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Gr11 Spelling Unit 7

Grade 11 Unit 7
• (adj.) severe or stern in
manner; without
adornment or luxury,
simple, plain; harsh or
sour in flavor
• SYN: forbidding,
rigorous, puritanical,
ascetic, unadorned,
• ANT: mild, indulgent, The Tibet monks are dressed in
an austere manner.
luxurious, flamboyant
Ex. The austere clothing and conduct of the
Puritans expressed humility.
• They lived in an
furnished home with only the
barest necessities.
• Many people are forced to work
in more austere conditions by
their employers in the
manufacturing of products.
• Some European countries are
being forced to establish
more austere expenditures
because of their monetary debts.
• (adj.) performing acts
of kindness or charity;
conferring benefits,
doing good
• SYN: humanitarian,
Bill Gates is known as a
beneficent humanitarian.
• ANT: selfish, cruel,
harmful, deleterious
Ex. From them I learned that purely beneficent acts
can require as much hard work as nine-to-five job.
• In an attempt to look
the selfish millionaire hired a
photographer to take pictures of
him standing outside a homeless
• Many beneficent projects have
to be foregone if sufficient funds
are lacking.
• John and his wife are
a beneficent couple who are
regular volunteers at a homeless
3- cadaverous
• (adj.) pale, gaunt,
resembling a corpse
• SYN: corpselike,
wasted, haggard,
emaciated, ghastly
• ANT: robust, portly,
rosy, the picture of Pictures of the cadaverous
Holocaust victims shocked the
world during World War II.
Ex. The rescued captives were weak from
hunger and cadaverous in appearance.
• Sally has a cadaverous odor
and an extremely thin and
deathly pale skin that has
resulted from the terrible
disease that she has.
• Erwin's long illness gave him
a cadaverous appearance;
however, he is beginning to
recover and getting his normal
skin color again.
4- concoct
• (v.) to prepare by
ingredients, make
up (as a dish); to
devise, invent,
• SYN: create,
fashion, rustle up
Martha Stewarts has made a
fortune by concocting
delicious dishes for her
television show.
Ex. He concocts a savory stew with fresh
herbs and vegetables from the garden.
• Henry wanted
to concoct a mystery
story by using a lot of his
imagination without
including ideas from his
previous mystery stories.
• Tom's children decided
to concoct a scheme
so they could stay up
late on Saturday night to
see a special TV movie!
5- crass
(adj.) coarse, unfeeling;
• SYN: crude, vulgar,
tasteless, oafish, obtuse
• ANT: refined, elegant,
tasteful, polished, brilliant
The crass nature of the
press today is enough to
discourage anyone from
running for office.
Ex. We feel that the positions of our
representative show a crass indifference to our
• There were some people who
were shocked by
Mildred's crass or offensive
comments about the new
supervisor at her company.
• While he considers his
apartment well-furnished, his
crass excessiveness goes
way beyond the bounds of
good taste.
• (v.) to lower in character,
quality, or value; to
degrade, adulterate; to
cause to deteriorate
• SYN: cheapen, corrupt,
demean, depreciate
• ANT: elevate, uplift,
improve, enhance
Don’t debase your
character by associating
with undesirable people.
Ex. Every time a new role is introduced in a popular
sport, there are fans who say it will debase the game.
• The medical
profession has been
debased by these
• Our society has been
debased by war and
7- desecrate
• (v.) to commit sacrilege
upon, treat irreverently;
to contaminate, pollute
• SYN: profane, defile,
• ANT: revere, honor,
venerate, consecrate
Vandals desecrated
tombstones that were over
100 years old.
Ex. The search continues for the vandals
who desecrated the cemetery.
• The local vandals were
of desecrating several
graves by throwing paint
on the sites at the
• People were warned not
to desecrate the flags
of any of the countries
that were participating in
the international sports
• (v.) to confuse; to
disturb the
composure of
• SYN: upset, rattle,
ruffle, faze, perturb
• ANT: relax, calm,
Political guests often find Bill
put at ease
O’Reilly’s questions disconcerting.
Ex. They had hoped to disconcert him with an
unexpected question, but he was well prepared.
• News about Marie's car
accident as she was driving
to work
was disconcerting her
employer very much.
• The news that his scheduled
flight had been canceled
again disconcerted the
salesman who had arranged
an important meeting with a
company executive.
• (adj.)grand in an
impressive or stately
way; marked by pompous
affection or grandeur,
absurdly exaggerated
• SYN: majestic,
bombastic, highfalutin
Statements of positive
expectations need not be
• ANT: simple, modest,
unaffected, humble
Ex. In how many stories, I wonder, does an
ambitious villain become the victim of grandiose
• The actor had the
most grandiose ideas
about his appearance
and acting ability.
• The grandiose buildin
g was constructed to
look like a decorative
art style of architecture
but it proved to be too
ornate to be admired
by most people.
• (adj.) trifling,
• SYN: trivial,
negligible, petty,
• ANT: important,
essential, crucial,
Many of the details you included
in the report were inconsequential
and unimportant.
Ex. Feel free to ignore the inconsequential
details, provided that you know exactly which
ones they are.
• Leola made an effort to take her
husband's mind off his troubles
by talking
about inconsequential things.
• Since Brad's argument doesn't
make any sense, he is just
contributing a bunch
of inconsequential talk.
• (n.) a breaking
of a law or
• SYN: violation,
breach, offense
It is rare that the
referees will catch every
infraction on the court.
