Muhamad Yulianto (1606882830) – Teknik Kimia Reguler (Tugas KPM 2) Chapter 5 (Situation Analysis) –Exercises Nomor 2 The Long Commute. The Adams family of four live east of Los Angeles in a middle- class community. Tom Adams' commute to work is 45 miles each way to downtown L. A. and he is not in a car or van pool. He has been thinking about changing to a job closer to his home but has been working for over a year on a project that, if successfully completed, could lead to a major promotion. Unfortunately, there is a major defect in the product which has yet to be located and corrected. Tom must solve the problem in the very near future because the delivery date promised to potential customers is a month away. Tom's financial security is heavily dependent on this promotion because of rising costs at home. Both children need braces for their teeth, he is in need of a new car (it broke down twice on the freeway this past fall), the house is in need of painting, and there is a water leak in the basement that he has not been able to repair. Sarah, Tom's wife, a mechanical engineer, has been considering getting a part-time job, but there are no engineering jobs available in the community. Full-time positions are available in Northern L. A., but this would pose major problems with respect to chauffeuring and managing the children. There are a couple of day-care centers in the community, but rumor has it they are very substandard. In addition, last year, their son, Alex was accepted as a new student by the premier piano teacher in the area and there is no public transportation from their home to his studio. Melissa is very sad at the thought of giving up her YMCA swimming team and her girl scout troop, which both meet after school. Carryout a K. T. Situation Analysis on the Adams family's predicaments. Answer : Problem Long commute to work Timing (H, M, L) M His car is not currently broken down. H His car could eventually break down. H Loss of job. H If completed he will get a raise which could solve his problems. H He could lose promotion and job if not completed. H He could lose his job and potentially his wife and kids. Next Process (PA, DA, PPA) DA If his car does break down what will he decide to do for alternatives? PPA If doesn’t get the promotion could possibly get a closer job. H M H DA L L M DA H H H PPA L L L DA M M H PA Subproblem 45 mile commute; not in car pool. Promotion Project completion for raise. Financial security or rising cost at home No promotion and project fails Children need braces Tom needs a new car House needs paint Leak in basement Trend (H, M, L) Impact (H, M, L) Muhamad Yulianto (1606882830) – Teknik Kimia Reguler (Tugas KPM 2) Jobs available further from home Alex was accepted to a piano class. No jobs available for Sarah in their community Would make managing kids hard H M H PPA To far away and no public transportation L L M DA L L M PPA Melissa will not be able to stay with swim team and Girl Scouts Chapter 5 (Problem Analysis) – Exercises Nomor 4 Off-Color Tooth Paste. After CrestTM tooth paste had been on the market for some time, Procter & Gamble, its manufacturer, decided to offer a mint- flavored version in addition to the original, wintergreen-flavored product. In the course of developing the new mint-flavored product, a test batch of mint product was produced by the same pilot unit used to produce wintergreen-flavored product. The pilot equipment uses a tank and impeller device to mix the mint flavor essence with the rest of the ingredients to form the finished product (which is a very viscous solution). Some of the pilot plant product was packed into the familiar collapsible tubes for further testing. Tubes used in testing the mint flavor were identical to those used for the wintergreen-flavored product. In the packing operation, toothpaste is pumped through lines into the as-yet unsealed ends of brand new tubes. After filling, the open tube ends are heat-sealed. The packing operation is illustrated in the figure. Muhamad Yulianto (1606882830) – Teknik Kimia Reguler (Tugas KPM 2) To assess storage stability, some of the filled tubes were randomly separated into several groups and each group was stored in a constant temperature room. Storage temperatures varied from 40°F to 120°F. Early sampling of the stored product showed nothing unusual, However, several months test, a technician preparing to test the product from one of the stored tubes noted that the first 1/4" of paste squeezed onto a toothbrush was off-color. The rest of the product in the tube met the color specification. Nothing like this had ever been seen with the original formula. Further testing showed that one had to squeeze more product out of those tubes that had been stored at higher temperatures and/or stored for longer times before a product that met color specs would exit the mouth of the tooth paste tube. Tubes stored for a period of time at 40°F contained no off-color product while tubes stored for the same length of time at higher temperatures produced offcolor ppste. The only exception to these results was a single tube, stored above 40°F. A leakage of offcolor product was found around the base of the cap on this tube, but the product inside the tube met color specs. While other tests showed the off-color product to be safe and effective in cleaning teeth, consumers clearly would not accept a color change in a product expected to have the same color from the first squeeze to the last. Moreover, such a change could have been an early warning of more serious problems to come. This phenomenon had to be understood and eliminated before the new flavor could be marketed. Accordingly, various possible remedies were tested: caps and tubes made of different materials, different mixing methods, etc. None of these had any effect on the off-color problem. All raw materials, including the new mint flavor essence, were checked and found to meet specs. A subsequent batch of the wintergreen product was made and tested for storage stability, and as usual, no off-color problems occurred. Carry out a K. T. Problem Analysis to learn the cause of the off-color tooth paste. Answer : IS IS NOT Distinction Probable cause Mint toothpaste Wintergreen Different Contents in mint What toothpaste chemical contents flavor react to in flavors form off-color product The part closest to The part closest to Mint flavor Where Exposure to air the cap the