LEVELS OF PREVENTION LEVELS OF CARE ❶ PRIMARY PREVENTION It consists of activities which are undertaken before disease strike. It is applied to generally healthy people in order to keep them well. Purpose: decrease risk of exposure of the individual or community to disease. ❶ HEALTH PROMOTION It uses knowledge. It is a behavior motivated by the desire to increase wellbeing and actualize human health potentials. It is motivated by personal “positive approach” to wellness. It seeks to expand positive potential for health. It is not disease oriented. o Healthy lifestyle; cholesterol screening ① HEALTH PROMOTION o It is more on educator. o It is a process of enabling individual and community to increase control over the determinants of health and thereby improve their health. o It consists of activities aimed at maintaining or enhancing people’s physical, metal, or social wellbeing. o OBJECTIVE: enable individual, families, group, and communities to maintain health and realize their full potential for development. ② DISEASE PREVENTION o It involves activities designed to protect patient or other members of the public from actual or potential health threats and their harmful consequences. o Improve lifestyle or practice. ❷ SECONDARY PREVENTION Clinic to hospital setting It includes activities for early diagnosis and prompt treatment of disease or health problem which has not been prevented. FOCUS: early identification of health problems and prompt interventions to alleviate problems. OBJECTIVES: o Halting disease progress o Minimizing severity of disease o Shortening disease duration o Prevent or reduce complications o Bring about care ❸ TERTIARY PREVENTION Hospital setting Rehabilitation starts upon admission. It begins early in the period of recovery of illness. It minimizes residual disability and helps clients to learn to live productively with limitations. It is a continuing health supervision during rehabilitation. OBJECTIVE: restore patient to an optimum level of functioning consist of activities which are done when the disease process an injury or a calamity has already exacted its damage and ill effects, which consequent disability or less of function in varying degrees. ❷ DISEASE PREVENTION / HEALTH PROTECTION It is more on practice and health illness It is a behavior motivated by desire to actively avoid illness, detect it early or maintain functioning within constraints. Illness or injury specific. It is motivated by “avoidance of illness” It seeks to thwart the occurrence of insults to health and well-being Example: vaccination ① HEALTH MAINTENANCE o It is a higher level of disease protection or prevention o A person strives to prevent relapse by integrating newly adopted behaviors into his or her lifestyle. o A person no longer experiences temptation to return to previous unhealthy behavior. o Examples: § Controlling blood sugar and smoking § Change diet, exercise ❸ CURATIVE It is a care that tends to overcome disease, and promote recovery. It cures a disease or condition. ❹ REHABILITATION It emphasizes the importance of assisting the clients to function adequately in the physical, mental, social, and economic and vocational areas of their lives. The patient has disability.