. 26). The anima is a personal complex of material coalesced around an archetypal image of woman. Jung noted that in its dual relationship to the experience of the personal mother and to the archetypal feminine of the Great Mother, “the anima is the archetype of life itself” (p. 32). Because the anima is an intrapsychic presence, its eruption from the unconscious threatens the developing masculine sense of self. As Neumann (1959/1994) explained, “Thus this second important fear of the Feminine appearing next to the fear of the mother is the fear of the anima as fear of the transformation” (p. 254). The next section of this chapter explores the concept of the anima while Chapter III examines how this fear of the anima and its transforming function relates to identification with hypermasculine sexual behavior. The Anima Jungian analyst Marie-Louise von Franz (1964) described a man’s anima as a device that allows him to relate to archetypal feminine images: The anima is a personification of all feminine psychological tendencies in a man’s psyche, such as vague feelings and moods, prophetic hunches, receptiveness to the irrational, capacity for personal love, feeling for nature, and—last but not least—his relation to the unconscious. (p. 177) 18 From a classical Jungian perspective, in the most basic terms, the anima is the female part of a male’s psyche that resides in the unconscious. This concept of the anima has been challenged and revised by post-Jungian scholars as androcentric and carrying patriarchal bias (Rowland, 2002). However, because hypermasculinity evolved in the same patriarchal context as Jung’s perspective on the anima (Woodman, 2004), the classical definition fits the evolution of hypermasculinity, is useful to its understanding, and thus is used in this thesis. Jung (1961/1963) wrote that the inner figure of the feminine “plays a typical, or archetypal, role in the unconscious of a man, and I called her the ‘anima’” (p. 186). He considered the anima to be such a powerful figure in the unconscious that it would be unavoidable for it not to play a role in a man’s psychological development. Jung (19091951/2003) explained that the archetype of the anima, because it inhabits a personal complex, does not appear the same in every man: “The merely abstract notion of the anima conveys nothing, but when you say the anima is almost personal, a complex that behaves exactly as if she were a little person . . . then you get it about right” (p. 134). The archetypal material of a man’s anima may be thought of as a silhouette of the potentials within the feminine principle. As seen through a patriarchal lens, such as Jung’s theory held, that principle is assigned to and associated with the domain of women (Rowland, 2002). As such, psychologically and culturally, a man’s anima is projected onto women. The anima as a representation of the feminine is always formed in an individual, experiential way (Sharp, 1991). Each man’s anima has unique qualities and feels as if she has her own personal voice, projected outward by the man as a real, specific other to whom he is attracted. Additionally, the anima is related to the man’s outer personality. 19 Stein (1998) explained that when one has developed a masculine persona—the attitude that one shows to the world—it exists in a compensatory relationship to the anima. However, he cautioned that the two should not be reduced to a simplistic opposition with one another (p. 128). Whereas the persona is formed around responses to the environment, the anima of a man responds to unconscious content including collective, archetypal material and personal experiential material. As such, even though it seems in opposition to the persona, it plays a connective role in the psyche. Although a man may be aware of the masculine figure of his persona and how it affects his life, the same individual likely is unaware of the role his feminine side plays. Zabriskie (1990) wrote that the function of the personalized voice of the anima is demonstrated by its mere existence: “This required of a man that he examine, differentiate, and integrate his own images and projections of the feminine apart from actual women” (p. 273). The anima exists to be integrated into consciousness and enable communication between the ego and unconscious that leads to an awakening of inner feminine qualities. The result of this process is a deeper understanding of the self and a closer connection to the human race. The next section of this chapter addresses the development of the anima as a foundation for the examination in Chapter III of the relationship between a lack of anima integration and hypermasculine sexual behavior. Anima Development Jungian analyst Daryl Sharp (1988) described four stages of anima development and revealed that the first and second stages contain a constricted view of women as biological and sexual objects. As part of psychological development, a male grows into a 20 mature relationship with the anima. In the third stage of development, females are finally perceived to be individual, dynamic beings. The man with an anima of this kind is able to see a woman as she is, independent of his own needs. His sexuality is integrated into his life, not an autonomous function that drives him. He can differentiate between love and lust. He is capable of lasting relationships because he can tell the difference between the object of his desire and his inner image of woman. (p. 64) If a male is unable to reach a mature point of anima development, his experience of females would be limited to sexualizing the relationship and being driven by lust instead of love. Chapter III further explores how hypermasculine sexual behavior is synonymous with a lack of anima development. The Anima’s Relation to Sexuality The correlation between hypermasculine sexual behavior and the anima is evident given the latter’s involvement in gender and sexuality. Jung (1909-1951/2003) described how a man’s relationship with the anima archetype dictates his sexual relationships and how this dynamic is rooted in the early relationship with the individual’s mother. The love life of a man reveals the psychology of this archetype in the form either of boundless fascination, overvaluation, and infatuation, or of misogyny in all its gradations and variants, none of which can be explained by the real nature of the “object” in question, but only by a transference of the mother complex. (p. 119) Because the mother complex produces the qualities of a man’s intimate relationships, attitudes toward women, such as infatuation or misogyny, are not a reaction to a specific female but instead are correlated to the relationship with the mother. This reveals how a man’s relationship to his anima is affected by his experiences with his mother. Although a man’s relationship with his anima is related to early interactions with his mother, von Franz (1996) revealed that a male first experiences his anima through his sexuality. 