end of the essence reacts close to the cap tube with air After some time Immediately after Time The amount of When of storage filling tubes, and reated component after a short time is cependent upon of storage time At higher storage At low storage Temperature Reaction varies temperature temperature with temperature In all tube but one Inside leaking Toothpaste inside Air reacts with Extend tube leaking tube not chemical in Mint exposed to air flavoring at higher temperatures to cause off-color toothpaste Muhamad Yulianto (1606882830) – Teknik Kimia Reguler (Tugas KPM 2) Chapter 5 (Problem Analysis) – Exercises Nomor 6 Toxic Water. Sparkling mineral water is the primary product of Bubbles, Inc., based in France, which serves three major markets in Europe, North America, and Australia. The water is collected from a natural spring and filtered through a parallel array of three filter units, each containing two charcoal filters. The filtration process is needed to remove trace amounts of naturally occurring contaminants. The filtered water is stored in separate tank farms, one for each market, until it is transported by tanker truck to one of the three bottling plants that serve the company's markets. When the water arrives at the bottling plant, it is temporarily placed in 3500 m3 storage tanks until it can be carbonated to provide the effervescence that is the trademark of the producer. Some of the water is also flavored with lemon, cherry, or raspberry additives. The sparkling water is then packaged in a variety of bottle sizes and materials from 10 oz. glass bottles to 1 liter plastic bottles. The European market receives its shipments directly by truck, usually within three days. Product bound for North America or Australia is shipped first by truck to the waterfront and then by freighters to their overseas destinations. Business has been good for the last several months, with the North American and European markets demanding as much sparkling water as can be produced. This situation has required additional plastic bottle suppliers to keep up with the increased demand. It has also forced regularly scheduled maintenance for the Australian and North American markets to be delayed and rescheduled because of the high demand for the product. There is also, of course, a larger demand placed on the spring that supplies the mineral water for the process. Unfortunately, all news is not good for Bubbles, Inc. The bottling plant for the Australian market is currently several weeks behind schedule due to a shipment lost at sea. This catastrophe has required that water from the company's reserve springs, which are located many miles from the bottling plant, be used to augment the water supplied by the regular spring so that the bottling plant can operate at an even higher level of production. The availability of water from the reserve springs is hindered by their remoteness, but the water from these springs does not require filtration. In addition, contract negotiations are going badly and it appears there will be a strike at all of the bottling plants. Recent weather forecasts indicate that relief from the drought that has already lasted three months is not likely. Worst of all, the North American and Australian markets are complaining that all shipments of the sparkling water in the last six weeks have contained benzene in unacceptably high concentrations. You know that benzene is often used as an industrial solvent but is also found naturally. A quick survey of the bottling plant managers shows that the North American-bound products currently packaged and awaiting shipment have benzene concentrations in excess of acceptable concentrations, However, the managers of the bottling plants that service the Australian and European markets report that no significant level of benzene was detected in the bottles currently stored. The North American and Australian markets have already begun recalling the product, with the European market pressuring for a quick solution and threatening to recall products as a precautionary measure. (Adapted from Chemtech, "When the Bubble Burst, " p. 74, Feb. 1992) Carry out a K. T. Problem Analysis to learn the cause of the problem. Muhamad Yulianto (1606882830) – Teknik Kimia Reguler (Tugas KPM 2) Answer : WHAT WHERE WHEN EXTENT IS IS NOT Distinction Product contaminated Product Benzene is a with benzene contaminated with naturally occurring other chemicals compound filtered out from spring water and used as an industrial solvent Products distributed in Products Mode of transport & North America and distributed in Filter unit Australia Europe Storage Tanks North American Australian bound Reserve spring bound products still at products still in bottling plant inventory North American European bound Filter unit bound products still at products still at bottling plant bottling plant All containers Specific containers Filter unit After Increased Before the demand Maintenance Demand, and product spike for sparkling interrupted and contamination water maintenance stopped discovered possible on the tanks; contaminated reserve Australian line spring used by diluting regular Aussies. spring water with reserve spring water Bottling plant for Bottling plants for Location of the North American European or plants or plants with bound product or Australian bound seemingly different American Water product procedures Probable Cause Benzene was being introduced into North American and Australian bottling plants Maintenance schedule interrupted Reserve spring water not naturally contaminated Maintenance schedule interrupted Not container Only filters for European bottling line changed Only filters for European bottling line changed Basically, normal maintenance ont the filter units was put on the back burner or was interrupted due to increased demand and production of the sparkling mineral water. As a result, only the filters for the European bottling line were replaced. This basically led to the ruin of the Americans water product due to the lack of filtration of benzene in the water. Benzene levels in the North American and Australian lines to begin to rise as the filters became less effective and eventually ruined the product. Since the Aussies cut their water with their water that required no filtration (water from the regular spring) with benzene-free water from the reserve spring, in basically watered down the level of benzene.