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Dramaturgy Casebook Pt.4

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Andrew Kleopfer
Dr. Matt Foss
Theatre History I
3 May 2019
Dramaturgy Casebook Pt.4
In drafting my creative dramaturgical lens I have adapted a hybrid approach. In
Suzan-Lori Parks’ ​Possession, ​she advocates for knowing the “bones” of a play (Parks). She
speaks to the need to uncover the historical contexts and information that impact the given
circumstances of the play you are studying, writing or working on (Parks). I believe it is fair to
define what I know methodology to be. Methodology is a structuring of ideas that formulate a
practical plan dedicated to decision making. That is why I have chosen to look for many different
styles that work whilst analyzing dramatical texts. I find it helpful to pull from resources that are
credible to analyzing texts.. With this strategy I pick and choose multiple methods in that I don’t
become stuck in one methodology, but rather I pick points that serve a dramatic text efficiently.
I am using from Suzan-Lori Parks’ method of drafting her lens on working theatre like
an incubator to create new historical events (Parks). This is helpful in my approach to look at
how time in a dramatic text influences future events in terms of character and story. Looking at a
text I can unpack how a playwright writes time of story to flex character motivations. Their
through line of action becomes more clear based on how much time they have, to do what it is
they are called to do. A pattern of structure that I am using as well by Parks is her process of
examining the bones of the dramatic texts she works with in ​Possession​ (Parks).To examine the
bones of a dramatic text requires rigorous investigation of given circumstances in the text.I am
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looking at the spine of the text and further evaluating what structural elements make the story
ebb and flow. Breaking it down in this manner gives me an edge in knowing what elements if
taken away, would have detrimental effects on the story as a whole. It is in this method that my
dramaturgical lense becomes anatomy surgically removing the core to find my answers. It is
very helpful in creating my methodology to look at Parks process of repetition and revision in
her essay ​Elements of Style a​ mongst a text (Parks). This method helps me identify how both
word and movement impact and affect both characters and playwrights. It is the psychological
that I am targeting in my approach with this. A character saying a certain word or phrase in
repetition gives context behind specific patterns among the text. While not all patterns are
helpful, they can be great tools to use in identifying a character’s actions in relation to their
through action. It helps to look at it from a “why does a character repeat the same action to
achieve what they want in the play” or, it could be a good place to start. I better identify with
what kind of communication the character is conveying and their motivation in relation to the
psychology of the play.
The second part of my dramaturgical methodology derives from the methods of Aristotle.
The approach to my methodology it is the infusion of Suzan-Lori Parks with Aristotle to create
my own method. Aristotle’s method of examining the “Why” of the play gives further analysis of
what events unify the plot (Aristotle). Looking at the why, whilst difficult for me to do, opens
my contextual view of character motivation in relation to the structural bones of the play
mentioned by Suzan Lori-Parks in ​Possession​ (Parks). This combination is character motivation
blended with rigorous examination of the given circumstances. In my examination I am looking
at a play piece by piece starting with plot. Aristotle’s definition of plot is “​The plot is the
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underlying principle of tragedy” (Aristotle). That being said he selects plot as the most important
element in his ​Poetics​ therefore, I put plot at the forefront. I am able to plug and play with
characters in the story to determine their relevance to the story’s mission using plot. Aristotle
describes in his ​Poetics​ that the characters drive the action of the story or plot written by the
playwright. I use this method by developing a through line of action for the characters to derive
their motives. This is in reference to the Stanislavski technique of acting in developing a through
line of action whilst examining the spine of the play. Another of Aristotle’s points in the ​Poetics
that I use in my dramaturgical lense that is helpful, is establishing the connection between
verisimilitude and mimesis in a play (Aristotle). I believe it is fair to define what my definitions
of verisimilitude and mimesis are to better communicate my strategy. Mimesis is the action and,
verisimilitude is the result of that action. A good mimetic work will feature verisimilitude in it’s
execution. Mimetic work is an attempt to portray reality to the audience member or viewer. That
being said finding the connection between terms, helps me to better identify not only what the
characters are going for, but what the playwright's theme is being presented. Examining the
relationship aids me with gauging how real or authentic a play is reaching for in a dramatic lense.
