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Guided Reading and Review Workbook

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Guided Reading
and Review Workbook
● Learn strategies for success in reading,
●
●
testing, and writing for assessment
Create your own study guide as you read
Review main ideas and key terms
Guided Reading and
Review Workbook
Needham, Massachusetts
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey
Glenview, Illinois
Copyright © by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River,
New Jersey 07458. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. This publication is protected
by copyright, and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,
recording, or likewise. The publisher hereby grants permission to reproduce these pages, in part
or in whole, for classroom use only, the number not to exceed the number of students in each class. Notice of
copyright must appear on all copies. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions
Department.
ISBN 0-13-067959-3
21 22 23 24 V011 14 13 12 11
TA
B L E
O F
CONTENTS
Student Success Handbook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Unit 1 Foundations of American Government
Chapter 1 Principles of Government
Chapter 3 The Constitution
Section 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Section 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Section 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Section 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Section 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Section 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Chapter 2 Origins of American Government
Chapter 4 Federalism
Section 1
Section 2
Section 3
Section 4
Section 5
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20
21
22
23
24
Section 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Section 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Section 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Unit 2 Political Behavior: Government by the People
Chapter 5 Political Parties
Chapter 7 The Electoral Process
Section 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Section 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Section 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Section 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Section 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Section 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Chapter 8 Mass Media and Public Opinion
Section 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Section 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Section 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Section 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Section 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Chapter 6 Voters and Voter Behavior
Section 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Chapter 9 Interest Groups
Section 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Section 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Section 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Section 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Section 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
© Pearson Education, Inc.
Section 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Unit 3 The Legislative Branch
Chapter 10 Congress
Section 1
Section 2
Section 3
Section 4
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Chapter 12 Congress in Action
49
50
51
52
Chapter 11 Powers of Congress
Section 1
Section 2
Section 3
Section 4
Section 5
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53
54
55
56
57
Section 1
Section 2
Section 3
Section 4
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58
59
60
61
Unit 4 The Executive Branch
Chapter 13 The Presidency
Section 1
Section 2
Section 3
Section 4
Section 5
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Chapter 16 Financing Government
62
63
64
65
66
Chapter 14 The Presidency in Action
Section 1
Section 2
Section 3
Section 4
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67
68
69
70
Section 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
Section 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Section 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
Chapter 17 Foreign Policy and
National Defense
Section 1
Section 2
Section 3
Section 4
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79
80
81
82
Chapter 15 Government at Work:
The Bureaucracy
Section 1
Section 2
Section 3
Section 4
Section 5
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71
72
73
74
75
Unit 5 The Judicial Branch
Section 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Section 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
Section 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
Section 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
Chapter 19 Civil Liberties: First
Amendment Freedoms
Section 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
Section 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Section 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
Section 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
Chapter 20 Civil Liberties: Protecting
Individual Rights
Section 1
Section 2
Section 3
Section 4
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91
92
93
94
Chapter 21 Civil Rights: Equal Justice
Under Law
Section 1
Section 2
Section 3
Section 4
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95
96
97
98
Unit 6 Comparative Political and Economic Systems
Chapter 22 Comparative Political Systems
Chapter 23 Comparative Economic Systems
Section 1
Section 2
Section 3
Section 4
Section 5
Section 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
Section 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
Section 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
Unit 7 Participating in Texas State and Local Government
Chapter 24 Governing the State of Texas
Section 1
Section 2
Section 3
Section 4
Section 5
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107
108
109
110
111
Chapter 25 Texas Local Government
and Finance
Section 1
Section 2
Section 3
Section 4
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112
113
114
115
© Pearson Education, Inc.
Chapter 18 The Federal Court System
Success in social studies comes from doing three things well—
reading, testing, and writing. The following pages present
strategies to help you read for meaning, understand test
questions, and write well.
Reading for Meaning
Do you have trouble remembering what you read? Here
are some tips from experts that will improve your ability to
recall and understand what you read:
BEFORE YOU READ
Preview the text to identify important information.
Like watching the coming attractions at a movie theater, previewing the text
helps you know what to expect. Study the questions and strategies below to
learn how to preview what you read.
Ask yourself these questions:
Use these strategies to find the
answers:
• What is the text about?
Read the headings, subheadings, and captions.
Study the photos, maps, tables, or graphs.
• What do I already know about the topic?
Read the questions at the end of the text to see if
you can answer any of them.
• What is the purpose of the text?
Turn the headings into who, what, when, where,
why, or how questions. This will help you decide
if the text compares things, tells a chain of
events, or explains causes and effects.
STUDENT SUCCESS HANDBOOK
5
AS YOU READ
Organize information in a way that helps you see meaningful
connections or relationships.
Taking notes as you read will improve your understanding. Use graphic
organizers like the ones below to record the information you read.
Study these descriptions and examples to learn how to create each type
of organizer.
Sequencing
A flowchart helps you see how one event led to
another. It can also display the steps in a process.
Use a flowchart if the text—
• tells about a chain of events.
• explains a method of doing something.
Farm machinery is developed.
Fewer farmworkers needed.
Urban industries need workers.
TIP List the events or steps in order.
Farmworkers move to cities for work.
Cities grow and prosper.
Comparing and Contrasting
A Venn diagram displays similarities and
differences.
Use a Venn diagram if the text—
• compares and contrasts two individuals,
groups, places, things, or events.
TIP Label the outside section of each circle and
list differences.
Label the shared section and list similarities.
6
STUDENT SUCCESS HANDBOOK
HUTU
• from West Africa
• servants
SHARED
CULTURE
• mainly
Roman
Catholic
TUTSI
• from Ethiopia
• aristocrats
AS YOU READ
(continued)
Categorizing Information
A chart organizes information in categories.
Use a chart if the text—
• lists similar facts about several places or things.
• presents characteristics of different groups.
TIP Write an appropriate heading for each column in
COUNTRY
FORM OF
GOVERNMENT
ECONOMY
Cuba
communist
dictatorship
command
economy
Puerto Rico
democracy
free enterprise
system
the chart to identify its category.
Identifying Main Ideas and Details
A concept web helps you understand
relationships among ideas.
rivers
transportation
Use a concept web if the text—
• provides examples to support a
main idea.
• links several ideas to a main topic.
industry
Uses
recreation
BODIES
OF WATER
Types
lakes
oceans
TIP Write the main idea in the largest circle.
Write details in smaller circles and
draw lines to show relationships.
STUDENT SUCCESS HANDBOOK
7
Organizing Information
An outline provides an overview, or a kind of
blueprint for reading.
Use an outline to organize ideas—
• according to their importance.
• according to the order in which they are presented.
TIP Use Roman numerals for main ideas, capital
letters for secondary ideas, and Arabic numerals
for supporting details.
I. Differences Between the North and the South
A. Views on slavery
1. Northern abolitionists
2. Southern slave owners
B. Economies
1. Northern manufacturing
2. Southern agriculture
Identifying Cause and Effect
A cause-and-effect diagram shows the relationship
between what happened (effect) and the reason
why it happened (cause).
Desire for
trade
Advances in
navigation
Rebirth of
learning
Use a cause-and-effect chart if the text—
• lists one or more causes for an event.
• lists one or more results of an event.
TIP Label causes and effects. Draw arrows to
indicate how ideas are related.
EXPLORATION OF THE AMERICAS
Exchange
of goods
and ideas
Destruction of
Native American
cultures
AFTER YOU READ
Test yourself to find out what you learned from reading the text.
Go back to the questions you asked yourself before you read the text. You
should be able to give more complete answers to these questions:
• What is the text about?
• What is the purpose of the text?
You should also be able to make connections between the new information
you learned from the text and what you already knew about the topic.
Study your graphic organizer. Use this information as the answers. Make up a
meaningful question about each piece of information.
8
STUDENT SUCCESS HANDBOOK
Europeans
set up
colonies
Taking Tests
Do you panic at the thought of taking a standardized test?
Here are some tips that most test developers recommend to
help you achieve good scores.
MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS
Read each part of a multiple-choice question to make sure you
understand what is being asked.
Many tests are made up of multiple-choice questions. Some multiple-choice
items are direct questions. They are complete sentences followed by possible
answers, called distractors.
Direct Question
What is a narrow strip of land that has water on both
sides and joins two larger bodies of land called?
The distractors list the
possible answers.
A a bay
B an isthmus
C a lake
D an island
TIP Try each distractor as an
answer to your question. Rule
out the ones that don’t work.
You can rule out A and C because they are bodies of
water, not land. You can rule out D because an island
is completely surrounded by water.
Other multiple-choice questions are incomplete sentences that you are to
finish. They are followed by possible answers.
The stem tells you what the
question is looking for
A narrow strip of land that has water on both sides
and joins two larger bodies of land is called
Distractors
A a bay
B an isthmus
C a lake
D an island
TIP Turn the stem into a direct
question, using who, what,
when, where, or why.
What is a narrow strip of land that has water on both
sides and joins two larger bodies of land called?
STUDENT SUCCESS HANDBOOK
9
WHAT’S BEING TESTED?
Identify the type of question you are being asked.
Social studies tests often ask questions that involve reading comprehension.
Other questions may require you to gather or interpret information from a
map, graph, or chart. The following strategies will help you answer different
kinds of questions.
