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A&P Chapters 11-13 Review

Chapter 11-13
1. What are the 4 regions of the brain?
2. What structures make up the diencephalon?
3. What structures make up the brain stem?
4. Where does the spinal cord start?
5. What do we call the end of the spinal cord?
6. What is the function of the cerebellum?
7. How many lobes are in the cerebrum, name them?
8. List the ways neurotransmitters are removed from the synaptic cleft?
9. “SAM” is the acronym for what in relation to the nervous system?
10. What does cephal(o)- mean?
11. What does crani(o)- mean?
12. What horn of the spinal cord contains motor neurons of the somatic nervous system?
13. What system is also referred to as out “emotional brain”?
14. List the 3 meninges from outermost to innermost.
15. Which meninx is the innermost meninx?
16. Spinal nerves from L4-S4 make up what plexus?
17. Spinal nerves from C5-T1 make up what plexus?
18. The ability to learn specific information is called what type of memory?
19. What type of sleep is important for memory?
20. Median nerve damage may be a result of damage to what plexus?
21. Where are the vital centers for control of heart rate, respiratory rate and vomiting
centers located in?
22. What separates the parietal lobe and the frontal lobe?
23. What connects the two hemispheres?
24. What type of matter (gray or white) is the cerebral cortex made of?
25. Corpus callosum, spinal tracts, outer portion of spinal cord, inner layer of brain are made
of what matter (gray or white)?
26. What type of information is the visceral association area give us?
27. Sensory nerves are also known as _______ nerves.
28. Motor nerves are also known as _________ nerves
29. What glial cells produce myelin sheath in the CNS?
30. What glia cells produce myelin sheath in the PNS?
31. What is the tree-like cerebellar white matter called?
32. Your patient can trace a picture of a horse but can’t tell you what it is he drew has most
likely damaged what are of the brain?
33. What is the gap between two neurons called?
34. A person knows what they want to say but have difficulty verbalizing the words. Where is
the problem?
35. A person can speak very well but his sentences do not make any sense. Where is the
36. A neuron with cell bodies inside the CNS that connects other neurons together is
referred to as what type of neurons?
37. The PNS consists of what?
a. ___________________________
b. ____________________________
38. What is a collection of nerve cell bodies outside the CNS (thus in the PNS) is
39. What is a bundle of neuron processes outside the CNS called?
40. What is the name of the Neuron processes that receive incoming stimuli?
41. What cell aid in peripheral nerve regeneration after nerve injury?________________
42. Name the 4 spinal plexuses and what ventral rami they are made of?
a. _____________________
b. _____________________
43. What part of the cerebrum is involved in intellect, personality, cognition and recall?
44. Damage to Ventral root results in loss of what?____________________________
45. What type of fibers do the Dorsal Roots of a spinal nerve contain?
46. What is the uppermost spinal plexus? What main nerve does it form?
a. Plexus_____________________
b. Nerve________________________
47. Name the 5 Nerves that are branches of the Brachial Plexus?
a. ________________________
b. ________________________
d. _______________ e.____________
48. What body area does the brachial plexus serve?___________________________
49. What is an area of skin innervated by a single spinal nerve called?
50. Name the 2 nerve branches of the Lumbar Plexus?
a. _______________________
51. What is the nerve that innervates the Diaphragm? What Plexus is it from?
a. Nerve____________________
b. Plexus___________________
52. What is the most important nerve of the cervical plexus?
53. What is the largest cranial nerve?_________________________________
54. Which cranial nerve sends olfactory signals to the diencephalon?
55. How many pairs of spinal nerves do we have? ____________________
56. Which CN innervates the major muscles of mastication? Which branch of it?
a. ________________________
57. How many pairs of CN do we have? _______________________
58. What Cranial Nerve has motor fibers for facial expression?_______________
59. If a person can’t whistle, what Cranial nerve may be damaged? What muscle may be
a. CN_________________________
b. Muscles_____________________ &_________________________
60. If you can’t elevate your eyebrow what CN may be damaged? What muscle may be
a. CN_________________________ b. Muscle_____________________
61. Partial loss of sensation to the tongue & difficulty swallowing may indicate damage to
which Cranial nerve?_______________________
62. What cranial nerve controls tongue movement?_______________________
63. What Cranial nerve has 90% parasympathetic fibers?___________________
64. What does the Vagus Nerve innervate?
65. What is the name of CN-XI?__________________________
66. What 3 Cranial nerves innervate the tongue for taste? What section of the tongue is
each responsible for?
a. CN__________________________ & Section of tongue__________________
b. CN__________________________ & Section of tongue__________________
c. CN__________________________ & Section of tongue__________________
67. Where are the receptors for Cranial Nerve-I (Olfactory) found?_____________________
68. Where does CN-1 pass through and what facial bone?
69. Is CN-I Motor or Sensory or Mixed?____________________
70. What cranial nerve sends sensory fibers to the cerebral cortex for hearing? Which specific
lobe does it go to?
a. CN________________________
b. Lobe________________________
71. What is the Deltoid muscle innervated by?________________________
72. What nerve innervates the brachialis? What plexus?
73. What nerve runs through the carpal tunnel of the wrist? ____________________
74. If you have lost sensation along the skin on your lateral hand, what nerve is damaged?
75. What nerve runs along the medial surface of the elbow joint and is referred to as the
“funny bone” sensation when hit?