It is also fair to establish that whilst I agree with Aristotle that drama should be grounded in
reality, I believe the lack thereof also constitutes worthy discussion. I search for a lack thereof
reality to better constitute, or establish a playwright’s methodology. I would also like to note in
my approach that I find a fair balance of examining the playwright’s methodology. It is not
conducive to over examine a playwright’s meaning or reasoning behind why they wrote a piece.
My dramaturgical lense reflects this fair balance of taking things seriously in meaning but being
open to discussion about the why of examination in a play’s reasoning.My hybrid methodology
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will help me tackle the tough questions within a dramatic text as well as, aid in providing the
best possible information I can give.
Hugh Wheeler and Stephen Sondheim wrote ​Sweeney Todd​ in the year of 1979. This
adaptation was based off the 1973 play ​Sweeney Todd: The Demon Barber of Fleet Street​ by
Christopher Bond. ​Hugh Wheeler was born on March 19, 1912 in Hampstead, North London,
England as Hugh Callingham Wheeler (Fowler). He was a writer and actor, who wrote plays
such as ​Sweeney Todd, Cabaret​, and ​Travels with My Aunt. ​Wheeler’s aliases Patrick Quentin,
Jonathan Stagge and Q Patrick, and facts about him are hopelessly few, and it is speculated by
him remaining single and living privately (Fowler). Wheeler is known for his playwriting,
television writing, and screen playwriting. He emigrated to America at the age of 22 and, wrote
almost 40 novels. His “Puzzle” titled books became one of the best-loved series in the US and
several were produced as movies, including Black Widow (Fowler).Wheeler’s first production
he wrote was ​Big Fish, Little Fish ​where he later combined with with Stephen Sondheim, having
produced adaptations and books for ​A Little Night Music, Pacific Overtures and Sweeney Todd.
Wheeler opened ​Sweeney Todd​ with an immense front-drop of George Cruikshank's etching of
The British Beehive, showing the structure of the social classes within the empire (Fowler).
Stephen Sondheim is known for his stage works, which included ​A Funny Thing Happened on
the Way to the Forum​ (1962), ​West Side Story​ (1961), ​Into The Woods​ (1987), Assassins (1990),
and ​A Little Night Music​ (1973). Sondheim was born on March 22, 1930 where he studied piano
for two years while very young, and continued his interest in the musical stage throughout his
education. He befriended Hammerstein’s son George at the age of 15 where he studied
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extensively for four years together. It is with this musical experience that Sondheim derives his
earliest methodologies of mixing different styles of music. His friendship with Hammerstein
leads him to the door of professional theatre. Sondheim's experience with director/producer Hal
Prince proved to be a very successful pairing, having won Tony Awards for​ Sweeney Todd, Little
Night Musi​c and​ Company (​ Krulwich)​. H
​ is show Pacific Overtures (1976) used traditional
Japanese theater elements brought to the American theatre. In 1984, Sondheim eventually pairs
himself with James Lapine on multiple productions such as, Sunday in the Park with George.
We must understand the given circumstances of not only the world of​ Sweeney Todd​, but
also the circumstances coming from the playwright to cultivate the unique world that is
Sweeney Todd b​ oth​ ​stylistically and lyrically. This story must be handled by those who are trying
to communicate the raw energy of the world, and the decisions people often make for the good of
their own best life. ​The world of Sondheim is one of unique stylistic choices of music coupled
with composition written for the actor. When you combine this with the lyricism of Hugh
Wheeler, you get a team dedicated to writing in service of the actor that is Sweeney Todd. While
Wheeler is a Tony award winning playwright, he is one that many don’t always associate with
Sondheim's success. Sondheim and Wheeler as a collective have teamed up to create not only
Sweeney Todd,​ but ​A Little Night Music ​two of Sondheim’s most well known plays. As a director
one needs to know that empathy can be expressed in multiple, unique ways due to the chaotic
nature behind ​Sweeney Todd​.