Reading Comprehension Questions
What to do:
How to do it:
1. Determine the content and organization
of the selection.
Read the title. Skim the selection. Look
for key words that indicate time, causeand-effect, or comparison.
2. Analyze the questions.
Do they ask you to recall facts?
Look for key words in the stem:
According to the selection . . .
The selection states that . . .
Do they ask you to make judgments?
The main idea of the selection is . . .
The author would likely agree that . . .
3. Read the selection.
Read quickly. Keep the questions in mind.
4. Answer the questions.
Try out each distractor and choose
the best answer. Refer back to the
selection if necessary.
Example:
A Region of Diversity The Khmer empire was
one of many kingdoms in Southeast Asia. Unlike
the Khmer empire, however, the other kingdoms
were small because Southeast Asia’s mountains
kept people protected and apart. People had little
contact with those who lived outside their own
valley.
Why were most kingdoms in Southeast
Asia small?
A disease killed many people
B lack of food
C climate was too hot
D mountains kept people apart
TIP The key word because tells why the kingdoms were small.
(The correct answer is D.)
10
STUDENT SUCCESS HANDBOOK
WHAT’S BEING TESTED?
(continued)
Map Questions
What to do:
How to do it:
1. Determine what kind of information is
presented on the map.
Read the map title. It will indicate the purpose of
the map.
Study the map key. It will explain the symbols used
on the map.
Look at the scale. It will help you calculate distance
between places on the map.
2. Read the question. Determine which
component on the map will help you
find the answer.
3. Look at the map and answer the question in your own words.
4. Choose the best answer.
Look for key words in the stem.
About how far . . . [use the scale]
What crops were grown in . . . [use the map key]
Do not read the distractors yet.
Decide which distractor agrees with the answer
you determined from the map.
Eastern Europe: Language Groups
In which of these countries are Thraco-Illyrian
languages spoken?
A Romania
B Albania
C Hungary
D Lithuania
TIP Read the labels and
the key to understand
the map.
(The correct answer is B.)
STUDENT SUCCESS HANDBOOK
11
Graph Questions
What to do:
How to do it:
1. Determine the purpose of the graph.
Read the graph title. It indicates what the graph
represents.
2. Determine what information on the
graph will help you find the answer.
Read the labels on the graph or on the key. They
tell the units of measurement used by the graph.
3. Choose the best answer.
Decide which distractor agrees with the answer
you determined from the graph.
Example
Religious Persuasion in France
Buddhist
1%
Protestant
2%
Muslim
8%
Jewish
1%
Roman
Catholic 88%
A Circle graph shows the relationship of parts
to the whole in terms of percentages.
After Roman Catholics, the next largest
religious population in France is
A Buddhist
C Jewish
B Protestant
D Muslim
TIP Compare the percentages listed in the labels.
(The correct answer is D.)
Number of Immigrants
Immigration to the U.S., 1940–1990
1,200,000
1,000,000
Between 1980 and 1990, immigration to the U.S.
from the Americas
A decreased a little
C stayed about the same
B increased greatly
D increased a little
800,000
600,000
400,000
200,000
0
1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990
Year
Asia
Americas
Europe
Annual Oil Production in Southwest Asia
Billions of Barrels
20
15
12
TIP Compare the vertical distance between the two
correct points on the line graph.
(The correct answer is B.)
A bar graph compares differences in quantity
by showing bars of different lengths.
Saudi Arabia produces about how many more
billion of barrels of oil a year than Iran?
A 5 million
C 15 million
B 10 million D 20 million
10
5
0
A line graph shows a pattern or change over
time by the direction of the line.
Iran
Iraq
Kuwait Saudi United
Arabia Arab
Emirates
Country
STUDENT SUCCESS HANDBOOK
TIP Compare the heights of the bars to find the
difference.
(The correct answer is B.)
Writing for Social Studies
When you face a writing assignment, do you think, “How
will I ever get through this?” Here are some tips to guide
you through any writing project from start to finish.
THE WRITING PROCESS
Follow each step of the writing process to communicate effectively.
Step 1. Prewrite
• Establish the purpose.
• Define the topic.
• Determine the audience.
• Gather details.
Step 2. Draft
• Organize information logically in an outline
or graphic organizer.
• Write an introduction, body, and conclusion.
• State main ideas clearly.
• Include relevant details to support your ideas.
Step 3. Revise
• Edit for clarity of ideas and elaboration.
Step 4. Proofread
• Correct any errors in spelling, grammar, and punctuation.
Step 5. Publish and Present
• Copy text neatly by hand, or use a typewriter
or word processor.
• Illustrate as needed.
• Create a cover, if appropriate.
STUDENT SUCCESS HANDBOOK
13
TYPES OF WRITING FOR SOCIAL STUDIES
Identify the purpose for your writing.
Each type of writing assignment has a specific purpose, and each purpose needs a
different plan for development. The following descriptions and examples will help
you identify the three purposes for social studies writing. The lists of steps will
help you plan your writing.
Writing to Inform
Purpose: to present facts or ideas
Example
During the 1960s, research indicated the dangers
of the insecticide DDT. It killed insects but also
had long-term effects. When birds and fish ate
poisoned insects, DDT built up in their fatty tissue.
The poison also showed up in human beings who
ate birds and fish contaminated by DDT.
TIP Look for these key terms in the assignment:
explain, describe, report, narrate
How to get started:
• Determine the topic you will write about.
• Write a topic sentence that tells the main idea.
• List all the ideas you can think of that are
related to the topic.
• Arrange the ideas in logical order.
Writing to Persuade
Purpose: to influence someone
Example
TIP Look for these key terms in the assignment:
convince, argue, request
Teaching computer skills in the classroom uses
How to get started:
time that could be spent teaching students how to
• Make sure you understand the problem or
think for themselves or how to interact with others.
issue clearly.
Students who can reason well, express themselves
• Determine your position.
clearly, and get along with other people will be
• List evidence to support your arguments.
better prepared for life than those who can use
• Predict opposing views.
a computer.
• List evidence you can use to overcome the
opposing arguments.
Writing to Provide Historical Interpretations
Purpose: to present the perspective of someone
in a different era
TIP Look for these key terms in the assignment: go
Example
How to get started:
The crossing took a week, but the steamship voyage
was hard. We were cramped in steerage with hundreds of others. At last we saw the huge statue of
the lady with the torch. In the reception center, my
mother held my hand while the doctor examined
me. Then, my father showed our papers to the
official, and we collected our bags. I was scared as
we headed off to find a home in our new country.
14
STUDENT SUCCESS HANDBOOK
back in time, create, suppose that, if you were
• Study the events or issues of the time period
you will write about.
• Consider how these events or issues might
have affected different people at the time.
• Choose a person whose views you would like
to present.
• Identify the thoughts and feelings this person
might have experienced.
RESEARCH FOR WRITING
Follow each step of the writing process to communicate effectively.
After you have identified the purpose for your writing, you may need to do
research. The following steps will help you plan, gather, organize, and present
information.
Step 1. Ask Questions
Ask yourself questions to help guide your research.
What do I already know about the topic?
What do I want to find out about the topic?
Step 2. Acquire Information
Locate and use appropriate sources of information Library
about the topic.
Internet search
Interviews
Follow accepted format for listing sources.
Take notes.
Step 3. Analyze Information
Evaluate the information you find.
Is it relevant to the topic?
Is it up-to-date?
Is it accurate?
Is the writer an authority on the topic?
Is there any bias?
Step 4. Use Information
Answer your research questions with the
information you have found. (You may find that
you need to do more research.)
Do I have all the information I need?
Organize your information into the main points
you want to make. Identify supporting details.
Arrange ideas in outline form or in a graphic
organizer.
Step 5. Communicate What You’ve Learned
Review the purpose for your writing and choose
an appropriate way to present the information.
Purpose
inform
persuade
interpret
Draft and revise your writing, and then evaluate it.
Presentation
formal paper, documentary,
multimedia
essay, letter to the editor, speech
journal, newspaper account, drama
Use a rubric for self-evaluation.
STUDENT SUCCESS HANDBOOK
15
EVALUATING YOUR WRITING
Use the following rubric to help you evaluate your writing.
16
Excellent
Good
Acceptable
Unacceptable
Purpose
Achieves
purpose—to
inform, persuade, or provide historical
interpretation—
very well
Informs,
persuades, or
provides
historical
interpretation
reasonably well
Reader cannot
easily tell if the
purpose is to
inform, persuade, or provide historical
interpretation
Lacks purpose
Organization
Develops ideas
in a very clear
and logical way
Presents ideas
in a reasonably
well-organized
way
Reader has
difficulty following the
organization
Lacks
organization
Elaboration
Explains all
ideas with facts
and details
Explains most
ideas with facts
and details
Includes some
supporting facts
and details
Lacks supporting details
Use of
Language
Uses excellent
vocabulary and
sentence
structure with
no errors in
spelling,
grammar, or
punctuation
Uses good
vocabulary and
sentence
structure with
very few errors
in spelling,
grammar, or
punctuation
Includes some
errors in
grammar,
punctuation,
and spelling
Includes many
errors in
grammar,
punctuation,
and spelling
STUDENT SUCCESS HANDBOOK
NAME
CLASS
DATE
Section 1: Guided Reading and Review
Government and the State
CHAPTER
1
A. As You Read
As you read Section 1, fill in the answers to the following questions.