21 You can say that the vehicle bringing up the anima is sex and sexual fantasy, which in a man’s makeup is very often in the way in which the world of Eros first wells up into his consciousness. It first is carried, as it were, by sexual fantasies. (p. 86) In normal development, the anima first makes itself known to a male through his sexual thoughts and feelings. The relationship between a man and his anima has connotations for his sexual life from then on. A man’s perception of feminine sexuality is rooted in his relationship with his anima: “What men say about feminine eroticism, and particularly about the emotional life of women, is derived from their own anima projections, and distorted accordingly” (Jung, 1931/1954, p. 198). Hypermasculine sexual behavior is further explored in Chapter III as a response to the unconscious content of the anima. Conclusion and Prelude to Chapter III The review of literature revealed that hypermasculinity is defined as an overidentification with stereotypical characteristics of masculinity (Mosher & Sirkin, 1984). Hypermasculine sexual behavior is one of many dimensions to hypermasculinity that research has demonstrated is prevalent in society (Corprew, Matthews, & Mitchell, 2014). Although the masculine principle is crucial to both the evolution of humankind and the development of the individual (Mosher & Tomkins, 1988), a fear of the Feminine and its projection as inferior onto females causes an overidentification with hypermasculine sexual behavior. From a Jungian perspective, a man’s mother complex relates to his fear of his anima (Neumann, 1959/1994), which, when projected outward onto women, influences his sexual behavior (von Franz, 1996). Chapter III continues the examination of these subjects as well as describing how hypermasculine sexual behavior is related to the anima and the fear of the feminine and appears to be a response to the power of the feminine principle. Chapter III Findings and Clinical Applications Introduction A male begins life with his relationship to females based on the omnipotence of his mother (Neumann, (1959/1994). The natural process of separating from her and becoming an individual creates a drive to identify with a heroic, masculine consciousness. Now separate from his mother, sexual fantasy brings him into touch with his anima as he begins a new relationship to the feminine. The first stage of the development of the anima involves the sexual objectification of females that correlates strongly to hypermasculine sexual behavior (Sharp, 1988). Normal psychological development is contingent on integrating aspects of the Feminine through the anima. The hypermasculine male appears fused with an immature level of anima development in which, as described by Sharp, females are seen as sexual objects. Early, immature stages of relating to the feminine are reactive to the need to feel secure and conquer one’s fear vis-à-vis one’s dependence on the mother as representative of the overwhelming archetype of the Great Mother. A man’s hypermasculine sexual behavior such as devaluing, objectifying, and conquering females is overcompensation for feeling insecure and fearful of women, female sexuality, and the feminine principle. Neumann (1959/1994) explained why a man resists integration of the Feminine in his own psyche and degrades the Feminine out of fear. The man wants to remain exclusively masculine and out of fear rejects the transformative contact with a woman of equal status. Negativizing the Feminine 23 in the patriarchate prevents the man from experiencing woman as a thou of equal but different status, and hence from coming to terms with her. (p. 264) Hypermasculine sexual behavior as a dimension explored in this thesis. In regards to this thesis, hypermasculine sexual behavior refers to the following behaviors: treating sex as a conquest, objectifying women, degrading and calloused attitudes toward females and femininity, overcompensating for insecurities, making crude jokes about sex, obsession with the size and performance of physical sexual characteristics, and bragging about sexual experiences. It is the hypothesis of this thesis that these behaviors center on enthusiastically differentiating oneself from women and femininity in general while attempting to project an image of sexual potency. Masculine and feminine: Not male and female. Cultural mythologist Carol Winters (2006) noted the common error of believing the feminine and masculine principles to be synonymous with female and male. The author described how this error is present in Western culture and the effect it has had for the individual: Our culture has had a long heritage of associating the feminine principle with what it means to be female and the masculine principle with what it means to be male. As a result, both men and women have traditionally been locked into rigid culturally-defined gender roles that have not been helpful for anyone who wishes to live a more meaningful, creative, and soul-making life. (p. 206) This fundamental error of equating the masculine and feminine principles to genders has been detrimental to individuals who wish to enrich their psychological lives. As Winters stated this mistake is repeated on a cultural level. It is clear that a rupture exists in society between a mature understanding of the masculine and feminine principles and their perceptions as synonymous with gender. This thesis rests on an understanding of this cultural error of equating the masculine and feminine principles with gender. 