Ex. His uncle paid a fine for his infraction of
the local recycling regulations .
• Monroe was penalized
for an infraction of
parking on the street
beyond the time limit.
• One more
and Jason will be
suspended from school.
• The police ignored Jill’s
minor infraction
because it was her first
violation of the law.
• (v.) to make milder or
softer, to moderate in
force or intensity
• SYN: lessen, relieve,
alleviate, diminish
• ANT: aggravate,
intensify, irritate,
The judge decided to
mitigate her sentence
because she had shown
good behavior.
Ex. I had hoped to mitigate her anger by
offering an apology.
• The lawyer tried
to mitigate the
circumstances of his client's
crime so the punishment or
penalty would be reduced
• There's no way
to mitigate the effect of that
unfavorable report.
• The government hopes the
tax break will mitigate
unemployment by allowing
big companies to hire more
• (v.) to rob of goods by
open force (as in war),
plunder; (n.) the act of
looting; booty
After the riots, looters
• SYN: (v.) ravage,
began to pillage the
sack, loot; (n.) booty
Ex. The commanding officer warned his troops
not to pillage the conquered city.
• The general was a
decent man and did not
allow any of his soldiers
to pillage items from
towns they invaded.
• Without a leader, the
troops took the
opportunity to pillage
gold coins and jewelry
from every town through
which they travelled.
• (v.) to talk a great deal
in a foolish or aimless
• SYN: chatter, prattle,
blab, blabber, palaver
• ANT: come to the
point, not waste words
My boss sometimes
prates aimlessly in meetings.
Ex. He would prate endlessly about the past but
say nothing useful about our present dilemma.
• The detective often
picked up some clues
about criminal cases
by listening to
the prate at the local
• After she got home
from school, she did
nothing but prate on
the phone for hours.
• (adj.) very careful and exact,
attentive to fine points of
etiquette or propriety
• SYN: precise, scrupulous,
exacting, fussy, finicky
• ANT: careless, negligent, lax,
• The soldier’s job required
exact attention to detail. He
should be punctilious.
Ex. The clerk was so punctilious in obeying
court rules that I had to remind him why I was
• I attended a strict
military school where
punctilious behavior
was required at all times.
While I enjoy
cleanliness, I am not so
punctilious that I get
upset about a little dust
on my furniture.
• Pharmacists must be
very punctilious
because the actions they
take could result in
• (adj.) inspiring fear or
awe; illustrious,
• SYN: formidable,
fearsome, awesome,
• ANT: laughable,
risible, contemptible
The people felt as if it was
time for their redoubtable
leader to step down.
Ex. As a ruler he was redoubtable ,but, like
all such rulers ,he was not much loved.
• When the scrawny high school
wrestler saw his redoubtable
two hundred pound competitor,
he fainted.
• Ben knew it would take him
several weeks to complete the
redoubtable task assigned to
him by his manager.
• A reward is being offered for
information that leads to the
capture of the redoubtable
mobster who has been on the
run for fifteen years.
• (v.) to find fault with,
scold, rebuke
• SYN: chide,
chastise, upbraid,
• ANT: praise,
commend, laud, pat
on the back
The teacher reproved
her students for
Ex. She reproved her staff for having followed
orders blindly.
• During the trial, the
defense attorney went out
of his way to loudly
reprove every statement
made by the prosecution
• As a voter, I have the right
to reprove the politician’s
policies that are not in my
best interest.
• Margaret is going to
reprove her son’s
decision to drop out of high
• (n.) the act of restoring
someone or something to the
rightful owner or to a former
state or position; making good
on a loss or damage
The teen was ordered by
• SYN: compensation,
the judge to provide
reimbursement, redress,
restitution for the property
that he destroyed.
Ex. They made restitution for the damage to
the car but never fully regained the
friendship of its owner.
• Since I was in the car but not the driver, I do not believe I should have to
pay restitution to the hit-and-run victim.
• After Marvin vandalized the school by breaking the library window, he was
ordered to pay restitution in the sum of three thousand dollars.
• Although Janice made restitution for damaging my car, she and I are no
longer the best of friends.
• As part of his restitution, the teenage vandal had to rebuild the fence he
• (adj.) strong and sturdy;
brave; resolute; (n.) a brave,
strong person; a strong
supporter; one who takes an
uncompromising position
• SYN: (adj.) sturdy, stout,
intrepid, valiant; (n.) mainstay • She will be a stalwart
addition to our committee
• ANT: (adj.) weak, infirm,
based on her past voting
irresolute, vacillating
Ex. She became as stalwarts on the basketball
court as she was quick at mathematical puzzles.
• When the king was
accompanied by his
stalwart bodyguards,
he felt safe walking
among his people.
• As a stalwart follower
of the Democratic
Party, I agree to vote
for the party’s
presidential candidate.
• (adj.) open to attack;
capable of being
wounded or damaged;
• SYN: defenseless,
exposed, unguarded
• ANT: invincible,
protected, safe, secure
• With so many homes built
close to the water, the
town was vulnerable to
Ex. Those brave enough to have opposed the
dictator’s rise now found themselves in a
vulnerable position.
Kids are more vulnerable
to catch diseases than
• Jackie was quite
vulnerable and broke out in tears
when friends would mention her late husband who died
just a few weeks before.
• Without some type of shade, my toddler is going to be
extremely vulnerable to the sun.
• The poorly built castle was vulnerable to attack.