When dealing with ​Sweeney Todd o​ ne must look at these given circumstances to the
world of the play. The play is set in Victorian London 1846 and with the middle 1800’s comes a
great amount of contextual information. In 1840 British colonization is beginning to be executed
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in New Zealand and we see in 1844 Morse’s first electronic telegram being executed. Queen
Victoria ascends the throne in 1837 and Britain takes Hong Kong in 1842. Britain at this time is
going through a time period of change with Queen Victoria ascending the throne, launching
complete British takeover, and making Britain a powerhouse of military conflict in this time
period. The economic/ class system in Victorian London is a mix of classes that are more or
less distinct social groupings which at any given historical period, taken as a whole, constituted
British Society. Different social classes can be (and were by the classes themselves)
distinguished by inequalities in such areas as power, authority, wealth, working and​ living
conditions​, life-styles, life-span, education, religion, and culture (Cody). In reference to the text
on page 23 of the text there is a stage direction of having a honeycombed drop that depicts the
class system of England during Sweeney Todd. This direction is important for the audience’s
understanding of a class shift in England in this imaginary world of the text. The increasingly
powerful (and class conscious) middle classes, however, undertook organized agitation to
remedy this situation: the passage of the​ Reform Act​ of 1832 and the abolition of the​ Corn Laws
in 1846 were intimations of the extent to which they would ultimately be successful (Cody). The
working classes, however, remained shut out from the political process, and became increasingly
hostile not only to the aristocracy but to the middle classes as well (Cody). With the invention of
the middle class we see a distinction of classes that lead the people of England to a feeling of
inadequacy and division amongst her people. Hal Prince’s production in 1979 was modeled the
steel factory image of the Industrial Revolution, pumping out the darkness and isolation of the
world that is ​Sweeney Todd.​ The industrial revolution showed the feeling of defeat and
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hopelessness that is represented through the characters of Sweeney Todd especially Sweeney
Todd himself.
One of the given circumstances that are of the greatest importance from the text to the
action/conflict of the play is the honey combed designed drop that is placed center stage. This is
of great importance to depict the world we are living in during ​Sweeney Todd a​ nd the social caste
system that was in place. The depiction is important to the action of the play because different
social casting impacts character motivation/feeling toward other characters. For example, in the
text the beggar woman who turns out to be Lucy is completely beneath the ground to characters
of the play due to her disturbed presence, even to characters such as, Mrs. Lovett who comes
from poverty herself. At the beginning of act two with her growing prosperity Mrs. Lovett has a
strong attempt to shoo away the beggar woman “Toby throw the old woman out” as she is
cultivating her new empire (Sweeney Todd 144). Even Todd who has been driven so mad over
losing his family is so possessed by revenge that he kills his own wife (beggar woman). He has
established power in the caste system and decides the beggar woman is another product of a dead
society and that she will go with it. Todd kills the Beggar Woman because she recognizes him.
The next important given circumstance is the architecture of Mrs. Lovett’s Pieshop. The set up is
described in the text as “We see Mrs. Lovett’s pieshop. Above is an empty apartment which is
reached by an outside staircase.” (Sweeney Todd 33). The importance of the structuring in the
pieshop is that many of the characters, most importantly Todd himself uses the upstairs barber
chair to derive the mechanical chute that he sends his victims down to Mrs. Lovett for her to
make her pies. Todd most importantly though uses the apartment upstairs coupled with his own
barber skills to lure both, Beadle and Judge Turpin to kill them for them capturing Johanna
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further developing his character motivation in the structure. The pieshop/tonsorial also, provides
the place of death for a majority of characters and serves as a place for the action to occur. So, at
the most when producing ​Sweeney Todd​ we need to see some form or another of an architectural
structure that represents top and bottom. This could be for example, a pie factory with an upstairs
meeting room to serve as the barber shop. The set up of St. Dunstans Marketplace is a key
driving setting in the given circumstances that propels the overarching conflict forward. St.