24 As Winters (2006) stated, confusing the feminine and masculine principles with female and male is a societal problem. For the individual, this confusion causes one’s relation to the feminine and masculine principles to exist through one’s relation to women and men. This thesis posits that much of hypermasculine sexual behavior includes making the error of equating the masculine and feminine with the male and female genders and causes male individuals to overidentify with the masculine principle. Connection or Differentiation Whereas the error of equating the feminine and masculine to gender seems to create a divide between the principles, Jungian analyst James Hollis (2000) demonstrated that it is clear that the feminine and masculine principles psychically complement each other. “Eros is the energy that seeks connection. . . . The other great power is Logos, the dividing power, the principle of development through differentiation. When Eros and logos combine, there is a synergy which is extraordinarily powerful” (p. 36). If an individual were to identify with only the masculine, they would be limited to differentiation without connection. Instead of experiencing the synergy Hollis referred to, this individual would live in a world void of feminine energy. By overidentifying with the masculine principle, men who engage in hypermasculine sexual behavior lack the synergy that Hollis spoke of due to a lack of a connection to the relational power of Eros. Although it is evident that combining the masculine and feminine principles is a powerful experience, this thesis is concerned with character development that involves a one-sided consciousness that is the result of overidentifying with the masculine principle. The hypothesis of this thesis involves the hypermasculine male’s overidentification with 25 the masculine principle that leaves him unable to participate in the powerful coming together of Logos and Eros. Instead, the hypermasculine individual lacks erotic energy. Shalit (2002) discussed how sex unites and connects through erotic power: “The sexual act, behind which we find Eros, is based on the tension that causes the very union that enables the creation of life” (p. 48). In regards to sexuality, the feminine energy of Eros provides the erotic power that defines the connection between two lovers. Without a relation to the feminine Eros—the energy that seeks connection—sex becomes an act of division and dominance. Such a perception of sex is a hallmark of hypermasculine sexual behavior. Instead of promoting sex as the connection of lovers, the act becomes an individual acting upon an object. Later in this chapter, discussion includes the hypermasculine sexual behavior of the sexual objectification of women and how this action relates to the fear of the feminine. According to Sullivan (1989), to reject the feminine and adhere to the masculine principle is to forsake love in favor of dominance. “The masculine approach disregards relationships, orienting towards accomplishments and power” (p. 20). This approach has clear connotations for the sexual life of an individual. By forsaking a connection to the energy of Eros, the sexual act centers around differentiation and dominance over connection and love. Forsaking relationships in favor of power, the hypermasculine man treats sex as a conquest over an object. Neumann (1959/1994) described the circular relationship that exists between relating to women and the ability to participate in intimate sexual relationships: “The capacity for a sexual relationship is inseparable from the capacity to relate to others in general and to a woman in particular” (p. 256). As Shalit (2002) and Sullivan (1989) have 26 shown, the power of Eros is necessary to establish healthy relationships and a mature understanding of the uniting power of sex. It is evident then that a lack of a connection to the power of Eros leaves a man unable to relate to women and maturely participate in sexual relationships. As discussed in greater detail later in this chapter, by overidentifying with the masculine principle and lacking a connection to the feminine, men who engage in hypermasculine sexual behavior understand sex as conquest over a female instead of connection with her. Failure to Give Up Heroic Masculinity Sullivan (1989) wrote that although the static side of the masculine is represented by laws and regulations, the dynamic side of the masculine principle focuses on action that assists an individual in establishing a sense of identity in relation to the world. “This side of the masculine principle values initiative and action directed toward a goal. Here we have the story of the hero with his drive to conquer and to become a differentiated individual” (p. 18). The hero is masculine, decisive, and conquering and identification with this archetype is a necessary part of normal development that helps one individuate from one’s family of origin. Although identification with the masculine aspect of the hero serves a crucial function, Beebe (2003) demonstrated that the next step to healthy development is evolving past this point. Beebe wrote that Jung ultimately believed that a life lived fully in the heroic mindset is incomplete. For Jung, as for no other psychological writer, the essence of genuine psychological development involves a giving up of the hero. When heroic consciousness dominates, one thinks one knows better than the unconscious who one is and feels one should therefore be in control of one’s life. (p. vi) 27 As psychological development involves moving on from identification with a heroic consciousness that champions the masculine principle, it is evident that it is necessary to relinquish overidentification with the masculine principle in order to develop psychologically. Because hypermasculinity is based on accentuating the masculine principle, hypermasculine sexual behavior therefore signifies a lack of psychological development. Next, this thesis discusses how the psychic content of