1. What are the four characteristics of a state?
population
a. __________________________________________________________________
territory
b. __________________________________________________________________
sovereignty
c. __________________________________________________________________
government
d. __________________________________________________________________
2. What are the four theories of the origins of a state?
force theory
a. __________________________________________________________________
evolutionary theory
b. __________________________________________________________________
divine right theory
c. __________________________________________________________________
social contract theory
d. __________________________________________________________________
3. What are six purposes of the American system of government?
form a more perfect union
a. __________________________________________________________________
establish justice
b. __________________________________________________________________
insure domestic tranquility
c. __________________________________________________________________
provide for the common defense
d. __________________________________________________________________
promote the general welfare
e. __________________________________________________________________
secure the blessings of liberty
f. __________________________________________________________________
© Pearson Education, Inc.
B. Reviewing Key Terms
Define the following terms. Write your answers on a separate sheet of paper.
4. government the institution through which a society makes and enforces its public policies
5. public policy something the government decides to do about a certain issue
6. legislative power the power to make laws
7. executive power the power to enforce and administer laws
8. judicial power the power to interpret laws and settle disputes
9. constitution a body of fundamental laws that sets out the principles, structures, and processes of government
10. dictatorship government in which those who rule are not responsible to the will of the people
11. democracy government in which power rests with the people
12. state a body of people living in a defined area which has a government and the power to make and enforce laws
without the consent of a higher authority
13. sovereign having supreme and absolute power
Guided Reading and Review
Chapter 1 17
NAME
CLASS
CHAPTER
1
DATE
Section 2: Guided Reading and Review
Forms of Government
A. As You Read
Use the chart below to compare the democratic form of government to the dictatorship form of
government.
Democracy
Dictatorship
Sovereign power
is held by:
1. the people
2. the dictator or oligarch
Those who rule are
responsible to:
3. the people
4. themselves
Power is gained by:
5. elections
6. force
B. Reviewing Key Terms
Column I
Column II
h
_____
7. a government in which a single person holds
unlimited power
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
d
_____
8. a government in which the executive and legislative
branches are separate and coequal
b
_____
9. a government in which power is divided between a
central government and other local governments
g
_____
10. a government in which a small, usually self-appointed,
group has the power to rule
unitary government
federal government
confederation
presidential government
parliamentary
government
f. division of powers
g. oligarchy
h. autocracy
a
_____
11. a government in which all power belongs to a central
agency
c
_____
12. an alliance of independent states
f
_____
13. structuring a government so that power is shared by a
central and several local governments
e
_____
14. a government in which members of the executive branch
are also members of the legislative branch and are subject
to the legislature’s direct control
18 Chapter 1
Guided Reading and Review
© Pearson Education, Inc.
Match the descriptions in Column I with the terms in Column II. Write the correct letter in each
blank.
NAME
CLASS
DATE
Section 3: Guided Reading and Review
CHAPTER
1
Basic Concepts of Democracy
A. As You Read
On the chart below, write the five basic concepts of democracy and write a sentence describing each.
1.
2.
fundamental worth of the
individual: Each individual is
a distinct, important being.
equality of all persons: Everyone is
entitled to equal opportunity and
equality under the law.
The Basic Concepts
of Democracy
3.
4.
majority rule and minority rights:
Democracy expects that the
majority will be right more often
than it will be wrong, but its rule is
still restrained by minority rights.
necessity of compromise:
Compromise is the process needed
to achieve majority agreement.
© Pearson Education, Inc.
5.
individual freedom: Individuals
are as free as the welfare of all
individuals can allow.
B. Reviewing Key Terms
Answer the following questions on a separate sheet of paper. Possible answers below
6. Explain the significance of the term compromise as it relates to problem-solving in a
democratic society. In a democratic society, people must blend, adjust, and reconcile competing views to find
the solution most acceptable to the largest number.
7. What are the four factors underlying the free enterprise system? private ownership, individual
initiative, profit, and competition
8. How does the law of supply and demand operate? When supplies become plentiful, demand and prices
tend to drop; when supplies become scarce, demand and prices tend to rise.
9. What is a mixed economy? A mixed economy combines private enterprise with government regulation and
participation.
Guided Reading and Review
Chapter 1 19
NAME
CLASS
CHAPTER
2
DATE
Section 1: Guided Reading and Review
Our Political Beginnings
A. As You Read
As you read the section, answer the following questions on a separate sheet of paper.
See answers below
Basic Concepts of Government
1. What is ordered government?
2. What is limited government?
3. What is representative government?
Landmark English Documents
4. How did the Magna Carta affect English government?
5. How did the Petition of Right affect English government?
6. How did the English Bill of Rights affect English government?
Government in the Colonies
7. How were royal colonies governed?
8. How were proprietary colonies governed?
9. How were charter colonies governed?
B. Reviewing Key Terms
Match the descriptions in Column I with the terms in Column II.
Write the correct letter in each blank.
Column I
Column II
d
_____
10. written grant of authority from the king to
establish a colony
a. limited government
a
_____
11. government that is not all-powerful
c. Magna Carta
e
_____
12. consisting of two houses, as in a legislature
d. charter
b
_____
13. government that serves the will of the people
e. bicameral
c
_____
14. document written in 1215 limiting the power
of the English monarchy
f.
unicameral
Possible answers to questions 1–9
1. Ordered government is the orderly regulation of people’s relationships with one another.
2. Limited government is the idea that government is not all-powerful.
3. Representative government is the idea that government serves the will of the people.
4. The Magna Carta introduced trial by jury and due process of law, and limited the king’s power.
5. The Petition of Right stipulated that political critics could not be imprisoned or punished without a jury trial, martial
law could not be imposed during peacetime, troops could not be quartered without homeowners’ consent, and taxes
could not be levied without the consent of Parliament.
6. The English Bill of Rights elevated the Parliament in English government by requiring its permission to maintain a
standing army in peacetime, to suspend or execute laws, and to levy money for the use of the Crown. The bill also
guaranteed fair trials, freedom from excessive bail, and freedom from cruel and unusual punishment.
7. Royal colonies were subject to the direct control of the crown through a governor and a bicameral legislature.
8. Proprietary colonies were owned by private citizens who appointed governors aided by legislatures; these colonies were
still subject to English law.
9. Charter colonies were self-governing under the terms of original charters granted by the monarch; these colonies
elected their own bicameral legislatures and governors, who served with approval of the king.
20 Chapter 2
Guided Reading and Review
© Pearson Education, Inc.
b. representative government
NAME
CLASS
DATE
Section 2: Guided Reading and Review
The Coming of Independence
CHAPTER
2
A. As You Read
The dates on the chart below indicate important developments and events related to American
independence. As you read Section 2, fill in the chart by writing a brief description of the significance of each date listed.
Year/Date
© Pearson Education, Inc.
1. 1643
Description of Event
2. 1696
New England Confederation is formed.
William Penn attempts, but fails, to organize colonies to cooperate in trade, defense,
and criminal matters.
3. 1754
Albany Plan of Union is proposed.
4. 1765
Stamp Act is passed and Stamp Act Congress is convened.
5. 1770, March 5
Boston Massacre
6. 1772
Committees of Correspondence are first organized.
7. 1773, December 16
Boston Tea Party
8. 1774, Spring
Parliament passes the Intolerable Acts.
9. 1774, September 5
First Continental Congress convenes.
10. 1775, April 19
Revolution begins at Lexington and Concord.
11. 1775, May 10
Second Continental Congress convenes.
12. 1776, June 7
Richard Henry Lee proposes U.S. independence.
13. 1776, July 2
Congress passes Lee’s independence resolution.
14. 1776, July 4
Declaration of Independence is adopted.
15. 1781, March 1
Articles of Confederation go into effect.
B. Reviewing Key Terms
Define the following key terms.
representatives
16. delegates__________________________________________________________________________
the joining of several groups for a common purpose
17. confederation _____________________________________________________________________
recall
18. repeal ____________________________________________________________________________
Guided Reading and Review
Chapter 2 21
NAME
CLASS
CHAPTER
2
DATE
Section 3: Guided Reading and Review
The Critical Period
A. As You Read
As you read Section 3, answer the questions below on a separate piece of paper or in the space
provided.
The Articles of Confederation
1. Describe the structure of the government set up by the Articles of Confederation.
Congress was unicameral and was the only branch of government. Congressional committees would handle executive and
judiciary functions. Congress would choose the president of the legislature (not the same as the President of the U.S.)
Fill in the chart below with the 10 powers granted to Congress under the Articles.
Congressional Powers Under the Articles of Confederation
make war and peace
2.____________________________________
establish post offices
7.____________________________________
send and receive ambassadors
3.____________________________________
build navy
8.____________________________________
make treaties
4.____________________________________
raise army by asking States for troops
9.____________________________________
borrow money
5.____________________________________
uniform standards of weights and measures
10. fix
__________________________________
set up monetary system
6.____________________________________
disputes among States
11. settle
__________________________________
treat citizens equally; give full faith and credit to acts,
12. What obligations did States have to one another? records, and judicial proceedings; surrender fugitives;
permit open trade and travel; submit disputes to Congress for settlement
13. What obligations did States have to citizens?
to protect life and property; to promote the general welfare of people
14. What powers did Congress not have?
the power to tax, the power to regulate trade between the States, and the power to exercise its own laws
© Pearson Education, Inc.
