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```Electronics
Principles &amp; Applications
Sixth Edition
Charles A. Schuler
Chapter 1
Introduction
(student version)
&copy;2003
Glencoe/McGraw-Hill
INTRODUCTION
• History
• Digital or Analog
• Analog Functions
• Circuits with Both DC and AC
• Trends
Dear Student:
This presentation is arranged in segments.
Each segment is preceded by a Concept
Preview slide and is followed by a Concept
Review slide. When you reach a Concept
Review slide, you can return to the
beginning of that segment by clicking on the
Repeat Segment button. This will allow you
to view that segment again, if you want to.
History
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
1899
1901
1906
1943
1947
1958
1971
1982
Discovery of the Electron
Radio
Vacuum Tube
First Computer
Transistor
Integrated Circuit
Microprocessor
Single Chip DSP
Concept Preview
• The world of electronics can be divided into
digital or analog.
• Analog signals come from nature and from
physical systems.
• Analog signals have an infinite variety of
levels.
• Digital signals usually have only two levels.
• Digital signals are often represented as binary
numbers.
• A/D and D/A conversions are commonplace.
An infinite number of levels
ANALOG
2 levels
DIGITAL
ANALOG
(non-linear)
Binary numbers
Analog in … digital out
A/D
converter
01101110
11001000
11000010
01101110
00001110
00001001
01101110
Digital in … analog out
01101110
11001000
11000010
01101110
00001110
00001001
01101110
D/A
converter
00000000
11111111
10000000
D/A
converter
Electronic Circuit Quiz
The output of a typical digital circuit
has _________ states or levels.
two
The output of a typical analog circuit
has ________ states or levels.
infinite
Linear electronic circuits are in the
category called ____________.
analog
An analog circuit with some distortion
can be called ________.
non-linear
An analog signal can be changed to a
numerical format by an ____________.
A/D converter
Concept Review
• The world of electronics can be divided into
digital or analog.
• Analog signals come from nature and from
physical systems.
• Analog signals have an infinite variety of levels.
• Digital signals usually have only two levels.
• Digital signals are often represented as binary
numbers.
• A/D and D/A conversions are commonplace.
Repeat Segment
ANALOG ELECTRONIC FUNCTIONS
Oscillator
Controller
Divider
Adder
Switch
Clipper
Amplifier
Detector
Mixer
Filter
Subtractor
Comparator
Converter
Regulator
Attenuator
Rectifier
Multiplier
Concept Preview
• Many circuits and signals have both ac and
dc components.
• Capacitors can couple ac signals from one
point to another.
• Coupling capacitors have low reactance at
the signal frequency.
• Capacitors block dc since they have infinite
reactance at 0 Hz.
• Bypass capacitors remove the ac
component.
• Bypass capacitors have one lead grounded.
Many circuits are a mix of ac and dc.
10 V
10 V
10 kW
3.3 kW 1 mF
10 VP-P
10 kHz
0V
1 mF
10 kW
10 kW
+5 V
0V
10 V
10 kW
3.3 kW 1 mF
10 VP-P
10 kHz
-5 V
1 mF
10 kW
10 kW
Note the loss in ac
amplitude due to
the drop across
the 3.3 kW resistor.
10 V
0V
10 kW
3.3 kW 1 mF
10 VP-P
10 kHz
1 mF
10 kW
10 kW
Note the combined
dc and ac.
+5 V
0V
10 V
10 kW
3.3 kW 1 mF
10 VP-P
10 kHz
1 mF
10 kW
10 kW
Note that the dc
signal is blocked
by the capacitor.
0V
10 V
10 kW
3.3 kW 1 mF
10 VP-P
10 kHz
1 mF
10 kW
10 kW
Bypass capacitors are used to eliminate the ac component.
+5 V
0V
10 V
10 kW
3.3 kW 1 mF
10 VP-P
10 kHz
10 kW
1 mF
Bypass capacitor
Capacitor/Resistor Quiz
A node in an electronic circuit can have
both dc and ac _________.
components
Capacitors support the flow of ac but
block ________.
dc
Resistors provide equal opposition to
both ____________.
dc and ac
When a capacitor is used to eliminate
ac at a node it is called a ________.
bypass
A blocking capacitor is used to eliminate
________ at a circuit node.
dc
Concept Review
• Many circuits and signals have both ac and dc
components.
• Capacitors can couple ac signals from one point
to another.
• Coupling capacitors have low reactance at the
signal frequency.
• Capacitors block dc since they have infinite
reactance at 0 Hz.
• Bypass capacitors remove the ac component.
• Bypass capacitors have one lead grounded.
Repeat Segment
Insertion Technology
Device leads pass through holes in the circuit board.
Solder
Surface Mount Technology
Solder
SOT-223
Chip resistor
Devices placed by automatic equipment
Circuit boards cost less (fewer holes)
Higher connection density
Smaller and less expensive products
Difficult to repair
Probing fine-pitch ICs is difficult without the right tools!
The “Wedge” probe
from Agilent makes
it possible to safely
connect to fine-pitch
SMT integrated circuits.
Photograph courtesy of Agilent Technologies
REVIEW
• History
• Digital or Analog
• Analog Functions
• Circuits with Both DC and AC
• Trends
```