the anima drives a man’s psychological development. The Anima and Male Psychological Development This section examines how a male’s psychological development around sex and the opposite gender is driven by the anima. Sharp’s (1988) description of the sexual objectification of women consistent with early anima development reveals how hypermasculine sexual behavior correlates to this stage in psychological development. Because hypermasculine sexual behavior reflects early anima development and because anima development is necessary for a mature psychological understanding of sex and gender, hypermasculine sexual behavior is a sign of psychological development. Beebe (2003) described how a male child is entirely dependent on his mother until he separates himself from her during a process in which the masculine hero archetype drives him towards independence and differentiation. “In the deep psyche the hero delivers himself from the mother archetype (and from the infantile unconsciousness that the hero’s bondage to her authority represents for the conscious personality) only to encounter the demands of the anima” (p. v). After the process of separation from his mother, a man’s relation to women is greatly influenced by the psychic content of the 28 anima. Thus, a man’s relationship with this archetypal material helps shape his understanding of and interaction with females. Beebe (2003) described how the anima is crucial to the psychological development of relinquishing identification with masculine heroic consciousness: “Only the anima can deliver a man into a consciousness that is based, not on heroic selfmastery, but rather on empathic participation in life” (p. v). Empathy “presupposes a subjective attitude of confidence” that enables meeting the other “halfway” to bring about understanding (Jung, 1921/1971b, p. 292). This confidence is ideally the outcome of the hero’s journey in earlier psychological development involving separating from one’s family (Campbell, 1991). Psychological development involves the ability to have empathic relationships and relate to another being, and is a product of the development of the anima. Hypermasculine sexual behavior based on differentiating the feminine from the masculine is thus a signal that a male identifies with a masculine, heroic mindset and is not yet ready to encounter the challenge of anima development. Jung (1921/1971b) noted the crucial value to collective life of psychological maturation: “The man with the empathetic attitude finds himself . . . in a world that needs his subjective feeling to give it life and soul” (p. 293). In contrast, the man lacking an empathic attunement to life “finds himself in a frighteningly animated world that seeks to overpower and smother him” and leaves him with “great inner uneasiness” (p. 293). This can lead such a man to remain stuck in the first stage of anima development, overidentifying with hypermasculinity as he attempts to confine “the irregular and changeable within fixed limits” (p. 293). 29 In the first stage of anima development, females are seen as objects that represent reproduction and sexual desire (Sharp, 1988). Males at this stage of anima development lack the understanding that females are autonomous beings with individual interests and value beyond a sexual component. The first stage of anima development is represented by hypermasculine sexual behavior such as the sexual objectification of women and callous attitudes towards sex. Thus hypermasculine sexual behavior may be understood as a symptom of an undeveloped anima. Singer (1994) described the anima and corresponding animus, the term used to describe aspects of the masculine principle within the psyche, as perhaps the most challenging of unconscious content to integrate into consciousness. As contrasexual components of psychological life, they “are tied up with our sexual drives on one hand, and the utter mystery of their otherness on the other” (Singer, 1994, pp. 229-230). Engaging in behavior that correlates to a lack of anima development, hypermasculine men, in the uneasiness Jung (1921/1971b, p. 293) observed, seem unable to face the challenge of addressing the mystery Singer (1994) spoke of. Men who engage in hypermasculine sexual behavior never untangle their anima from sexual drives. This thesis presents the possibility that hypermasculine sexual behavior represents a fear of integrating the feminine principle through the development of the anima. The rejection of anima integration and her complexity allows a man to use hypermasculine sexual behavior to simplify both females and the feminine principle in order to make them unthreatening. The hypothesis follows that the challenge of anima integration creates fear of this psychological development and that hypermasculine sexual behavior is rooted in simplifying and devaluing the feminine instead of facing her challenge. Jung 30 (1921/1971a) addressed the challenge of becoming aware of the anima, declaring that recognizing one’s projections of her onto outer women is a difficult task (p. 470). In hypermasculine sexual behavior the man’s image of his anima is projected outward onto women whom he then fears as much as he fears his anima. This creates the need to objectify and dominate women so as to avoid having his sense of self overwhelmed and annihilated by the feminine that now threatens him in his inner and outer world. From Jungian analyst Donald Kalsched’s (1996) perspective on trauma, the terror that drives this dynamic seems to speak of traumatogenic content in the man’s mother complex, and its entwinement with the anima, such that the psyche maintains the complex and the anima as split-off material to protect against retraumatization. Hypermasculine sexual behavior, therefore, appears to represent a man’s psychological inability to accept the challenging presence of anima in his own psyche and take the next necessary step in psychological development, relinquishing his identification with the hero archetype, to enter into a mature relationship with the anima. This dilemma is exacerbated by the hyper androcentric gender-identity conferring patriarchal, sociocultural milieu, in