The Critical Period, the 1780s
15. What government action took place in response to Shays’ Rebellion?
The Massachusetts legislature passed laws that eased the burden of debtors.
A Need for Stronger Government
16. What was the goal of the Constitutional Convention?
to revise the Articles of Confederation to better suit the needs of the U.S.
B. Reviewing Key Terms
Define the following key terms.
formal approval
17. ratification ________________________________________________________________________
chief of an organization or group
18. presiding officer ___________________________________________________________________
22 Chapter 2
Guided Reading and Review
NAME
CLASS
DATE
Section 4: Guided Reading and Review
CHAPTER
2
Creating the Constitution
A. As You Read
The chart below outlines the initial plans for a constitution and the “bundle of compromises” that
resulted from the various plans. As you read Section 4, complete the chart by filling in the boxes
provided.
Plan
or Compromise
Provisions
1.
Virginia Plan
three separate branches, bicameral
legislature, representation based on
population or wealth of State, lower
house popularly elected, upper house
chosen by States, veto power over
State laws, Congress chooses executive
and judiciary, veto power of executive
and judiciary over Congress
unicameral legislature, States equally
New Jersey Plan
Connecticut
Compromise
Type of States
That Benefited
2. large States and wealthy
States
3. represented, limited power to tax and
4. small States
5. bicameral Congress with membership in
6. all States
regulate trade, more than one executive
chosen by legislature, State governors
could remove executive, judiciary
appointed by executive
House based on population and in
Senate based on equal numbers for
each State
In northern States both taxes and
© Pearson Education, Inc.
Three-Fifths
Compromise
Commerce and
Slave Trade
Compromise
were based on
7. representation
population; Southerners could add
8. southern States for
9. Congress was forbidden to tax exports
10. southern States
three-fifths of the enslaved toward
representation, but they also had to
count them toward taxes owed to the
National Government.
and to pass laws against slave trade
for at least 20 years.
population count, northern
States for taxation
11. Name a group whose interests seem to have been ignored, or even harmed, by the
enslaved African Americans
compromises that created the Constitution. ____________________________________
B. Reviewing Key Terms
On a separate sheet of paper, use the key term below in a sentence
that shows the meaning of the term.
12. Framers Sentences should indicate that Framers were delegates to the Philadelphia Convention, and authors of
the Constitution.
Guided Reading and Review
Chapter 2 23
NAME
CLASS
CHAPTER
2
DATE
Section 5: Guided Reading and Review
Ratifying the Constitution
A. As You Read
As you read the section, fill in the following outline by writing supporting details in the form of
answers to questions 1–5.
The Fight for Ratification
1. What were the positions of each side toward ratification?
Federalists favored ratification of the Constitution.
a. Federalists: __________________________________________
Anti-Federalists opposed its ratification.
b. Anti-Federalists: ______________________________________
2. What were the five issues involved in the ratification debate?
the weakness of the National Government under the Articles
of Confederation versus the strength of the one proposed by the Constitution
a. ______________________________________
the ratification process itself
b. ______________________________________
absence of mention of God in the Constitution
c. ______________________________________
denial to States of the right to print money
d. ______________________________________
lack of a bill of rights
e. ______________________________________
3. On what two States did the success or failure of ratification depend?
Virginia
New York
____________________________
and ________________________
Inaugurating the Government
© Pearson Education, Inc.
New York City
4. Where was the first national capital located? ____________________________
5. Who became the new nation’s first President and Vice President?
George Washington
a. President: _________________________________________
John Adams
b. Vice President: ______________________________________
B. Reviewing Key Terms
Identify the following people as either a Federalist or an Anti-Federalist. On the spaces provided,
write an A for Anti-Federalist or an F for Federalist.
6. James Madison
F
_____
7. Patrick Henry
A
_____
F
8. Alexander Hamilton _____
24 Chapter 2
Guided Reading and Review
NAME
CLASS
DATE
Section 1: Guided Reading and Review
CHAPTER
3
The Six Basic Principles
A. As You Read
As you read Section 1, fill in a description of each of the six basic principles of the Constitution,
shown in the chart below.
Principle
Description
Popular Sovereignty
1. government by the consent of the governed
Limited Government
2. Government is not all-powerful; it may do only what people empower it to do.
Separation of Powers
3. distribution of power among legislative, executive, and judicial branches
Checks and Balances
4. Each branch is subject to a number of constitutional checks, or restraints,
Judicial Review
5. The Court has the power to determine the constitutionality of government actions.
Federalism
6. division of power among a central government and several regional governments
by the other branches.
B. Reviewing Key Terms
© Pearson Education, Inc.
Complete each sentence by writing the correct term in the blank provided.
7. The idea that government and its officers are always subject to— never above—the law is
rule of law
described as the ________________________________.
constitutionalism
8. The principle of ________________________________
expresses the concept that
government must be conducted according to constitutional principles.
9. Judicial review is the power to declare a government action that violates some provision of
unconstitutional
the Constitution to be ________________________________.
Preamble
10. The ________________
is the brief introduction that begins the Constitution.
Guided Reading and Review
Chapter 3 25
NAME
CLASS
CHAPTER
3
DATE
Section 2: Guided Reading and Review
Formal Amendment
A. As You Read
As you read Section 2, answer the following questions.
Formal Amendment Process
1. What are the two steps involved in the first method of amending the Constitution?
Proposed by Congress by a two-thirds vote in both houses.
a. __________________________________________________________________
Ratified by three-fourths of the State legislatures.
b. __________________________________________________________________
2. What are the two steps involved in the second method of amending the Constitution?
Proposed by Congress by a two-thirds vote in both houses.
a. __________________________________________________________________
Ratified by special conventions in three-fourths of the States.
b. __________________________________________________________________
3. What are the two steps involved in the third method of amending the Constitution?
Proposed at a national convention when requested by two-thirds of the State legislatures.
a. __________________________________________________________________
Ratified by three-fourths of the State legislatures.
b. __________________________________________________________________
4. What are the two steps involved in the fourth method of amending the Constitution?
Proposed at a national convention.
a. __________________________________________________________________
Ratified by special conventions held in three-fourths of the States.
b. __________________________________________________________________
The 27 Amendments
the first ten amendments, setting out constitutional guarantees of
__________________________________________________
freedom of expression and belief, of freedom and security of the person, and of fair and equal treatment
before the law
the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and
6. Which amendments were results of the Civil War? ______________________________
Fifteenth Amendments
B. Reviewing Key Terms
Use each key term below in a sentence that reflects the meaning of the term. Possible sentences below
The Constitution can only be changed by amendments.
7. amendment ________________________________________________________________
A formal amendment results in a written change to the Constitution.
8. formal amendment __________________________________________________________
26 Chapter 3
Guided Reading and Review
© Pearson Education, Inc.
5. What is the Bill of Rights?
NAME
CLASS
DATE
CHAPTER
Section 3: Guided Reading and Review
3
Informal Procedures
As You Read
As you read Section 3, complete the chart below by writing a brief definition of each method of
constitutional change shown, and by giving an example of each.
Basic Legislation
Executive Action
passage of laws
1. Definition: ______________
that refine or define the Constitution
____________________________
establishing court
2. Example: ________________
using the President’s
3. Definition: _______________
power to act independently of Congress
____________________________
expanding President’s
4. Example: ________________
war powers; making pacts with foreign
leaders_______________
without consent of the Senate
system
_______________
Constitutional
Change
Court Decisions
Party Practices
using court cases
5. Definition: ______________
to interpret the Constitution
____________________________
Marbury v. Madison
6. Example: _______________
using practices
9. Definition: ______________
of political parties to change
______________________________
political processes
nominating
10. Example: _______________
presidential candidates at
national
conventions
______________
and judicial review
_______________
© Pearson Education, Inc.
Custom
upholding long-held
7. Definition: _______________
customs as constitutional necessity
_____________________________
making executive
8. Example: _________________
department heads the
President’s Cabinet
_______________
B. Reviewing Key Terms
Define the following key terms.
a formal agreement between two or more sovereign states
11. treaty ____________________________________________________________
a pact made by the President directly with the head of a foreign state, skirting the
need for Senate approval
12. executive agreement ______________________________________________________________
the Senate’s rejection of a presidential appointment when that appointment is opposed
by a majority party senator from the State in which the appointee would serve
13. senatorial courtesy ________________________________________________________________
Guided Reading and Review
Chapter 3 27
NAME
CLASS
CHAPTER
4
DATE
Section 1: Guided Reading and Review
Federalism: The Division of Power
A. As You Read
National (N),
State (S), or
Both(B)
Expressed, Implied, or Inherent
1. collect taxes
B
expressed
2. build an interstate highway system
N
implied
3. regulate immigration
N
inherent
4. license doctors
S
5. make treaties
N
expressed
6. maintain armed forces
N
expressed
7. declare war
N
expressed
8. deport alien
N
inherent
N
implied
Power
9. prohibit racial discrimination
in access to restaurants
10. set up public school systems
S
11. punish crimes
B
implied
12. coin money
N
expressed
13. regulate the sale of liquor
S
14. regulate interstate commerce
N
expressed
B. Reviewing Key Terms
Complete each sentence by writing the correct term in the blank provided.
