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Cold war Chap 31

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Chapter 31 – The Cold War
1945-1989
Lesson 1 – The Cold War Begins
The Truman Doctrine
The Marshall Plan
The doctrine set about preventing the spread of
Communism (“containment”) and the first
incident where it was applied was in Greece and
Turkey.
Put forth by Secretary of State George Marshall,
billions of dollars were given to Europe to solve two
problems:
The help kept communism from taking over
those two countries.
Restart European economies
Prevent spread of communism
Rejected by the Soviet Union and its eastern
European satellite states.
As highlighted at Yalta and Potsdam, post-war Germany
was divided into four parts, controlled by the Allies.
Afterwards, the Russians remained in eastern Germany
and east Berlin.
1947 – Russians placed a blockade upon West Berlin
Allies dilemma? Help and cause a war
Berlin Airlift – flying into West Berlin supplies to
maintain the western part of the city.
After a year, the Soviets backed off.
Results: creation of West and East Germany as well as
the creation of NATO (North Atlantic Treaty
Organization.
NATO
United States
Iceland
United Kingdom
Netherlands
Italy
Portugal
Warsaw Pact
Canada
Norway
West Germany
Belgium
Spain
The Soviet Union
Poland
Romania
Hungary
East Germany
Czechoslovakia
Bulgaria
Albania
The first major episode of containment happened when North Korea invaded South Korea. It brought the United
Nations to help the South while the Chinese eventually came in to help the North.
The war convinced the Americans that the Soviets are going to be long-term problems.
By the time the Russians developed their
own atomic bomb, the race began to
create the better weapon.
Both countries felt the weapons were a
deterrence – kept the likelihood of a war
from happening.
1957 – Soviets launched Sputnik as the first
satellite into outer space.
The American government went into a panic
over the idea the Soviets could militarize
space.
Secondary Education Defense Act (1958) –
emphasis on math, science and foreign
languages.
National Aeronautic and Space Administration
(1959) – US creates its own space program
New Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev was
tired of people being able to escape from
East to West Berlin.
A showdown occurred between the Soviet
Union and the United States.
Khrushchev decided that a wall will be
built between the two city regions.
The wall became a symbol of the Iron
Curtain – the tensions between the two
superpowers.
Lesson 2 – China after World
War II
By the time World War II was over, the Communists had a massive
following and controlled most of China.
Chiang Kai-shek and the Nationalists escaped to Taiwan, declaring itself
the real China.
Mao Zedong declared the People’s Republic of China.
The Great Leap Forward
In an attempt to revitalize the Chinese
economy, Mao instituted the Great Leap
Forward to collectivize farms and build up
industry.
Great push for a classless society.
The Leap was a unmitigated disaster because:
Bad weather
Record low food production
Hatred of the new system by farmers
Famine
The Cultural Revolution
With the failure of the Great Leap Forward and
increase opposition, Mao doubled down with
the Cultural Revolution.
Produced the Little Red Book of his sayings –
became required reading.
Schools and universities were purged of
non-communist thinking.
The Red Guards stamped out the Four Olds – ideas, culture, customs and habits.
Attempted to change family roles by asking children to report to the government.
Opposition grew against Mao and after his death, reform was begun under Deng Xiaoping.
China and the Soviet Union
Two countries with massive populations and large armies
were bound to clash. The major reasons for the clash:
Rural (China) versus Industrial (USSR)
Pro-western relations (USSR) versus communist domination
(China)
Both tried to earn the favor with US once Xiaoping became
Chinese premier
After the Cold War, relations between the two countries
improved however, the Soviet Union collapsed in the early
1990s and China has become a major world power on its own.
Lesson 3 – Cold War Conflicts
Because a direct conflict between the
Soviets and the Americans could
eventually include nuclear weapons,
the two countries avoided each other.
Proxy wars – US and USSR backing
those in other fights, against one
another.
Major defense alliances during the
Cold War:
NATO
Warsaw Pact
SEATO (Southeast Asia)
CENTO (Middle East)
The Cuban Missile Crisis
In 1959, Fidel Castro took over Cuba and aligned the island
with the Soviet Union.
John F. Kennedy tried a takeover using Cuban refugees in
what was called the Bay of Pigs but it was a disaster.
Worried about another U.S. invasion, the USSR began placing
nuclear weapons in Cuba.
Kennedy placed a blockade on the island once the missiles
were discovered – this created a standoff.
A deal was struck where the USSR removed its missiles from
Cuba, the U.S. removed its missiles from Turkey and it also
promised never to invade Cuba.
It was an extremely close call, leading both sides to put things
in place to prevent such an incident again (red phone).
The Vietnam War
When the French were defeated at Dien Bien Phu, Vietnamese nationalist
leader Ho Chi Minh led the push for an independent Vietnam.
A plan was sponsored between world leaders to divide Vietnam until elections
could unite the country.
North – Communist, capital was Hanoi, leader was Ho Chi Minh
South – Non-Communist, capital was Saigon, leader was Ngo Dinh
Diem
The Americans, worried about a domino effect if Vietnam fell to communism,
intervened with President Lyndon Johnson brining participation to the highest
levels.
However, Johnson’s accused mis-handling of the war and a growing opposition
led to his not running for re-election in 1968.
In 1968, Richard Nixon won the presidency
with the promise to end the war.
Nixon traveled to China and the Soviet Union,
creating better relationships with both
countries. China helped to bring North
Vietnam to the peace table.
January 1973 – The Paris Peace Accords
officially ended U.S. participation in the
Vietnam War.
The fear of a domino effect was only partially
founded – Laos and Cambodia did fall but
they were the only ones.
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