Inversion Бекежан Айгерім 108 ПД • Standard word order of declarative sentences in English is first the subject, then the verb. But, there is a literary technique in English requiring changing the standard word order which makes the sentences difficult to understand for the beginners. In normal everyday English, inversion is used: − to make questions: Does he? Can you? − after «so», «neither», «nor»: So do I, neither do I, nor do I. In learning English grammar, most learners don’t pay attention to the use of other types of inversion and the sentences with complex inversion are considered as sentences with an error of punctuation by them. Because, the learners analyze the sentences and consider them as interrogative sentences according to the order of auxiliary verbs or so, but cannot understand or translate them into their native language. So, they have to come to the conclusion that the sentences are not grammatically correct. • Inversion is a structure in which a verb or an auxiliary verb is put before the subject even if the sentence is not an interrogative one. We can use inversion before several negative words such as «never,nowhere, no, not, not only, rarely». In general, inversions are used to emphasize the speaker’s idea. It is a literary technique generally used for emphasis or for special effect. It also sounds quite formal. So, sentences with inversion doesn’t occur in everyday English: Example 1 (sentence without an inversion): I have never seen such a beautiful girl! Example 2 (the same sentence with an inversion): Never have I seen such a beautiful girl! In example 2 inversion is used to emphasize the fact that I have not seen such a beautiful girl in my whole lifetime. Thank you for your attention!