Dunstans Marketplace serves as the battleground for Todd and Pirelli to have their “shave off” in
order for Todd to obtain more clients for his barbershop “By tomorrow they’ll all be flocking
after me like sheep to be shorn” (Sweeney Todd 50). This meeting place is important because
Todd needs to gain popularity in his barbershop in order for Judge Turpin and Beadle to be
drawn to it. This meeting between barbers immediately draws in Beadle who serves as the judge
of the competition. Beadle’s interaction here at the meeting sparks the interest for both Judge
Turpin and himself to flock to the barbershop by Todd winning Beadle’s respect “Then Mr. Todd
, you will surely see me there before the week is out.” (Sweeney Todd 67). In the opening of act
two the text reveals customers singing with an immediate following of stage direction “God,
that’s good that is delicious!, During the following a huge crate appears high on a crane and
moves slowly downstage to the tonsorial parlor.” (Sweeney Todd 147). This crate containing an
elaborate barber chair is non-negotiable in terms of importance. This chair serves as Sweeney
Todd’s tool of killing when he is executing the action of the play. The chair has a special lever,
that when pulled drops down the victims of the killing into the kitchen of Mrs. Lovett’s Pieshop
downstairs for her to use the meat in the pies. Todd uses two very specific razors for his barber
work throughout the show and they are of importance to the action of the play. The text states on
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pages 41-43 that Todd has two razors one small and one rather large that are chased silver. These
razors are described as being his friends “These are my friends. See how they glisten.” (Sweeney
Todd 41) and the play cannot live without their presence. The razors serve as a tool to execute
Todd’s plan of enacting revenge upon Beadle and Turpin. It is important to note the nature of
what kind of blades they are and how they function in 18th century Europe. To Chas a blade is
The opposite of embossing, or​ repoussé​, in which the metal is worked from the back to give a
higher relief. Flat chasing, involves hammering with small, blunt tools to give a low-relief
ornamentation. This was popular for silver decoration in Europe in the early 18th century and
was widely used in the United States during the second half of the same century.
The unique world of​ Sweeney Todd i​ s one of a hopeless, and incredibly dark outlook on
the world. While there are dark outlooks in this world there are also, points of pure humanity or
glimmers of optimism, or hope. The world is late 18th, early 19th century London, struggling
immensely in a social caste divide where the inhabitants of the world are fighting to define their
best version of life in such a dark world. London saw immense population growth in a short
period of time, the Industrial Revolution, and the rapid expansion/colonization of Britain as a
military threat. Characters in this world are trying to make sense of so many shifts in societal
norms and ways of life. Todd specifically is killing people who took away his version of a
perfect life as Benjamin Barker with his wife and daughter Lucy, and Johanna. The characters
see an absolute filth of the world around them and are making the best of their conditions. Mrs.
Lovett is impoverished, dirty, and starving, yet fighting to survive and thrive in the pie market of
London whilst finding love in Todd’s eyes. Lovett finding love in Todd’s eyes serves to help her
achieve her perfect life “I’ve always had a dream- ever since I was a skinny little slip of a thing
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and my rich Aunt Nettie used to take me to the seaside August Bank Holiday… the pier…
making little castles in the sand. I can feel me toes wiggling around in the briny.” (Sweeney
Todd 164). This interaction of both Lovett and Todd finding their best version of life is
interesting to look into, due to the nature of both being a conflicting scenario. Lovett’s perfect
life involves Todd, and Todd’s perfect life involves finding his wife and daughter which can be
an interesting obstacle to play the distinction. These two characters’ fates inevitably are
conflicting from their first meeting and this catalyzes in the “oven” and is met in the finale of the
show. The world is looking optimistic for both until we see this revealing of Lovett knowing
Lucy was in fact the beggar woman the whole story. This turns the audience right back to the
darkness of the world when Todd unleashes his killing toward a great deal of characters
including Lovett and almost Johanna. This examination of finding the perfect life for both
characters upends both in that there search only led to death for both which can be an interesting
development of the character arch.
