Chapter 31 – The Cold War 1945-1989 Lesson 1 – The Cold War Begins The Truman Doctrine The Marshall Plan The doctrine set about preventing the spread of Communism (“containment”) and the first incident where it was applied was in Greece and Turkey. Put forth by Secretary of State George Marshall, billions of dollars were given to Europe to solve two problems: The help kept communism from taking over those two countries. Restart European economies Prevent spread of communism Rejected by the Soviet Union and its eastern European satellite states. As highlighted at Yalta and Potsdam, post-war Germany was divided into four parts, controlled by the Allies. Afterwards, the Russians remained in eastern Germany and east Berlin. 1947 – Russians placed a blockade upon West Berlin Allies dilemma? Help and cause a war Berlin Airlift – flying into West Berlin supplies to maintain the western part of the city. After a year, the Soviets backed off. Results: creation of West and East Germany as well as the creation of NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization. NATO United States Iceland United Kingdom Netherlands Italy Portugal Warsaw Pact Canada Norway West Germany Belgium Spain The Soviet Union Poland Romania Hungary East Germany Czechoslovakia Bulgaria Albania The first major episode of containment happened when North Korea invaded South Korea. It brought the United Nations to help the South while the Chinese eventually came in to help the North. The war convinced the Americans that the Soviets are going to be long-term problems. By the time the Russians developed their own atomic bomb, the race began to create the better weapon. Both countries felt the weapons were a deterrence – kept the likelihood of a war from happening. 1957 – Soviets launched Sputnik as the first satellite into outer space. The American government went into a panic over the idea the Soviets could militarize space. Secondary Education Defense Act (1958) – emphasis on math, science and foreign languages. National Aeronautic and Space Administration (1959) – US creates its own space program New Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev was tired of people being able to escape from East to West Berlin. A showdown occurred between the Soviet Union and the United States. Khrushchev decided that a wall will be built between the two city regions. The wall became a symbol of the Iron Curtain – the tensions between the two superpowers. Lesson 2 – China after World War II By the time World War II was over, the Communists had a massive following and controlled most of China. Chiang Kai-shek and the Nationalists escaped to Taiwan, declaring itself the real China. Mao Zedong declared the People’s Republic of China. The Great Leap Forward In an attempt to revitalize the Chinese economy, Mao instituted the Great Leap Forward to collectivize farms and build up industry. Great push for a classless society. The Leap was a unmitigated disaster because: Bad weather Record low food production Hatred of the new system by farmers Famine The Cultural Revolution With the failure of the Great Leap Forward and increase opposition, Mao doubled down with the Cultural Revolution. Produced the Little Red Book of his sayings – became required reading. Schools and universities were purged of non-communist thinking. The Red Guards stamped out the Four Olds – ideas, culture, customs and habits. Attempted to change family roles by asking children to report to the government. Opposition grew against Mao and after his death, reform was begun under Deng Xiaoping. China and the Soviet Union Two countries with massive populations and large armies were bound to clash. The major reasons for the clash: Rural (China) versus Industrial (USSR) Pro-western relations (USSR) versus communist domination (China) Both tried to earn the favor with US once Xiaoping became Chinese premier After the Cold War, relations between the two countries improved however, the Soviet Union collapsed in the early 1990s and China has become a major world power on its own. Lesson 3 – Cold War Conflicts Because a direct conflict between the Soviets and the Americans could eventually include nuclear weapons, the two countries avoided each other. Proxy wars – US and USSR backing those in other fights, against one another. Major defense alliances during the Cold War: NATO Warsaw Pact SEATO (Southeast Asia) CENTO (Middle East) The Cuban Missile Crisis In 1959, Fidel Castro took over Cuba and aligned the island with the Soviet Union. John F. Kennedy tried a takeover using Cuban refugees in what was called the Bay of Pigs but it was a disaster. Worried about another U.S. invasion, the USSR began placing nuclear weapons in Cuba. Kennedy placed a blockade on the island once the missiles were discovered – this created a standoff. A deal was struck where the USSR removed its missiles from Cuba, the U.S. removed its missiles from Turkey and it also promised never to invade Cuba. It was an extremely close call, leading both sides to put things in place to prevent such an incident again (red phone). The Vietnam War When the French were defeated at Dien Bien Phu, Vietnamese nationalist leader Ho Chi Minh led the push for an independent Vietnam. A plan was sponsored between world leaders to divide Vietnam until elections could unite the country. North – Communist, capital was Hanoi, leader was Ho Chi Minh South – Non-Communist, capital was Saigon, leader was Ngo Dinh Diem The Americans, worried about a domino effect if Vietnam fell to communism, intervened with President Lyndon Johnson brining participation to the highest levels. However, Johnson’s accused mis-handling of the war and a growing opposition led to his not running for re-election in 1968. In 1968, Richard Nixon won the presidency with the promise to end the war. Nixon traveled to China and the Soviet Union, creating better relationships with both countries. China helped to bring North Vietnam to the peace table. January 1973 – The Paris Peace Accords officially ended U.S. participation in the Vietnam War. The fear of a domino effect was only partially founded – Laos and Cambodia did fall but they were the only ones.