which there is a collective fear of the feminine. Devaluing the Feminine as a Response to Fear While development of the anima is necessary for psychological maturation, hypermasculine behavior rests on the notion that masculinity is superior to femininity and that integration of the feminine serves to weaken an individual (Mosher & Tomkins, 1988, p. 69). Neumann (1959/1994) observed that hypermasculine men take this stratification a step further by degrading females and the feminine in an attempt to defend themselves from their fear of the Feminine. “Consequently, the devaluation of the 31 Feminine is to be understood as an attempt at overcoming the fear of the Feminine and its dangerous aspect as the Great Mother and as the anima” (p. 263). According to Neumann, the devaluation of women appears to be an attempt to deny the power of the feminine and seize control over it. Hypermasculine sexual behavior that aims to dominate women is a response to a fear of the feminine principle. The devaluation of the feminine principle creates a division in status between groups that are perceived as masculine or feminine. Sexual orientations divergent from heterosexuality are grouped with femininity as inferior whereas homophobia and behavior that disparages femininity are understood as signs of strength (Ben-Zeev, Scharnetski, Chan, & Dennehy, 2012, p. 54). The belief that such stratification exists between status groups reveals how some believe that masculinity signifies membership in an elite class. According to this mode of thought, femininity and nonheterosexual identities alert others of one’s inferior status. This sociocultural stratification colludes with hypermasculine sexual behavior, hiding the unconscious complex under the reasoning that the masculine is superior and is the province of men who are thus also superior and rightfully exist in a higher status over women and the feminine, which includes men who are less masculine. It has been noted that the masculine principle involves differentiation, dividing and defining and that a strictly masculine approach to the environment involves perceiving others as separate and disparate instead of relating to them (Sullivan, 1989). For the hypermasculine individual, what is separate and different is not only seen as foreign, but is disparaged as inferior. For this reason, a man who engages in 32 hypermasculine sexual behavior appears to consciously reject integrating the feminine principle because he imagines this process weakening himself. This thesis presents the possibility that hypermasculine sexual behavior involves depotentiating the value and power of a woman’s sexuality and reducing her to a static sexual character by discounting her choices. Sexually, females are often negatively perceived by men who believe that a woman who refuses a man’s sexual advances is a “tease” (Cornman, 1996) while a woman who offers sex is likely to be considered a “slut.” Both labels are pejorative: The attempt to transform a dynamic female into a sexual object remains constant. Sexual Objectification of Women Due to the common error of equating the masculine and feminine principles with gender, devaluating the Feminine is often synonymous with devaluing women. As Neumann (1959/1994) demonstrated, the devaluation of women may be understood as an attempt at overcoming the fear of the Feminine. The objectification of women therefore appears to be a hypermasculine sexual behavior that attempts to reduce the value and power of the female gender in an attempt to overcome the fear of the feminine by simplifying the complex female to a simple, controllable, unthreatening object. From this hypermasculine perspective, a woman has more in common with an inanimate object than a being with her own dynamic needs, desires, and feelings. Lacking a connection with their own anima and thus without empathy, hypermasculinity sees women without life or soul. Those who defend hypermasculine sexual behavior may argue that objectification is a natural aspect of normal male sexuality. However, objectification of women is an individually and collectively enacted hypermasculine sexual behavior that 33 seems to have roots in men’s relationship with the feminine principle and need to overcome fear of the Feminine by devaluing her power. Mosher and Tomkins (1988) argued that a social policy of objectifying and devaluing the Feminine is spread among hypermasculine compatriots. “The 4-F philosophy—‘find them, fool them, fuck them, and forget them’—encapsulates the macho’s sexual ideology” (p. 72). Such a strategy, concisely spelling out how to hunt for, deceive, conquer, and ignore females, demonstrates the sexual behavior of a hypermasculine male. Mosher and Tomkins’s discussion highlights how, for a hypermasculine male, a female exists as little more than a static three-dimensional object that receives the act of sex. The “4-F” philosophy is an example of an attempt to normalize objectifying behavior in a social sphere. The syntax of the slogan, use of alliteration, and crass humor reveals that such a motto is a way a social group communicates to validate and reinforce shared thoughts and actions. Such obvious objectification is an attempt to reduce women to simple, predictable objects with little value. Psychoanalyst Karen Horney (1967) discussed the link between hypermasculine sexuality, objectifying women, treating sex irresponsibly, and devaluing females: “Emphasis on irresponsible sexual indulgence, and devaluation of women to an object of purely physical needs, are further consequences of this masculine attitude” (p. 115). Reducing a woman to a sexual object depotentiates her value and energy as a being. Evidence is not required to make the obvious point that a woman is a dynamic individual with an independent psyche. However, it has been shown that men who engage in hypermasculine sexual behavior simplify, reduce, and disparage women into caricatures 34 of a gender. Hypermasculine sexual behavior such as objectifying and thus simplifying women may serve as an attempt to defend against the fear of accepting the challenge of anima development. The hypothesis of this thesis presents the