It will be an important step in cultivating this pursuit of the action in the play by
establishing a brief timeline of events. The year is 1846, when Benjamin Barker and Anthony
arrive by boat with their pilot to London. Todd arrives at Mrs. Lovett’s Pieshop on Fleet Street
in London seeking revenge for his imprisonment and the abduction of his wife Lucy, and
daughter Johanna. Lucy poisons herself in an attempt to escape, but fails in this attempt and is
brought to insanity. Mrs. Lovett and Todd enter into an agreement or business deal that entails
Todd killing the people he shaves whilst Lovett uses the human meat to make her pies taste
better in her shop. Anthony the sailor falls in love with Todd’s daughter Johanna and attempts to
court her love. The two eventually plan to elope and run away together by shipping out on a
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Sunday where Anthony saves Johanna from Turpin. Todd enters into a “shave off” with Adolfo
Pirelli to see who can give the closest shave. It is in this battle that Todd is a two time winner and
gains prosperity in his business drawing in Beadle and Turpin. Todd kills Pirelli to prevent Pirelli
from identifying who Todd really is. Todd and Lovett eventually fall in love with each other
only to be upended by Lovett revealing she knew where Todd’s wife Lucy was the whole time.
At the end of the play, Todd finally gets his revenge by killing Turpin, but then unknowingly
kills his own wife, whom Mrs. Lovett had misled him into believing had died. He kills Mrs.
Lovett, and allows his assistant Tobias Ragg to slit his throat for the events that have occured.
Todd successfully kills off Beadle, Turpin, Pirelli, Mrs. Lovett, and his own wife Lucy whilst,
also almost killing his daughter Johanna.
In reference to major productions that are present for ​Sweeney Todd t​ he original
production is a great resource. This production was launched in New York City at the Uris
Theatre (presently known as the Gershwin Theatre) on March 1st, 1979 and closed on June 29th,
1980 after 557 performances and 19 previews. This production won awards including Best
musical (Sondheim), best book of a musical by Hugh Wheeler, Best actor and actress in a
musical (Len Cariou, and Angela Lansbury). This production even won the New York Drama
Critics Circle Award for best musical. Sweeney Todd is first presented in London at the Theatre
Royal Drury Lane on July 2nd, 1980. The show ran for 157 performances at the Theatre Royal
Drury Lane. The production won the London Standard Drama Award. Rewards were also given
out by the Society of West End Theatre Awards for best Actor in a musical (Denis Quilley), a
best musical award, and a nomination for Sheila Hancock for best Actress in a musical. The first
operatic version of Sweeney Todd happens in 1984, but the first place to do the show in Opera is
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The Houston Grand Opera with direction from David Gockley and musical direction from John
DeMain.This performance was at the Jones Hall for the Performing Art, Houston Texas on June
14-17 and 19-24 for 10 performances in total.
I am attaching a list of workable citations that will help your efforts in understanding the
world that ​Sweeney Todd​ is in Victorian London. There are also citations to some of the original
productions of ​Sweeney Todd​ that may prove useful to you in your efforts to create your own
unique world that is ​Sweeney Todd.​ The final three citations are to cite the original performances
mentioned in this piece.
My proposal for the final project is to take the methods of research and rigorous
investigation of Suzan Lori Parks and Aristotle, and cultivate/create a directing narrative created
in service to the text to create my adaptation of the world as I see Sweeney Todd. In this
narrative I propose crafting a design plan of the world (Set, costuming, staging) I will create
based on the given circumstances, that I have read in the text as evidence. My practical approach
combines creating the unique world of Sweeney Todd in narrative format and creating the visual
enhancements to show a kinestic mold of the unique world I am creating. The design will be
what I have always envisioned the world of Sweeney Todd to be, with functionality that serves
both the actors, creative team, and collaborators. This mold will encompass the idea by Imagine
Nation of their stage around invention. The design will include four different stages where the
audience will be placed in a center seating mold that rotates to these four distinct locations.