15. A system of government in which powers are divided between a central government and
federalism
several regional governments is called ________________________________.
reserved
16. The ________________________________
powers are those set aside for the States.
division of powers
17. The ________________________________
between the National Government and the
States was spelled out in the Bill of Rights.
28 Chapter 4
Guided Reading and Review
© Pearson Education, Inc.
As you read Section 1, write N in the first box provided if the power given belongs ONLY to the
National Government, S if it belongs ONLY to the States, or B if it belongs to both. In the second
box, write whether any power belonging to the National Government is an example of an
expressed, implied, or inherent power.
NAME
CLASS
DATE
Section 2: Guided Reading and Review
CHAPTER
4
The National Government and the 50 States
A. As You Read
As you read Section 2, answer the following questions on the lines provided.
The Nation’s Obligations to the States
representative government
1. A republican form of government is ______________________________.
2. Three obligations the Constitution places on the National Government for the benefit of the
to protect against invasion and domestic violence
States are: a. ________________________________________________
to guarantee every State a representative government
b. ________________________________________________
to recognize the boundaries and physical existence of each State
c. ________________________________________________
Admitting New States
3. A congressional act directing a territory that wants to become a State to frame a proposed State
an enabling act
constitution is called ___________________________________________.
an act of admission
4. A congressional law that agrees to grant statehood is _____________________________
________________________________________________.
Cooperative Federalism
5. The general term for federal money or resources granted to States or local governments is
grants-in-aid programs
___________________________.
Answers should refer to state and
6. An example of a way that States aid the National Government is ___________________
local
election officials conducting national elections; state courts supervising naturalization process; and local police
________________________________________________________.
© Pearson Education, Inc.
cooperating with the F.B.I.
B. Reviewing Key Terms
Match the descriptions in Column I with the terms in Column II.
Write the correct letter in each blank.
Column I
Column II
b
_____
7. federal money granted to a State for a specific purpose
a. revenue sharing
d
_____
8. federal money given to States or other local governments
with fewer-than-usual strings attached
b. categorical grant
a
_____
9. federal aid program in place from 1972–1987 in which
Congress gave a share of federal tax revenue to the States
c. project grant
d. block grant
c
_____
10. federal money given to private agencies, States, or local
governments that apply for it
Guided Reading and Review
Chapter 4 29
NAME
CLASS
CHAPTER
4
DATE
Section 3: Guided Reading and Review
Interstate Relations
A. As You Read
The chart below will help you organize information on interstate relations. As you read Section 3,
write the answer for each question in the spaces provided.
Interstate Relations
1. Interstate Compacts Why might States feel the need to form compacts with other States?
to
achieve together what one State might have difficulty doing alone
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
2. Full Faith and Credit What are three areas in which States give full faith and credit to
public acts, records, and judicial proceedings
citizens of other States? _______________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
the legal process by which a fugitive from justice in one State is
3. Extradition What is extradition? _______________________________________________
returned
to that State from another
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
4. Privileges and Immunities What is an example of a reasonable discrimination a State
A State may charge a nonresident higher fees for
may exercise against a citizen of another State? ___________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
B. Reviewing Key Terms
Define the following terms in the space provided.
an agreement made between two or more States
5. interstate compact _________________________________________________________
A State must respect and recognize the validity of records,
documents, and civil court decisions in other States.
6. Full Faith and Credit Clause ________________________________________________
No State can draw unreasonable distinctions between its own residents
and people who live in other States.
7. Privileges and Immunities Clause_____________________________________________
30 Chapter 4
Guided Reading and Review
© Pearson Education, Inc.
fishing
or hunting licenses or to attend a State university.
____________________________________________________________________________
NAME
CLASS
DATE
Section 1: Guided Reading and Review
Parties and What They Do
CHAPTER
5
A. As You Read
As you read Section 1, write the correct answers in the blanks provided on the chart below.
Functions of Political Parties
© Pearson Education, Inc.
Function
Description
Explanation
nominating
1. ________________
selecting candidates
The activity that sets political
parties apart from other political
groups
Informing and
activating supporters
Inform people and activate their
interests in public affairs.
Parties share this function with
media
2. _____________________
and
interest
3. __________________
groups.
Bonding agent
Tries to choose candidates who
qualified
are 4. _____________________
and of good character.
After candidates are elected, the
party prods them to do well or
election
suffer in the next 5. ____________
Governing
legislative
Helps 6. ___________________
and executive branches work
together.
Most appointments to executive
branch are made on basis of
partisanship
7. _________________,
or
allegiance to a political party.
watchdog
8. ________________
out of power
Party that is 9. ______________
___________________________
criticizes the party that controls
the government.
The loyal opposition urges votes to
“throw the rascals out”
10. __________________________
_____________________________
B. Reviewing Key Terms
Complete each sentence by writing the correct term in the blank provided.
political parties can be defined as groups of persons who join together because they want
11. All _____________
to gain control of the government through winning elections.
partisanship
12. Allegiance to a political party is known as _____________________.
parties
13. In the United States, the major ______________
are the Democrats and the Republicans.
party in power
14. The party that controls the executive branch is known as the _____________________.
Guided Reading and Review
Chapter 5 31
NAME
CLASS
CHAPTER
5
DATE
Section 2: Guided Reading and Review
The Two-Party System
A. As You Read
As you read Section 2, fill in the blanks below explaining how each factor contributes to the
stability of the two-party system in the United States. Possible answers below
The Republic began with two parties: Federalists and Anti-Federalists.
1. Historical Basis: __________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
Once established, the two-party system continues because of tradition and a reluctance to
2. Tradition: ______________________________________________________________________
support minor parties.
________________________________________________________________________________
Single-member districts discourage voters from “wasting” votes on minor party
3. Electoral System: ________________________________________________________________
candidates.
Election laws are designed to discourage minor parties.
________________________________________________________________________________
Because Americans agree on fundamental issues, the conditions that could produce
4. Ideological Consensus: ____________________________________________________________
several
strong rival parties do not exist.
________________________________________________________________________________
B. Reviewing Key Terms
Define the following terms.
one of the less widely supported parties in the United States
5. minor party______________________________________________________________________
system in which only two parties have a reasonable chance of winning office
6. two-party system political
________________________________________________________________
the largest number of votes cast for an office (contrasted with majority, which is more than half of all
cast)
8. plurality votes
________________________________________________________________________
society that consists of several distinct cultures and groups
9. pluralistic society a________________________________________________________________
a general agreement on fundamental matters among various groups
10. consensus ______________________________________________________________________
a system with several major parties and many smaller parties
11. multiparty ______________________________________________________________________
under dictatorship, a system in which only one party is allowed; or in another sense, an area
which one party dominates regional politics
12. one-party system in
________________________________________________________________
32 Chapter 5
Guided Reading and Review
© Pearson Education, Inc.
district in which only one candidate is elected to each office on the ballot
7. single-member district election
____________________________________________________________
NAME
CLASS
DATE
Section 3: Guided Reading and Review
CHAPTER
5
The Two-Party System in American History
A. As You Read
On a separate sheet of paper, draw a chart like the one shown. Fill in the chart as you read Section 3.
© Pearson Education, Inc.
Period of
Dominance (if any)
Supporters
Leaders
Federalists
1. strong before 1800
2. the rich and well-born
3. Hamilton
Jeffersonian
Republicans
4. 1800–1820s
5. common people
6. Jefferson, Madison
Jacksonian
Democrats
7. 1820s–1830s
8. small farmers, debtors,
9. Andrew Jackson
slaveowners, pioneers
Whigs
10. 1830s–1850s, never
11. bankers, merchants,
12. Clay, Webster, Harrison,
Republicans
13. 1860–1932
14. business and financial
15. Lincoln, Taft,
Post-Civil War
Democrats
16. never dominant outside 17. the South
New Deal
Democrats
19. 1932–1968
dominant
industrialists, planters
interests, labor, farmers,
African Americans
the South
Taylor
T. Roosevelt, McKinley,
Frémont
18. Bryan, Wilson
the South, small
20. farmers, organized labor, 21. FDR, Truman, Kennedy,
big-city political organizations, minorities
Johnson
On a separate sheet of paper, describe the major issues for each of the following periods.
22. Era of the Democrats, 1800–1860 conflict over public lands, Second Bank of the United States, high
tariffs, slavery
23. Era of the Republicans, 1860–1932 Civil War, Reconstruction, Great Depression
24. Return of the Democrats, 1932–1968 Great Depression, New Deal, World War II, Kennedy assassination
B. Reviewing Key Terms
On a separate sheet of paper define the following terms.
25. incumbent the person currently holding office
26. faction groups that dissent
27. electorate the people eligible to vote
28. sectionalism devotion to the interests of a particular region
Guided Reading and Review
Chapter 5 33
NAME
CLASS
CHAPTER
5
DATE
Section 4: Guided Reading and Review
The Minor Parties
A. As You Read
As you read Section 4, define and give examples of the four types of minor parties on the
chart below. Possible answers below
Definition
Examples
Ideological Parties
1. those based on a particular set of beliefs
2. any of the following: Communist party,
Single-Issue Parties
3. parties that focus on a single public
4. any of the following: American (“Know-
Economic Protest
Parties
5. parties that protest economic hard times,
6. Greenback party, Populist party
Splinter Parties
7. parties that split away from one of the
8. Moose” party, Progressive party (1924),
and having a comprehensive view of social,
economic, and political matters
policy issue
blaming perceived enemies and proclaiming
disgust with the major parties
major parties
Socialist party, Socialist Labor party,
Socialist Workers party, Libertarian party
Nothing”) party, Free Soil party, Rightto-Life party
any of the following: Progressive “Bull
Progressive party (1948), American
Independent party, “Dixiecrat” party
Answer the following questions on a separate sheet of paper.
