How has US immigration policy historically (and today) reflected dynamics of racism? - Immigration act: - Nat’l-origins quota; 1890 Census 2% from each country of birth - Hierarchy of preference - W. and N. Europeans desired - Restricted S. and E. Europeans - Restricted Africa - Banned Mid. East and Asia ● Who can come in and who cannot What were key federal immigration policies in US policy history and why were they important? - 1924 Immigration and Nationality Act ● Minolized quotas - Policy Building the Wall. Passed in 2006 In what ways/ how immigrants been framed as folk devils in US policy making discourse? - Framed as dangerous, coming to steal jobs, coming to take advantage of our social welfare benefits, to commit crime, Mexico is bringing rapist and murders. - Social work perspective; immigration policy has been used in a way that provokes social justice and racism. What was Lavender Menace and what did it have to do with generating fear in US society? - Calling gays/lesbians pervert, and pedifiles - Discrimination against lesbians/gays population - Symbolic of menace was the theory of communism in the 1950s - The red scare- 1940s-1950s hysteria over the perceived threat posed by communist in the US. ● Moral panic about homosexual people in the US government and their mass dissmisal from government services. What is the moral majority/ religion right and how have they impacted contemporary US social policy making? - Politically conservative people coming from religious right - Had tremendous influence making on policies conservative. - They’re anti LGBQT, anti immigration - Very traditional - No support for women's rights - Role religious people play in government ● Theocracy- when religious leaders are leaders of the country. We are a democracy country. What is title 10 and why is it considered highly political? - Title 10- family planning- family policy - Why considered political? EX; planned parent hood is political because there has been a ban on federal funding for abortion services since 1970 What are some current state policy trends regarding reproductive rights? - In regards to Planned parenthood current admin insituted the gag rule- any agency that provides abortion services are cut off from their title 10 money - Gets into ● Reproductive rights ● Womens rights to choose ● Birth control = to poverty. Who or cannot afford them ● Unplanned pregnancy is an important part of families being in poverty What is title 10 policy? 1970 policy, trends on reproductive rights, getting more strict, decrease funding for abortion clinics. ● Cooling off period- women needs to make multiple trips to her provider incase she wants to change her mind about abortion. Ideal to restrict abortion ● Fewer providers> if you live in a rural state it may be hard to find a provider if they’re not 300 miles away. What is the two legged stool of the ACA? - Affordable Care Act - 3 legged stool> What happens if you cut off one leg? ● If you do not purchase health insurance plan you’ll have to pay certain amount of money on your taxes or pay a fine. > That’s the leg you cut off - Pre-existing conditions> If you were sick and needed to buy insurance w/o ACA they either deny you or raise up the rates that you’ll won’t be able to afford it How is something like the DSM and mental illness a political matter? - DSM is constantly changing - Gender/ Identity crisis - Policies for and against for certain people - Political b/c mental illness is a social construct ● Who is labeled as mentally ill> Labeling> who determines mostly people who are in power ● Homosexuality considered as mental illness from 1970s ● Labeling mental illness people as violent/ dangerous/ more likely to be victims of violence. ● Labeled as villains (the joker) What are criticisms of deinstitutionalization in US Mental hospital policy? - Deinstitutionalization is a government policy that moved mental health patients out of state-run "insane asylums" into federally funded community mental health centers. It began in the 1960s as a way to improve treatment of the mentally ill while also cutting government budgets. - Many of those released from institutions were severely mentally ill. They were not good candidates for community centers due to the nature of their illnesses. Long-term, in-patient care provides better treatment for many with severe mental illnesses. - There wasn't enough federal funding for mental health centers. That meant there weren't enough centers to serve those with mental health needs. It also made it difficult to create any comprehensive programs. Mental health professionals underestimated how difficult it was to coordinate community resources scattered throughout a city for those with disorders. - The courts made it almost impossible to commit anyone against their will. That’s true regardless of whether it was for the person’s own safety and welfare or for that of others. - In 1965 the federal government passed a law that they no longer pay for people living in psychiatric hospitals> being released with little to no care. ● Increased homlessness and poverty. ● Was not planned