Theses stages for reference will be large designed garages that hold the massive stages to carry
set and structural elements. The first stage will serve as Mrs. Lovett’s pie shop with the tonsorial
parlor upstairs for Sweeney Todd. This composition will include an elaborate parlor chair. The
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parlor chair will then have a functioning lever that when deployed will rotate a full 360 degrees
leading to a slide/chute. The slide leads down to a dark reinforced room behind the kitchen of the
pie shop with foam squares to protect actors from harm. Fleet Street will be present on all stages
with the idea being the street leads into every stage when it rotates. The first stage will have St.
Dunstans clock as a backdrop piece of Victorian London. The second stage will feature Judge
Turpin’s mansion with the alleyway leading into his house. The third stage is shown as St.
Dunstans marketplace for Todd and Pirelli’s duel. The marketplace will display St. Dunstans
clock with a barrage of caravans in the style of sicilian donkey carts, Pirelli’s being the most
distinct center stage. The fourth stage will feature will serve as the water that Anthony and Todd
sail in on that leads into the docks of the industrial city of Victorian London on Fleet Street.
On stage four imagine a sailor who introduces the show dressed in a blue sailor’s uniform
head to toe in a blue and white pinstripe breton shirt with matching pants underneath and a black
brimmed fashioned hat sailing in on a rowboat in actual coursing water on the stage. In the
backdrop of the coursing water on stage is seen a large Three Masted Schooner ship which he
branches off of in the scene to the rowboat. He is accompanied by a dark and rugged looking
Sweeney Todd whose messy, curly hair and mutton chops are dressed head to toe in a long black
trench coat with a red handkerchief around his neck, a green and white striped button up shirt
with brown suspenders, a leather wrist cuff with accompanying leather belt, and grey tweed
pants with brown patches over the knees. The rowboat sails into a small wooden dock that serves
as a transition point. They sail into Fleet Street transitioning into stage one a dark and garbage
infested Victorian London street that has a green fog that cases the streets ground and a grey
stormy sky. The backdrop of the scene features a wooden replica of St.Dunstans clock that is lit
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as a bright amber color. There are small digitally programmed rats that scurry in out of corners
and crevices of the street. Up the road we see Mrs. Lovett’s Pie Shop a two story gray brick
building that has holes in the siding and bricks that are falling off or also, hanging off the
structure. The upstairs has a long creaky cast ironed winding staircase that leads up the apartment
displaying a heavy rusted metal door with cobwebs. The pieshop itself has a decaying pine wood
floor and some small wood tables with accompanying wooden stools. The atmosphere is toxic
with flies flying around the kitchen area (which is a small metal counter on wheels, and a mossy
brick fire oven) and flour all over the counter and floors themselves. The ceiling has dusty
lanterns barely hanging from their string. There are moldy pies in tin trays that encompass the
space and garbage cans filled with trash to the brim. This space transforms in Act 2 to an
elaborately clean beautifully organized/ stocked kitchenette and tables/stools made of mahogany,
with a large stone fired oven with a black gate on the entrance. The new space has lanterns that
hang from the ceiling from the original space, but are polished of their dust and pulled taught.
The outside of the tonsorial parlor/ pieshop is an elaborate garden with living plants of
hydrangeas, roses, and daisies coupled with clean white metal tables. There will be a blue metal
gate encompassing the garden with a statuette fountain of Queen Victoria made with a look of
marble serving as the center of the garden outside.