idea that it is not enough to blame such behavior on mere ignorance. Instead, it is clear that psychic complexes are at work, producing sexual conquest as a means of conquering one’s fear of the complex and its archetypal core. Sex as Conquest The multidimensional approach to the study of hypermasculinity gives credence to the notion that an aggressive sexual identity is one of many aspects of hypermasculine behavior. In their study, Burk et al. (2004) described the factors comprising the sexual identity of a hypermasculine male to include championing casual sex, bragging about sexual conquests, and describing details of sexual conquests to friends. All three criteria were found to correlate strongly with a hypermasculine identity. Deborah Cornman (1996), Associate Director of the Center for Health, Intervention, and Prevention at the University of Connecticut, examined the sexual behavior of macho men, a term that is synonymous with hypermasculine male. Cornman’s findings demonstrate that men who adopt a hypermasculine attitude consistently view sex from a self-centered perspective that places little value on the emotional and physical safety of their partner. “Macho men were much less likely to have a presex discussion about STDs with a new partner than were nonmacho men which is consistent with a macho sexual script that prioritizes calloused sex and sexual conquest” (p. 109). For these macho men, sex is not about a connection with a partner but involves a victory over a foreign body. Compared to men who do not exhibit hypermasculine 35 behavior around sex, hypermasculine men were found to feel good about themselves if they were able to overcome a female partner’s refusal to engage in sex (Cornman, 1996). In addition, hypermasculine men were much more likely to consider a woman a “tease” if she refused to have sex with them (Cornman, 1996), revealing that macho men experience females from a skewed and self-centered perspective. Horney (1967) wrote that men with such views feel the need to repeatedly prove their masculinity, believing sex to be an act of conquering. She referenced what she described as a narcissistic overcompensation: “A man of this type in its more extreme form has therefore one interest only: to conquer. His aim is to have ‘possessed’ many women, and the most beautiful and most sought-after women” (p. 145). Jungian analyst Nathan Schwartz-Salant (1982) provided a description of narcissism that echoes the fear of being effeminate in hypermasculinity: In the “extreme self-adoration” (p. 9) of narcissism, the person lacks empathy and warmth and is “always vulnerable to becoming enfeebled” (p. 21). For the men Horney (1967) spoke of, sexual conquest is the ultimate way to prove their masculinity to themselves and others. Proving his masculinity becomes a game of numbers that values quantity of partners over quality of interactions. Overcompensation and the Fear of Feminine Sexuality Horney (1967) argued that the fear of the feminine exists in a fear of a woman’s sexuality. The author stated that this common fear reveals itself in how men relate to women. “It is man’s dread of not being able to satisfy the woman. It is his fear of her demands in general and of her sexual demands in particular” (p. 126). The fear of femininity reveals itself in many ways and in this case is demonstrated by the dread of a woman’s physical sexuality. Horney continued and described how this fear of being 36 unable to satisfy a woman sexually is masked by a hypermasculine persona. “Traces of this insecurity will remain . . . hidden behind an overemphasis on masculinity as a value in and of itself, yet these insecurities betray themselves through the ever-fluctuating selfconfidence of the male in his relating to the female” (p. 127). A male’s overemphasis on masculinity disguises insecurities in sexually relating to women that would cause him to experience himself as less than the superior and dominating masculine. Because the hypermasculine man’s identity is founded in overemphasized masculinity and split-off femininity, his sexual behavior overcompensates for feeling both insecure in his sexual relationships with women and vulnerable to the unwanted presence of his anima. Behavior such as overcompensation and joking about the subjects of gender and sex are results of an attempt to mask personal fears (Kierski & Blazina, 2009). “There is pressure on men to be effective and skillful in hiding their fears and adjust according to change in circumstances. The hiding process takes place within a gender specific manner, i.e., over-compensation, joking, aggression” (p. 166). Hypermasculine behavior, such as overcompensation and making crude jokes, is part of a personality adaptation based on bravado masking deep fears around sexuality. Sex researchers Kahn et al. (2007) argued that overcompensation for sexual tensions is detrimental for a man in that he exhibits a false sexuality when around others. “Men experience contradictory status and multilayered sexuality. The outer layer, a public or peer-sex culture, is where men generally hide their sexual tensions. Men overstate their masculine sexual power that ultimately decreases their self-esteem and confidence” (p. 47). This “outer layer” is synonymous to Jung’s (1921/1971a) concept of the persona, an outer attitude adaptive to social expectations that one, often consciously, exudes (p. 465). 