through on where the people are going to go and live - 1970’s: funding for CMHC’s eroded - Enhanced civil rights of discharged - Involuntary hospitalization only if a “danger to self or others.” - Hospitals closed, states saved $$$ - Ongoing care system poorly planned Criticism of mental hospital: LABELING ● Media depictions show the MI as violent, dangerous, and unpredictable ● Any psychiatric link to a crime makes the story ‘juicier’ ● The enduring popularity (and financial success) of MI villains ensures their continued appearance across media ● Portrayals of violence disproportionate ● Yes higher rates of violence… ● …but MI not sole reason ● MI = poor predictor of violence ● Most are neither violent nor dangerous ● Violence usually toward known, not strangers; random attacks rare Why are both sides of debates around involuntary commitment policies? - For and against - Devils advocate - Criticism of involuntary commitment: Critics say policies that make it illegal for the system to hospitalize people against their will > does not allow freedom of will ● State cannot lock people up if they believed someone has a mental illness ● Power is given with the policies could be considered as abuse> happens in China and North Korea - Persion against the policies could be b/c the individual may be a danger to themselves or others What is transinsitutioalization in mental hospital policy in the US? - Jails in prison - Went too far in result of deinstitutionalization - Too many mentally ill people in prison - Jails/Prisons (more than hospitals) - Nursing homes - Homeless shelters - More visible homelessness - Public parks, playgrounds - Hospital ERs - Public libraries What is controlled substance act of 1970 and what does it do? - Federal regulation: manufacture, importation, possession, use, distribution - DEA & FDA determine which drugs added to/removed from Drug Schedule - Created “Drug Scheduling” Five categories (schedules) of drugs based on “accepted” medical use and abuse/dep. Potential Make drugs illegal Created a schedule system 1-5 harm pertental Historically controlled substance act 1970 is beining on the war on drugs Progressive as the years went on policy makers seen that being tough on drugs is a winner and wins elections. - Drug Scheduling: ● Schedule I: No currently accepted medical use and high abuse potential; most dangerous; potential severe psych./physical dependence: ● Heroin, LSD, Marijuana, Ecstasy, Peyote ● Schedule II: High abuse potential, but less than Schedule I; use potentially leads to severe psych./physical dependence: ● Cocaine, Methamphetamine, Methadone, OxyContin, Fentanyl, Adderall ● Schedule III: Moderate to low abuse potential: ● Vicodin, Tylenol w/ codeine, Ketamine, Anabolic steroids ● Schedule IV: Low abuse potential: ● Xanax, Darvon, Darvocet, Valium, Ativan, Ambien ● Schedule V: Lower abuse potential IV; antidiarrheal, analgesics: ● Robitussin AC, Lomotil, Motofen, Lyrica What were the two key crack era federal drug policies and what did they do? - Controlled substance act has been amended over and over and became harsher and harsher - Tough on drugs has been political winner> gets people elected - 2 crack era: ● Anti drug abuse 1986-88 - Mandatory min. sentences: trafficking - Election time; little research or review - 5-year mandatory minimum for first-time possession of 5 grams of crack - First-time possession of no other drug punished the same..!! - Policy goal: A Drug-free America - Established Office of Nat’l Drug Control Policy (ONDCP) ● 1984: “Just Say No” – children ● Nov. 1985: NYT Cover story on crack ● June 1986: Len Bias (NBA) dies ● 8 Days later: Don Rogers (NFL) dies ● Fanned fears of “crack epidemic” ● Drug use and crime will spread unless… ● Congress gets “tough on drugs” What is a public health approach to drug policy? - Public health: doing wrong if you are it as a criminal matter> should treat it as a public matter> getting people into treatment, locking them up does not serve the purpose of stopping them from using drugs - Serves a different purpose prioritizing profit prisons to keep some people in business> flushed with cash. Public health vs. justice system Effectiveness of the War on Drugs Disproportionate impact (racialized) “Supply Side” vs. “Demand Side” strategies Values (“tough”, “message”) vs. Science Criminal Justice vs. Public Health Vested ($$) interests Who profits from the status quo..?? Gag Rule: Bans title 10 programs from discussing abortion w/ patients. Defunds all agencies that provide abortion. Ex: planned parenthood Braceros 1942-68: Mexican farm laborers. Encourage illegal job entry Operation Wetback 1954: As a racist slur, was a massive deportation scheme or explotation of poor immigrants into cheap labor then discarded. Can we legislate morality? making it a law will change everyone’s actions. If we thought it was that simple, we wouldn’t have police and other enforcers. You can legislate morality. Then, when laws promoting what is good and right are broken, the culprit is punished. But such laws won’t change our hearts making us want to do what is good and right