9. What tends to happen to single-issue parties? They fade away, or their policies are adopted by one of
the major parties
10. Which type of minor party has been most successful in winning votes? splinter parties
11. Which type of minor party has been the longest lived? ideological parties
12. What useful functions have minor parties performed in American history? They have drawn
attention to problems ignored by the major parties, and they have played “spoiler roles” in close elections.
Decide whether each of the following theoretical parties is an example of an ideological party, a
single-issue party, an economic protest party, or a splinter party. Write the correct term in the blank
provided.
single-issue party 13.
______________
The “Free Choice” party is formed by people intent on legalizing the use of
marijuana for medical purposes.
splinter party
______________
14.
A group of Democrats, dissatisfied with the party’s moderate nominee,
decides to form a new “People’s Rights” party to back their more liberal
leader, Henry J. Smith.
economic protest
party
______________
15.
A group of angry Midwestern farmers and laborers forms the “Working
People’s” party, calling for higher tariffs, higher farm subsidies, and
congressional term limitations.
ideological party 16.
______________
The “Socialist Justice” party calls for a complete overhaul of the American
political, economic, and legal systems.
single-issue party 17.
______________
The “Equity” party works for an end to affirmative action programs.
34 Chapter 5
Guided Reading and Review
© Pearson Education, Inc.
B. Reviewing Key Terms
NAME
CLASS
DATE
Section 5: Guided Reading and Review
Party Organization
CHAPTER
5
A. As You Read
As you read Section 5, complete the chart below by supplying the missing information in the
blanks provided.
National Party Machinery
Mechanism
Term or when it
takes place
every fourth year, the
National Convention 1. ________________
summer before
presidential election
________________
National Committee
Role
nominates candidates for President and Vice
2. ______________________________________
President; adopts party rules and platform
______________________________________
between conventions
3. ________________
mainly prepares for the next national convention
4. ______________________________________
________________
______________________________________
for a four-year term
National Chairperson 5. ________________
leads national committee, directs party headquarters,
6. ______________________________________
________________
works to strengthen the party
______________________________________
two years, during a
7. ________________
works to reelect incumbents and to unseat the other
8. ______________________________________
term of Congress
________________
party’s incumbents in each house
______________________________________
Congressional
Campaign
Complete each sentence by writing the correct term in the blank provided.
federalism
9. Two factors that contribute to the decentralization of parties are _____________________
© Pearson Education, Inc.
nominating powers
and ________________________________________.
10. The party out of power operates at a disadvantage because it has no leader comparable to
the President
_____________________________.
11. In recent years, there has been a sharp rise in the number of voters who identify themselves
independents
as __________________________.
B. Reviewing Key Terms
On a separate sheet of paper, define the following terms.
12. ward unit into which a city is divided for electing city council members
13. precinct the smallest unit of election administration
14. split-ticket voting voting for candidates of different parties at the same election
Guided Reading and Review
Chapter 5 35
NAME
CLASS
CHAPTER
6
DATE
Section 1: Guided Reading and Review
The Right to Vote
A. As You Read
The chart below illustrates the expansion of suffrage. As you read Section 1, fill in the boxes provided
by describing the portion of the American population that was qualified to vote at the time given.
male property owners; about 1/15 of white males
1. white
____________________________________
the Constitution
1789
almost all adult white males
2. ______________________________________________
dropped religious & property qualifications
1850
all adult males, including African Americans (but this was not enforced)
3. ______________________________________________________
15th Amendment
1870
all adult men and women (but African Americans largely disenfranchised)
4. ________________________________________________________________
19th Amendment
1920
all adult men and women, including African Americans
5. ________________________________________________________________________
Civil Rights Movement
1960s
Write the correct term in the blank provided.
to vote
During the last two hundred years, Americans have broadened the right (7.) ______________
by
religious
property
eliminating barriers based on (8.) _______________
belief, (9.) _______________
ownership,
tax
sex
(10.) _______________
payment, race, and (11.) _______________.
At the same time, the
Federal
(12.) ______________ Government has assumed a greater role in deciding who can vote and how
elections should be run.
B. Reviewing Key Terms
Match the descriptions in Column I with the terms in Column II. Write the correct letter in each
blank. You may use two terms to answer one question.
Column I
b, c 13. the right to vote
_____
a
_____
14. the potential voting population
36 Chapter 6
Column II
a. electorate
b. franchise
c. suffrage
Guided Reading and Review
© Pearson Education, Inc.
all men and women over 18
6. ________________________________________________________________________________
26th Amendment
1971
NAME
CLASS
DATE
Section 2: Guided Reading and Review
Voter Qualifications
CHAPTER
6
A. As You Read
As you read Section 2, answer the following questions in the space provided.
yes
1. According to the Constitution, can aliens vote? ______________________________________
2. Do any State governments today allow aliens to vote?
no
________________________________
3. What are the two reasons that States adopted residency requirements?
to prevent the importing of enough people to fix the outcome of an election
a. ______________________________________________________________________________
to ensure that voters have time to inform themselves about candidates and issues
b. ______________________________________________________________________________
4. What is the longest period of residence that any State today requires before permitting new
days
residents to vote? 50
________________________________________________________________
5. What is the oldest minimum age a State can set for voters? 18
____________________________
6. What kinds of information are voters usually asked to give when they register to vote? ____
name, age, place of birth, present address, length of residence
________________________________________________________________________________
say it is a bar
7. a. Why do some people argue that voter registration ought to be abolished? Some
______________
b. Why do others believe registration is important?
to voter turnout among the poor and less educated.
__________________________________
Some argue that it is a necessary defense against fraud.
________________________________________________________________________________
during driver’s license
8. What were the three provisions of the Motor Voter Law? registration
______________________________
application or renewal; registration by mail; registration forms available at many government offices
________________________________________________________________________________
were used to discriminate against people based on their race.
9. Why were literacy tests abolished? They
__________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
© Pearson Education, Inc.
10. In what region of the country was the poll tax once used? Why was it abolished? __________
in the South; because it was used to discourage African Americans from voting
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
in mental hospitals, those who are
11. What groups of persons are widely barred from voting? people
________________________________
legally found to be mentally incompetent, and those convicted of serious crimes
________________________________________________________________________________
B. Reviewing Key Terms
Complete each sentence by writing the correct term in the blank provided.
Literacy
12. ______________________________
is the ability to read or write.
poll tax
13. A __________________________
was a sum of money that had to be paid by the voter at the
time he or she cast a ballot.
Registration
14. _____________________________
is a procedure for voter identification.
purge
poll books
15. Election officials are regularly supposed to ____________
their ____________________
of the
names of those who no longer meet voting requirements.
transients
16. Most States prohibit _________________,
people who live there for a short time, from being
considered legal residents.
Guided Reading and Review
Chapter 6 37
NAME
CLASS
CHAPTER
6
DATE
Section 3: Guided Reading and Review
Suffrage and Civil Rights
A. As You Read
As you read Section 3, complete the paragraphs below by writing the correct answers in the blanks
provided.
THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1957 set up the
U.S. Commission on Civil Rights and gave the
(5.) _______________________
attorney general the right to seek federal
court orders
(6.) ______________
to prevent actions that
interfered with the voting rights of qualified
citizens.
THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1960 provided for
voting referees
the appointment of federal (7.) ___________
_____________. Their duty was to make sure
that qualified citizens were allowed to (8.)
register
vote
______________
and (9.) ______________
in
federal elections.
THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 forbade
or literacy
discriminatory
(10.) registration
______________
requirements. It relied heavily on the use of
court
the (11.) ________________
system to
overcome
racial
discrimination.
Its shortcomings became clear when Martin
King, Jr.
Luther (12.) ___________
organized a voter
registration drive in the city of (13.)
Selma, Alabama
_____________________.
Efforts to register
African-American voters were met with
violent opposition.
THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT OF 1965 attacked
poll
the use of the (14.) ______________
tax and
literacy
(15.) ______________ tests. It authorized the
voting examiners in any
appointment of (16.) ______________
State or county in which less than (17.)
half
___________
of the electorate had been regvoted
istered or (18.) _____________
in the 1964
elections. In 1975 the law was extended to
cover States and counties in which more
five
than (19.) ___________
percent of the adult
population belongs to the following groups:
(language minorities): Hispanics, Native
(20.) _________________________________
Americans, Asian Americans, Alaskan natives
______________________________________
B. Reviewing Key Terms
Write the correct definition for each of the following terms on a separate sheet of paper and tell
why they were important.
21. gerrymandering drawing lines of electoral districts that limit the voting strength of a particular group or party
22. injunction court order that either compels or restrains an act by an individual
23. preclearance approval given before an action is taken
38 Chapter 6
Guided Reading and Review
© Pearson Education, Inc.
THE 15TH AMENDMENT was ratified in
1870
(1.) ___________.