76. What is the nerve innervation to the primary forearm extensors? What plexus?
a. Nerve_______________
b. Plexus_____________________
77. What nerve is prone to being damaged with injections in the gluteal muscle?
78. Which CN is damaged if I can no longer wrinkle my forehead or raise my eyebrows? What
muscle is lost? ____________________
79. What action at the wrist & Fingers would be lost due to Radial nerve damage?
a. Action lost_______________________
80. What is the longest & thicket nerve in the body? ____________________
81. What are the 2 branches of the sacral plexus?
a. _________________
82. What nerve innervates the quadriceps femoris muscle group? What plexus does it arise
a. Nerve___________________
b. Plexus____________________
83. What nerve innervates the posterior thigh, leg and foot? What plexus is it a branch of?
84. What do the Muscle Spindles inform the CNS in regard to a specific muscle? _________
85. What does the Golgi tendon inform the CNS?
86. What nerve does the Biceps Reflex test?_____________________
87. What is the patellar “knee-jerk” reflex an example of?
88. What is inborn (intrinsic) reflex?
89. Name the 2 branches of the autonomic nervous system (ANS):
a. ___________________________
b. __________________________
90. Where is the center for ANS control in the central nervous system?
91. Are skeletal muscles Effectors controlled directly be the ANS?
92. What are nerve fibers that release Ach as a neurotransmitter referred to as?
93. Which branch of the ANS is responsible for “flight or fight” response?
94. Which branch of the ANS is responsible for “sit and relax” response?
95. Which ANS is more active during exercise or fighting?
96. Which ANS is more active during sleep, rest and relaxation
97. What does stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system cause?
98. What does stimulation of the parasympathetic nervous system cause?
99. Which cranial nerve (name and number) carries 90% parasympathetic fibers?
1. Cerebrum, diencephalon, brain stem, cerebellum
2. Thalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus
3. Medulla oblongata, pons, midbrain
4. Foramen magnum
5. Conus medullaris
6. Maintaining balance & coordination
7. 5, parietal lobe, frontal lobe, temporal lobe, occipital lobe, insula lobe
8. Diffusion, enzymatic degradation and re-uptake
9. S=Sensory, A=Association, M=Motor neurons
10. head
11. cranium
12. Ventral/anterior horn
13. Limbic system
14. Dura mater arachnoid mater  pia mater
15. Pia mater
16. Sacral plexus
17. Brachial plexus
18. Declarative memory
19. REM
20. Brachial plexus
21. Medulla oblongata of brain stem
22. Central sulcus
23. Corpus callosum
24. Gray matter
25. White matter
26. Sensation of organs such as full bladder or full stomach
27. Afferent nerves
28. Efferent nerves
29. Oligodendrocytes
30. Schwann cells
31. Arbor vitae
32. Visual association area
33. Synaptic cleft
34. Broca’s area in the frontal lobe
35. Werincke’s area
36. Association neurons
37. A. Spinal nerves
b. Cranial nerves
38. Ganglia
39. Nerves
40. dendrites
41. Schwann cells
42. A. cervical plexus
b. brachial plexus
c. Lumbar plexus
d. Sacral plexus
43. Prefrontal cortex
44. Complete loss of voluntary motor (muscle) control
45. Sensory (afferent)
46. A. cervical plexus
b. Phrenic n.
47. A. Musculocutaneous n.
b. Axial n.
c. Radial n.
d. Ulnar n.
e. median n
48. shoulder & arms
49. Dermatome
50. A. Femoral n.
b. Obturator n.
51. A. Phrenic n.
b. cervical plexus (C3-C5)
52. Phrenic nerve
53. CN-V trigeminal nerve
54. CN-I (olfactory nerve)
55. 31
56. CN-V (trigeminal)
57. 12
58. CN-VII facial n.
59. A. CN-VII (Facial n.)
b. Buccinator & Orbicularis Oris
60. A. CN-VII (facial n.)
b. Frontalis
61. CN-IX (glossopharyngeal)
62. CN-XII (Hypoglossal)
63. CN-X (Vagus n.)
64. The visceral organs
65. Accessory nerve
66. CN-VII (facial n.) anterior 2/3
b. CN-IX (Glossopharyngeal n.) mid 1/3
c. CN-X (Vagus n.) posterior 1/3
67. Epithelium of the nasal cavity
68. Cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone
69. CN-V (Trigeminal)
70. Sensory only (sense of smell)
71. The Axillary n.
72. Musculocutaneous. Brachia plexus
73. Median nerve
74. Median n.
75. Ulnra n.
76. A. Radial n.
b. Brachial plexus
77. Sciatic nerve
78. A. CN-VII (Facial n.)
b. lose function of Frontalis muscle
79. A. loss of wrist and finger extension
80. Sciatic n.
81. A. Tibial n.
b. Common Fibular n.
82. A. Femoral nerve
b. lumbar plexus
83. A. tibial n. b. Sacral plexus
84. The length of the muscle
85. Amount of tension in the muscle & tendon, Causes muscle to relax
86. Musculocutaneous n.
87. Stretch reflex
88. Intrinsic reflexes are involuntary but can be modified by learned behavior
89. A. Parasympathetic
b. Sympathetic
90. Hypothalamus
91. No. Skeletal muscles are controlled by the somatic (voluntary) motor division of the PNS
92. Cholinergic fibers
93. Sympathetic nervous system
94. Parasympathetic nervous system
95. Sympathetic nervous system
96. Parasympathetic nervous system
97. Increase blood glucose, decrease GI peristalsis, increase heart rate and blood pressure,
Dilation of pupil and constriction of arteries (vasoconstriction)
98. Increased activity of digestive system, increase salivation, Elimination of urine, decrease
heart rate & Constriction of pupil
99. CN-X (vagus nerve)