out of love for God who establishes moral standards which society can support with legislation. Our nation went for years without a police force because love and appreciation for God was taught in families and most children grew up wanting to please their Creator, wanting, for their own sake and the benefit of society, to obey His commandments. If society moves away from following our conscious and exercising self-control, there will never be enough police to enforce what is right and civilization will collapse. Conflicting values and power But policies empower some notions of morality over others Conflict and Power Policies = ‘winners and losers’ The Johnson Amend 1954 Pol. activism by religious orgs. Campaigning, $$$, endorsing Can lose tax-exempt status Section 501(c)(3) of IRS Code POTUS: “Will totally destroy” Residual vs. institutional perspective The residual model of social work and social welfare essentially sees government support for people's well-being as a safety net of last resort. When poor people are unable to help themselves through the market, usually by working, or get help from family, friends or other social ties, then and only then should the government step in with aid necessary to fit their needs. The kinds of programs produced under this model are generally seen as being limited to the poor. Support is often cut off once people have the means to get assistance elsewhere. As a consequence, these kinds of programs can be cheaper to administer than other models and can fit people's notion of justice in that someone isn't receiving something for nothing, but they can also provide less support than programs produced under different models. conceives of social welfare as focusing on problems and gaps, with social welfare benefits and services supplied only when people fail to provide adequately for themselves and problems arise The Institutional Model; In this model, social welfare is provided for essentially everyone in a society, rich or poor, and is considered part of what the society should be providing for its citizens. Programs developed under this model often don't have the problems residual models programs do with people phasing in and out as they go up and down in wealth and prosperity, but they can be more expensive to administer and can draw the ire of people who favor a limited approach to government. views people's needs as a normal part of life; society's responsibility to support its members and provide needed benefits and services Means testing eligibility/need Verify lack of resources Ensure no one receives more than they “should” Individual vs. structural causes Deviance as labeling the environment plays a major role in deciding which norms people learn to violate. Specifically, people within a particular reference group provide norms of conformity and deviance, and thus heavily influence the way other people look at the world, including how they react. People also learn their norms from various socializing agents—parents, teachers, ministers, family, friends, co-workers, and the media. In short, people learn criminal behavior, like other behaviors, from their interactions with others, especially in intimate groups. Deviant’ gps. not randomly chosen “Folk Devils” Relatively little sociopolitical power More likely to be labelled deviant “Different rules for different people” Less able to resist deviant label Deviance not a fixed trait/behavior; it is deemed so by “audience” Groups w/ power create deviance by making rules; when rules broken, deviance results Rule-breakers labelled ‘deviant’ “Folk devils” Cohen argued that when the media reports on deviant behaviour they construct a narrative which features a clear villain: the folk devil. In his study, the folk devils were the violent youth subcultures, "mods and rockers". The creation of folk devils can kickstart a moral panic. Civil rights act 1964 In public accommodations Hotels, restaurants, bars In public facilities Bathrooms, water faucets Employment discrimination “Equal Employment Opportunities Commission” to review complaints Pre civil rights act; - The 15th Amendment (1870) banned states from denying vote to male citizens due to “race, color or previous condition of servitude.” Yet various practices denying the vote were common, particularly in the South… Voting rights at 1965 Banned discrimination in voting Taxes, tests, intimidation, violence Enforced 15th Amend. 