It states that no citizen can
be denied suffrage on the basis of
race
(2.) ___________,
color, or previous
servitude
condition of (3.) ___________.
Although this
amendment was intended to enfranchise
African American men, in fact it was not
(4.) ______________
enforced for almost 100 years.
NAME
CLASS
DATE
Section 4: Guided Reading and Review
CHAPTER
6
Voter Behavior
A. As You Read
As you read the section, fill in the answers to the questions below. Possible answers below
election years
1. What type of election years have the highest voter turnout? presidential
______________________________
lose their patience and/or knowledge as they work their way down a ballot.
2. What is “ballot fatigue”? Voters
__________________________________________________________
aliens
3. What is the largest group of “cannot-voters”? resident
________________________________________
think that their votes will not have an
4. Why do some nonvoters deliberately choose to not vote? They
________________________________
effect
on
government.
______________________________________________________
5. What is “time-zone fallout”?
The news media predicts election winners when the polls in the East and Midwest
close,
resulting in lower voter turnout in the West where the polls are still open.
______________________________________________________
of interest
6. What is the chief reason that most nonvoters do not vote? lack
______________________________
______________________________________________________
7. How do each of these factors affect the likelihood of whether people do or do not vote?
with higher incomes are more likely to vote than people with lower incomes.
a. level of income: People
________________________________________________________________
with higher status occupations are more likely to vote.
b. occupation: People
____________________________________________________________________
people are more likely to vote than those with less education.
____________________________________________________________________________________________
c. education: Better-educated
under 35 are less likely to vote than older people.
d. age: People
__________________________________________________________________________
are more likely to vote than men.
e. gender: Women
______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
People with a strong party identification are more likely to vote than people with a weak
party identification.
f. party identification: __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Fill in the characteristics in the chart below to compare some factors that influence whether people
are more likely to vote Democrat or Republican.
Democrat
© Pearson Education, Inc.
Income/Occupation
Republican
8. lower status, lower income
9. higher status, higher income
Education
10. less educated
11. more educated
Gender/Age
12. women/younger
13. men/older
Religion
14. Catholics, Jews
15. Protestants
Ethnicity
16. African American, other nonwhites,
17. Whites, Cuban Latinos
Geography
18. many southern states and big cities
19. Maine, Vermont, Kansas, Nebraska,
Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans
B. Reviewing Key Terms
North Dakota, South Dakota; suburbs
Answers can be found on the following
On a separate sheet of paper, define the following terms. Student Edition pages:
20. off-year election
23. gender gap
26. split-ticket voting
p. 164
p. 169
21. political efficacy
24. party identification
22. political socialization
25. straight-ticket voting
p. 166
p. 168
Guided Reading and Review
p. 171
p. 171
27. independents
p. 171
p. 171
Chapter 6 39
NAME
CLASS
CHAPTER
7
DATE
Section 1: Guided Reading and Review
The Nominating Process
A. As You Read
Complete the chart below as you read Section 1. For each nominating method, write when it came
into use and the procedure for nominating candidates.
Nominating Method
How it Works
Self-Announcement
1. candidate (or a friend) announces intention to run for office
Caucus
2. like-minded influential people (later, Congress members of the same party)
Convention
3. elected delegates select their party’s nominees
Direct Primary
4. party members vote for candidates for their party
Closed Primary
5. only declared party members vote for candidates for their party
Open Primary
6. qualified voters, independent or of either party, vote for a party’s candidates
Petition
7. eligible voters sign petitions in support of a particular candidate
Answer the following questions on a separate sheet of paper.
It narrows
8. Why is the nominating process particularly important in a two-party system? voters’ choices
9. What are some popular criticisms of the primary process? Lack of anonymity, “bedsheet” ballots,
expense, restriction to one party
B. Reviewing Key Terms
Read the statements below. If a statement is true, write T in the blank provided. If it is false, write
F. Then rewrite the statement on a separate sheet of paper to make it true.
T
_____
10. Nomination means the naming of candidates who will seek office.
F
_____
11. During the early national period, major-party presidential candidates were nominated
by State legislatures.
F
_____
12. In a blanket primary, voters can nominate a Democratic and a Republican candidate
for each office.
F
_____
13. In States that require nominees to win a plurality of the popular vote, runoff primaries
are sometimes needed.
T
_____
14. In a nonpartisan election, candidates are not identified by party.
40 Chapter 7
Guided Reading and Review
© Pearson Education, Inc.
gather to decide whom they will support in an election
NAME
CLASS
DATE
CHAPTER
Section 2: Guided Reading and Review
7
Elections
A. As You Read
1. Write a brief paragraph summarizing the information given under the heading “The
Administration of Elections.” See answer below
Complete the chart below as you read Section 2. For each method of voting given, write its major
features and any advantages or disadvantages of the methods.
Method of Voting
Features
Advantages/Disadvantages
Voice Voting
2. Voters state their votes aloud.
3. “manly” way to vote, but with the
Early Paper Ballots
4. political parties, printed their own
Voters themselves and later,
ballots.
printed at public expense, lists
Australian Ballot
7. greatly reduced corruption and
8. Names of candidates are grouped
9. separate judgments for each
by office in random order.
Party–Column Ballot
expansion of suffrage, it led to
corrupt practices.
Corruption and intimidation were
5. still problems because different
color ballots revealed how each
person voted.
6. names of all candidates, given out
only at the polls, marked in secret
Office–Group Ballot
Some thought this was the only
intimidation
encourages voters to make
office
is an advantage for candidates
10. lists each party’s candidates in a 11. It
because it encourages voters to
column under the party’s name
vote a straight-party ticket.
Voters receive a ballot in the mail,
Vote by Mail
12. make their selections, and mail
© Pearson Education, Inc.
the ballot to the precinct.
Online Voting
14. Voters cast their ballots on the
Internet.
It is cost effective and raises
13. voter turnout, but some critics
worry about fraud and pressure
on voters to vote a certain way.
Supporters say it is efficient and
15. promotes voter turnout;
opponents worry about fraud and
technical problems.
B. Reviewing Key Terms
On a separate sheet of paper, define the following terms.
16. absentee voting voting by mail by those unable to go to the polling place
17. coattail effect occurs when a strong candidate at the top of the ticket helps attract voters to other
candidates on the party’s ticket
18. precinct a voting district, usually limited in size to an area where there are no more than 500 to 1,000 qualified voters
19. polling place the location within each precinct where voters go to cast their ballots
20. ballot the device by which voters cast their votes
Possible answer to question #1
1. Answers will vary. The following points should be mentioned: Our complex election laws and procedures are aimed at
ensuring that elections will be free, honest, and accurate. Most election law is left to the States, but the Federal
Government imposes some restrictions, requiring the use of the secret ballot, regulating campaign finance, etc. Most
States hold elections for State office at the same time as the general elections. In most States, the disabled, members
of the armed forces, and those who will be away on election day can vote by way of absentee ballot. In some States, voters
can cast ballots several days before the election.
Guided Reading and Review
Chapter 7 41
NAME
CLASS
CHAPTER
7
DATE
Section 3: Guided Reading and Review
Money and Elections
A. As You Read
Possible answers below
Fill in the spaces below to organize information about money and the election process. Under each
main idea, write three supporting details from Section 3.
Main Idea A: Candidates spend a great deal of money on political campaigns.
1.
The presidential election eats up by far the largest share of campaign dollars.
____________________________________________________________________________
2.
The costs of congressional campaigns keep growing.
____________________________________________________________________________
3.
newspaper advertisements, office rent, polls, mass mailings, travel, and many other things.
____________________________________________________________________________
Television accounts for the largest share of spending, with other money spent on radio, managers and consultants,
Main Idea B: Private donors come in many different shapes and sizes.
4.
Small contributors give money to candidates they believe in.
____________________________________________________________________________
5.
Wealthy persons and families make large contributions in order to buy influence.
____________________________________________________________________________
6.
candidates themselves, their families, and friends
____________________________________________________________________________
7.
nonparty groups, such as PACs and temporary fund-raising groups
____________________________________________________________________________
8.
temporary organizations formed for the specific campaign
____________________________________________________________________________
Main Idea C: Laws that the Federal Election Commission (FEC) enforces cover four areas.
9.
the timely disclosure of campaign finance data
____________________________________________________________________________
limits on campaign contributions
10. ____________________________________________________________________________
public funding for parts of the presidential election process
12. ____________________________________________________________________________
Main Idea D: There are three major loopholes in campaign finance laws.
Soft money contributions can easily be filtered into presidential and congressional campaigns.
13. ____________________________________________________________________________
An independent group or person can spend money on a campaign not connected to a party. These groups use
the money in efforts against candidates.
14. ____________________________________________________________________________
Campaign money can be spent on issue ads that plug a candidate’s viewpoint without mentioning the
candidate’s name.
15. ____________________________________________________________________________
16. the political arms of special interest
groups that have a major stake in public
policy 17. a grant, usually from the
government 18. contributions that
On a separate sheet of paper, define the following terms.
bypass campaign spending laws because
16. political action committee
18. soft money they are donated to State and local
party organizations, not to candidates
17. subsidy
19. hard money 19. campaign money that is subject to
FEC regulation
B. Reviewing Key Terms
42 Chapter 7
Guided Reading and Review
© Pearson Education, Inc.
limits on campaign expenditures
11. ____________________________________________________________________________
NAME
CLASS
DATE
Section 1: Guided Reading and Review
CHAPTER
8
The Formation of Public Opinion
A. As You Read
Complete the chart below as you read Section 1. For each source of information given, write the
type of information that is communicated.