The audience is then turned automatically to stage two where they will see a large brown
and grey brick Victorian style mansion with grey fog surrounding Fleet Street. The front of the
mansion will have a rectangular archway with gargoyles on both corners of the arch. The
windows of the mansion are stained glass and fashioned to swing open. Paper and garbage line
Fleet Street leading up to the mansion. There is a balcony on the second floor for Johanna to
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walk out upon to greet Anthony. Johanna will have three costumes featuring a long ​White
Muslin/Linen Day Dress for inside Turpin’s mansion, a Blue silk victorian dress for Anthony’s
first encounter of her, and a blue sailor’s uniform jacket over the muslin dress for when she runs
off with Anthony. Johanna’s hair will be long and yellow as corn fashioned to be worn down
almost like a Rapunzel style, but not as long. In the staging we also see a small bicycle with a
basket on the front filled with caged songbirds. The Beggar Woman/Lucy is wearing a thick
layering of distressed brown skirts coupled with a dirty apron, blouse, and a black wool
blanket/shroud to be placed over her back. In flashback scenes Lucy will be dressed in an
eloquent green tea party gown styled dress.
The audience will once again be rotated to stage three which will display the duel scenes
with Pirelli and Todd.​ The marketplace will display St. Dunstans clock lit up amber, with a
barrage of caravans in the style of sicilian donkey carts, Pirelli’s being the most distinct center
stage. The ground of the market will be littered with broken up hay and spread across the ground
of Fleet Street. The hay barrels will be present around many of the Sicilian Donkey Carts. The
carts themselves will be lined with a muslin fabric covering to make arches that would cover the
carts, with the purpose being to be able to label Pirelli’s cart distinctively. There will be a
distressed grey wooden crate in the middle of the stage to serve as Tobias’ platform of speech
acting like a soapbox. Tobias is a peasant and will have a dark green vest, green half fingered
gloves, black suspenders, a red and white striped shirt, dirty pants, shoes with holes in them, a
red wig, and will be carrying a tin drum with a strap in scenes such as St. Dunstans Marketplace.
Adolfo Pirelli the Italian barber will be dressed in an Italian purple suit, yellow scarf, yellow
shirt, and a green cape. The Judge Turpin will have two costumes; a black judges robe for when
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he is home in the mansion and a Black frock coat, golden vest underneath, black scarf, and grey
trousers for when he is travelling. Mrs. Lovett will have multiple costumes as well displaying in
Act 1 an army green blouse with a black and red skirt. She will have a white apron for the
kitchen scenes, and a red/white/blue styled swimsuit in the victorian era for the “Down By The
Sea” song. I am attaching pictures of reference for the costuming of this show with all of the
above characters mentioned.
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Works Cited
David Cody. “Social Class.” ​Social Class​, Hartwick College , 28 May 2018,
Fowler, Christopher. ​“Forgotten Authors No. 55: Hugh Wheeler.” ​The Independent,
Independent Digital News and Media, 23 Oct. 2011
York Times, The New York Times, 28 July 1987,
Parks, Suzan-Lori. “From Elements of Style.” The America Play and Other Works. New
York: Theatre Communications Group, 1995. 6-12, 15-17.
Parks, Suzan-Lori. “Possession.” The America Play and other works. New York:
Theatre Communications Group, 1995. 4, 5.
Aristotle. Aristotle's Poetics. New York :Hill and Wang, 1961. Print.
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Sondheim, Stephen​, et al. Sweeney Todd, the Demon Barber of FleetStreet: a Musical
Thriller. D
​ odd, Mead, 1979.
Sweeney Todd: The Demon Barber of Fleet Street. S
​ tephen Sondheim and Hugh
Wheeler, directed by Harold Prince, performances by Len Cariou and Angela Lansbury, Uris
Theatre Company, 1 Mar. 1979, Uris Theatre, New York.
Sweeney Todd: The Demon Barber of Fleet Street. S
​ tephen Sondheim and Hugh
Wheeler, directed by Harold Prince, performances by Denis Quilley and Sheila Hancock, 2 July.
1980, Theatre Royal Drury Lane, London.
Sweeney Todd: The Demon Barber of Fleet Street. S
​ tephen Sondheim and Hugh
Wheeler, directed by David Gockley and John Demain, performances by Timothy Nolen and
Joyce Castle, Houston Grand Opera, 14-24 June. 1984, Jones Hall for the performing Arts,
The New York Times, Sara Krulwich. “No Want for Laurels.” ​The New York Times​, The
New York Times, 26 Sept. 2013,
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