95 years later Fed. observers (repealed 2006) Immediate impact 1965 = 250,000 new African-American registered voters Social problems How/why society determines what is a social problem is key to policy making Social work “PIE” orientation accounts for structural dynamics… …and how “social conditions” become “social problems” Policy is not made in reaction to factual evidence about a social problem; rather it is made because ample numbers of ‘influential’ people are complaining… (Legitimization) Welfare reform (PRWORA) “End welfare as we know it” Work in exchange for temp. relief Must have job/training after 2 yrs No more than 5 yrs cumulatively Three tiered welfare system )pub assistance, taxation, corp, welfare) “Safety net” programs (Public Assistance) - Income Tax policy - Corporate welfare- In excess of $150B (2015) Tax cuts/low rates for corporations No bid contracts Zero-interest loans Absolute vs when household income is below a certain level, which makes it impossible for the person or family to meet basic needs of life including food, shelter, safe drinking water, education, healthcare, etc. relative poverty when households receive 50% less than average household incomes, so they do have some money but still not enough money to afford anything above the basics. This type of poverty is, on the other hand, changeable depending on the economic growth of the country. Social problems- objectivism vs social construction; Social construction- Social problems collectively defined Claims-makers: Call attention to something they want addressed Political discourse to draw attn. Claims: ‘allegations’, not proof Objectivism- It exists in the ‘real’ world. It is a physical or material reality NOT values or opinion. Can be identified by scientific inquiry. Is detrimental to human well-being What is meant when we say that a particular social problem has “structural” causes? because they are located in social structures or arrangements that are outside the individual's control. social problems exist in context, not necessarily individual fault Solutions lie in structural change (racism, classism, sexism, ageism What is meant when we say that social deviance is “decided by the audience”? ● That society gets to decide how to react to the social problem. ● Media take huge part in that in part in that role in making the audience think about the issue and let them decide the outcome While policymakers “cannot legislate morality” they can do what regarding policy and values? They can give their sense of values and beliefs as to why they stand by their decisions in regards to policies and values What is a criticism of using an absolute measure (federal poverty line) of poverty? is when household income is below a certain level, which makes it impossible for the person or family to meet basic needs of life including food, shelter, safe drinking water, education, healthcare, etc. In this state of poverty, even if the country is growing economically it has no effect on people living below the poverty line. Absolute poverty compares households based on a set income level and this level varies from country to country depending on its overall economic conditions. What is meant when we say that the media frame “framing” social problems for its audience? ● Emphasizing some aspects over others ● Commonplace is the ‘problem frame’ ● Emphasizes how widespread and/or dangerous a condition is ● Fosters fear ● The media tends to give the audience a false information that isn’t always true they tend to sugar coat social problems for us, to make us fearful of the situation that occurred What role do claim makers play in constructing social problems? ● Claims-makers: Call attention to something they want addressed ● Political discourse to draw attn. ● Claims: ‘allegations’, not proof Prior to the 1965 Voting Rights Act how did the use of so-called literacy tests serve to deviantize those required to take them? The use of literacy tests serve to deviantize those required to take them because it created bias when it came to voting. If you fail the test you weren’t eligible to vote and it wasn't fair for those who weren’t fortunate enough to get an education. Literacy test took away citizens' rights to be understood and heard. What is meant by claims that policies such as the Amber Alert & Morgan’s Law provide a false sense of security about child welfare and safety? Because within ones’ family or peers that one surrounds themselves with are a threat to children. You only get Amber Alerts when someone is already missing or found dead but never about how to prevent these situations from happening. How did the widespread panic about so-called “super predators” youth in the 1990s impact juvenile justice system in the U.S during that time? When one is labeled as a “predator” even when there isn’t enough proof to say otherwise, that juvenile will continue to be looked at as a criminal all their life. What aspect of the juvenile justice system in the U.S make it different than the juvenile justice systems in other similar countries ? harshness toward children derived from traditional English common law, which convicted and punished 7- to 14-year-old children as long as they appeared to understand the difference between right and wrong. There are records of children as young as 10 put to death in eighteenth century England. In the second half of the nineteenth century, U.S. reformers pushed for the creation of juvenile court systems that would seek to rehabilitate—not just punish—child offenders. As the legal scholars David S. Tanenhaus and Steven A. Drizin outline in a 2002 paper in the Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, the first juvenile court opened in 1899 in Cook County, IL (home of Chicago), thanks to reformers Lucy Flower and Julia Lathrop.