37 Khan et al. (2007) revealed that most men feel some degree of sexual inadequacy and that the mask of hypermasculinity protects a male’s inner thoughts around sexuality. Such thoughts tend to be dominated by confusion and fear, directly conflicting with the hypermasculine persona. “Their inner or private layer of sexuality is often full of fear, threat, confusion, myths and tensions. . . . Most men are threatened by macho media images portrayed, exaggerated and reinforced by peers” (p. 47). The individual is bombarded by social messages of idealized hypermasculinity and by other personas using overcompensation as a defense against sexual insecurity. This perspective reveals the overcompensating hypermasculine persona as psychically created and socially reinforced. Phallic Narcissism In their lengthy examination of the work of sex researchers William Masters and Virginia Johnson, scientific authors Ruth Brecher and Edward Brecher (1966) found that one of the most common myths that men hold fast to is that male sexual performance is a result of the size of his penis (p. 82). “Many men and boys are worried by the small size of their penis. . . . Psychiatrists report that the resulting feeling of inferiority is a serious problem for substantial numbers of men” (p. 82). The fear of feeling inferior to women is represented in many male’s feelings about their own sexual potency. Horney (1967) concluded that the narcissistic scar of the Freudian phallic phase continues into adulthood as a male obsesses about the size of his penis. She wrote that concern about penis size “is displayed naively throughout boyhood and persists later as a deeply hidden anxiety about the size of the subject’s penis or his potency, or else as a less concealed pride about them” (p. 145). This narcissistic tendency in men to relate their self-worth to their penis mirrors research done by Khan et al. (2007), who found that 38 many men believe their masculinity is directly related to their penis. “Thus, the penis is situated at the core of masculinity. The meanings of penile erection equate with male power and potency. Men see penetration as the subsequent success of male power needed to win women” (p. 45). Championing an aspect of anatomy that females lack may serve as an indicator of masculine power over the feminine: Obsession with one’s penis can be seen as related to one’s desire to feel powerful in relation to females—ultimate evidence of one’s masculinity in the psychological and psychocultural need to secure a male identity against the threat of the feminine. Conclusion and Clinical Application Hypermasculinity involves the obsession of maintaining a persona that appears to be an edifice of strength. Although identifying with traits associated with the masculine principle is necessary in the process of male psychological growth, maturation can only continue by developing a relationship to the feminine principle and females through the anima. However, for the hypermasculine male, the challenge the anima presents coupled with the mystery of feminine sexuality creates a deep fear of feeling inferior to women. The anxiety of feeling inferior to a woman is powerful enough to cause the hypermasculine man to engage in behavior to preemptively devalue and objectify her. Such hypermasculine sexual behavior may be interpreted as an attempt to overcome his fear of the feminine. Psychotherapists working with men who engage in hypermasculine sexual behavior might ask their clients where they believe people develop their thoughts, feelings, and beliefs around sexuality and gender. Discussion may lead to a client becoming more mindful of different perspectives and paths of development, offering 39 potential alternatives to a hypermasculine persona. Psychotherapists also might explore a client’s childhood and family of origin and particularly his relationship with his mother. A client of this type may require significantly more time developing enough safety and trust in the therapeutic relationship to contact or express the fear-laden beliefs, needs, or longings against which his hypermasculine persona defends. Female psychotherapists working with these men may choose to offer an example of or to model for them a female who refuses to fit into a hypermasculine paradigm and yet does not appear challenged or offended by her clients’ thoughts and actions around sex. As hypermasculine behavior relates to fearing the Feminine, challenging such a client too quickly may cause a therapeutic rupture. Male psychotherapists working with men who engage in hypermasculine sexual behavior may choose to offer an example of a confidently nonhypermasculine male. Psychotherapists that wish to include a classical Jungian view in their treatment may explore a client’s persona with them and the source of the expectations to which it has adapted. Treatment may include work around the client’s psychological and anima development and build toward moving past overidentification with the masculine principle. Treatment may include normalizing the insecurities that accompany the fear of the Feminine. Chapter IV Summary and Conclusions Chapter III included an examination of the relationship between hypermasculine sexual behavior and the path of psychological development. Research findings demonstrated a link between a fear of the transforming potential of the archetypal Feminine and hypermasculine sexual behavior, such as the objectification of women and callous attitudes toward sex. This chapter includes a summary of the findings and conclusions from the hermeneutic research, its contribution to the field of psychology, and suggestions regarding avenues of further research on the subject. Summary In examining hypermasculinity, it is necessary to explore the masculine and feminine principles. The masculine principle involves willpower and action and plays a crucial role in separating from the dependency of childhood (Campbell, 1991; Sullivan, 1989). Hypermasculinity involves overidentifying with stereotypical masculine traits and rejecting anything perceived to be associated with femininity. A patriarchal, hypermasculine perspective becomes what Woodman (2004) described as a “parody of itself” (para. 16). Overidentification with the masculine that cherishes actions has served the evolution of civilization. However, authors such as Zabriskie (1990) have asserted the societal need to return to honoring the feminine (p. 270). Instead of honoring the feminine, hypermasculine individuals equate the principle with weakness and champion masculinity; displaying masculine traits has been shown to 41 be an attempt to signify a superior, stronger status (Mosher & Tomkins, 1988). As a dimension of hypermasculinity shown to be prevalent in U.S. society, hypermasculine sexual behavior revolves around attitudes toward sexuality and gender. From a Jungian perspective, behavior largely results from unconscious content interacting with the external environment. In this way, an adaptive outward persona develops split off from unconscious complexes that have an effect on conscious thoughts, feelings, and actions. A son’s mother complex is his first experience of the feminine and has a great effect on his perception of his masculinity (Jung, 1925-1957/1982, pp. 113-114). The child’s experience of his mother as omnipotent contains the roots of the fear of the feminine (Neumann, 1959/1994). A male’s later experience with females is affected by his relationship to his anima, the unconscious device that contains archetypal feminine images (Jung, 1954/1969, p. 198). A man’s relationship with his anima, which is the vehicle for communication between the conscious and unconscious, is linked to his mother complex. Development of the relational qualities of the anima denotes a transition from objectifying females out of fear to understanding of females as complex individuals (Sharp, 1988); thus the anima affects a man’s thoughts and actions around sexuality. Hypermasculine sexual behaviors such as treating sex as a conquest, the sexual objectification of women, and the devaluation of females and femininity are related to the common error of equating the masculine and feminine principles with the male and female genders. This error and patriarchal beliefs about identity and status influence the hypermasculine man to adopt the differentiating energy of the masculine and forsake the connecting energy of the feminine. This action distances an individual from mature relationships with females (Neumann, 1959/1994; Shalit, 2002; Sullivan, 1989). 42 Psychological development around gender and sexuality includes moving on from an exclusively heroic, masculine identity (Sharp, 1988). This development involves the ability to empathize with others, and the anima has been shown to be the vehicle for such psychic evolution. The threat of this transformation to masculine identity creates a fear of the anima and—because anima images are projected onto females—a fear of women. Devaluing the feminine is often a response to this fear (Neumann, 1959/1944) Hypermasculine sexual behavior such as the sexual objectification of women was revealed to be an attempt to depotentiate the value of women in a response to fear. Research demonstrated that treating sex as a conquest is a narcissistic attempt to achieve power and feel adoration in the face of a fear of inadequacy (Horney, 1967). Horney stated that many men hold a fear of inadequacy around sexual relationships with women and may overcompensate for this fear with hypermasculine sexual behavior. Conclusions Although beliefs and behaviors are thought to be the product of rational processing of external sensations, an understanding of the dynamics of the psyche makes it evident that unconscious complexes are largely responsible for what an individual thinks, feels, and believes. Hypermasculine sexual behavior may feel instinctual and be well rationalized for the individual who engages in it, yet the thoughts and feelings behind the behavior appear to have roots in unconscious processes. The social prevalence of hypermasculine sexual behavior allows those who engage in it to avoid questioning their perspectives around gender and sexuality. A male’s relationship with his anima affects his thoughts, feelings, and actions around sexuality and gender. From a classical Jungian viewpoint, psychological 43 development around sexuality and gender includes the integration and development of the anima. Anima integration leads to the development of relational qualities including empathy and the capacity to value that which is other than self. Hypermasculine sexual behavior represents an immature relationship with the anima and is a result of arrested psychological development. A male’s fear of the feminine is constructed from an early understanding of his mother’s omnipotence, the challenge presented by the integration of the anima, and the mystery of the sexuality of the opposite gender. The hypermasculine man responds to this fear with behavior that devalues, depotentiates, and disparages the feminine. This behavior overcompensates for a man’s fear of his inadequacy vis-à-vis the feminine by asserting power, control, and status over women and his anima. Sadly, this reaction to his fear keeps a man stuck in an immature masculine identity that becomes stereotypical and potentially harmful in its severance from and hostility toward the feminine. Contribution of the Research to the Field of Psychology The findings of this thesis demonstrate the relevance of the classical Jungian concept of the anima and its role in a male’s psychological development to understanding hypermasculine behavior. From this perspective, men who fail to give up heroic masculinity to develop a relationship to the feminine principle suffer from an immature relationship to the anima. This relationship is demonstrated by thoughts and actions consistent with hypermasculine sexual behaviors such as sexually objectifying women and treating sex as a conquest. The research also speaks to the power of overcompensation. Behavior that is constructed to appear powerful, dominant, and confident is actually based on fear, 44 inadequacy, and anxiety. Work with men who engage in hypermasculine sexual behavior in clinical settings would likely be slow to address this issue. Psychotherapists may benefit from offering patience and empathy before bluntly addressing such strong overcompensating behavior. Avenues for Further Research A male initially experiences the feminine through his mother, and this relationship affects his thoughts, beliefs, and actions regarding sexuality and gender. As hypermasculine sexual behavior indicates an immature relationship with the feminine, research around the conscious thoughts of hypermasculine men regarding their mothers would be worthy of exploration. Research focusing on the relationship between a mother and her son may add further understanding of the subject. Studies may compare and contrast hypermasculine and nonhypermasculine men regarding relationships with their mothers. 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