Factors that Shape Public Opinion
Sources
Types of Information Communicated
The Family
1. basic attitudes toward authority; rules of behavior, property, neighbors, and people
The Schools
2. good citizenship skills and attitudes, specific knowledge about politics, and informal
The Mass Media
3. information about politics and public policy, and a platform for opinion leaders
Peer Groups
4. reinforcement of one’s existing opinions
Opinion Leaders
5. information from which people can draw ideas and convictions about politics and
of other racial and religious groups
learning about people with different backgrounds
© Pearson Education, Inc.
public policy
Historic Events
6. information on issues arising out of or related to the events
Write the answers to questions 7 and 8 on a separate sheet of paper.
7. What does it mean to say that “many publics exists exist in the United States?”
Each public is made up of a group of people who hold the same view on a particular issue.
8. Why are family and school particularly important in shaping people’s political views?
They influence people when they are most impressionable—in childhood. All other political opinions are built from the base
created in childhood.
B. Reviewing Key Terms
On a separate sheet of paper, define the following terms.
9. public affairs
10. public opinion
11. mass media
Guided Reading and Review
12. peer group
13. opinion leader
9. events and issues that concern the public at large
10. the attitudes held by a significant number of people on matters
of government and politics
11. the means of communication that reach a wide audience
12. a group of people with whom one regularly associates
13. any person who, for any reason, has an unusually strong
influence on the views of others
Chapter 8 43
NAME
CLASS
CHAPTER
DATE
Section 2: Guided Reading and Review
8
Measuring Public Opinion
A. As You Read
Complete the chart below as you read Section 2. Describe how each measure gauges public opinion
and how accurate a measure it is. Possible answers below
Measure
How and How Well?
Elections
1. Elections are frequently interpreted as voters’ acceptance or rejection of a party
Interest Groups
2. Interest groups pressure government officials to shape public policy in specific ways.
Media
3. Media are often said to “mirror” public opinion. In fact they are not accurate mirrors
Personal Contracts
4. Political leaders try to gauge public opinion by addressing groups, reading mail and
platform. In fact, voting is affected by many factors and gives only a broad
indication of public opinion.
It is difficult to tell how many citizens support such groups and how strongly they
hold these views.
because they may reflect only a vocal minority.
telegrams, visiting home districts, and so on. But it is difficult to “read” public
opinion from such contacts.
Polls
5. Polls, especially those based on scientific polling techniques, are the best measure
of public opinion. They collect information about public opinion by asking people
questions.
List the five steps of the polling process. Give a brief description of each.
a sample. Random samples are drawn based on the law of probability, since in some cases, it is
7. Step 2 Construct
__________________________________________________________________________
impossible
to poll every person in a selected group.
__________________________________________________________________________
valid questions. Questions should be phrased carefully. Avoid using loaded questions and
8. Step 3 Prepare
__________________________________________________________________________
questions
that are worded in a way that can shape answers.
__________________________________________________________________________
interviews. Whether a poll is conducted face-to-face or by mail or phone, pollsters must use
9. Step 4 Conduct
__________________________________________________________________________
proper
interviewing techniques to avoid invalid results.
__________________________________________________________________________
the poll’s findings. Computers and other electronic hardware help pollsters tabulate and
10. Step 5 Report
__________________________________________________________________________
interpret
results.
__________________________________________________________________________
B. Reviewing Key Terms
On a separate sheet of paper, use each term below in a sentence that shows the meaning of the term.
Answers can be found on the following Student Edition pages:
11. mandate
15. sample
12. interest group
16. random sample
p. 216
p. 216
13. public opinion poll
p. 217
14. straw vote
p. 218
p. 218
17. quota sample
p. 219
p. 217
44 Chapter 8
Guided Reading and Review
© Pearson Education, Inc.
the universe. Figure out which group should be polled.
6. Step 1 Define
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
NAME
CLASS
DATE
Section 3: Guided Reading and Review
CHAPTER
8
The Mass Media
A. As You Read
Complete the chart below as you read Section 3. List the media in order of their degree of influence
on public opinion and give examples of each. Possible answers below
Medium
Examples
1. Television
CBS, NBC, ABC, CNN, PBS, Fox Network
2. Newspapers
New York Times, Washington Post, Chicago Tribune, Los Angeles Times, Wall Street
Journal, Christian Science Monitor, USA Today
3. Radio
NBC, CBS, Mutual Broadcasting System, NPR
4. Magazines
Time, Newsweek, U.S. News and World Report, the Nation, the New Republic, the
National Review
Write the answers to questions 5–7 on the blanks provided.
5. How do the mass media help to shape the public agenda? They
_________have
_________the
______power
___________to
_____get
_______the
_______public
___________to
_____________
focus
on a certain issue.
______________________________________________________
6. How has television influenced each of the following?
© Pearson Education, Inc.
has made candidates less dependent on traditional party
a. the power of political parties Television
______________________________________________________
organizations
by
allowing
them
to
appeal
directly
to
the public.
______________________________________________________
has made political campaigns more image conscious and less focused on complex
b. political campaigns It
______________________________________________________________
policy
debates.
______________________________________________________
people do not follow public events closely.
7. What factors limit the influence of the mass media? Most
____________________________________
Those
who
do
select
sources
of
information
that
reflect
and
support
views
they already hold.
______________________________________________________
B. Reviewing Key Terms
On a separate sheet of paper, define the following terms.
means of communication
8. medium a________________________________________________________________________
that politicians and citizens agree need to be addressed
________________________________________________________
9. public agenda issues
sharply focused news report that lasts 30–45 seconds
10. sound bite short,
______________________________________________________________________
Guided Reading and Review
Chapter 8 45
NAME
CLASS
CHAPTER
9
DATE
Section 1: Guided Reading and Review
The Nature of Interest Groups
A. As You Read
Use the information in Section 1 to fill in the following supporting facts under each main idea.
Main Idea A: Interest groups differ from political parties in several ways. Possible answers below
groups do not nominate candidates.
1. Interest
________________________________________________________________________________
Interest groups want to influence or control government policies while political parties want to control
itself.
2. government
________________________________________________________________________________
groups concentrate on one issue while political parties are interested in many issues of public concern.
3. Interest
________________________________________________________________________________
Main Idea B: Interest groups have historically been regarded with suspicion.
the danger of uncontrolled “factions” that might pursue goals that
with the rights and interests of the community
4. James Madison warned against conflict
____________________________________________________.
a balance of power so that no
5. Madison hoped to moderate the power of interest groups through ______________________
faction
would become dominant
________________________________________________________________________________.
Main Idea C: Interest groups fulfill many functions in American society.
groups help stimulate interest in public affairs.
6. Interest
________________________________________________________________________________
groups represent their members on the basis of shared attitudes rather than shared geography.
7. Interest
________________________________________________________________________________
groups provide specialized information to government agencies.
8. Interest
________________________________________________________________________________
groups are vehicles for political participation.
9. Interest
________________________________________________________________________________
groups provide additional checks and balances to the system.
10. Interest
________________________________________________________________________________
Main Idea D: Interest groups also pose a number of problems for the United States.
interest groups have an influence far out of proportion to their membership.
12. Some
________________________________________________________________________________
is difficult to tell how many people an interest group truly represents.
13. It
________________________________________________________________________________
interest groups do not really represent the views of all the people for whom they claim to speak.
14. Many
________________________________________________________________________________
groups use unfair or illegal tactics that, if widely adopted, would undermine the political system.
15. Some
________________________________________________________________________________
B. Reviewing Key Terms
Define the terms listed below in the spaces provided.
An interest group is an organization whose members are linked by a common opinion. The group
to persuade public officials to respond to the shared attitude of the members.
16. interest group tries
____________________________________________________________________
the goals the government sets and the actions it takes to reach those goals
17. public policy all
____________________________________________________________________
issues that concern the people at large
18. public affairs ____________________________________________________________________
46 Chapter 9
Guided Reading and Review
© Pearson Education, Inc.
groups compete with one another in the public arena.
11. Interest
________________________________________________________________________________
NAME
CLASS
DATE
Section 2: Guided Reading and Review
CHAPTER
9
Types of Interest Groups
A. As You Read
1. On a separate sheet of paper, write four sentences summarizing the information given about
interest groups under the heading “An American Tradition.” Answers will vary
As you read Section 2, complete the chart below by filling in the type of interest group or examples
of the type of interest group. Possible answers below
Type of Interest Group
Business Groups
Chamber of Commerce, United States Brewers’ Association
2. NAM,
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
Labor Groups
Fraternal Order of Police, International Longshore and
3. AFL-CIO,
_____________________________________________________
Warehouse
Union
_____________________________________________________
agricultural groups
4. _____________________
National Grange, American Farm Bureau,
National Farmers Union
Professional Groups
Medical Association, American Bar Association, National
5. American
_____________________________________________________
Education
Association
_____________________________________________________
groups that promote causes
6. _____________________
ACLU, Sierra Club, National Women’s Political Caucus
Organizations That Promote
7. _____________________
American Legion, Older Americans, Inc., NAACP
religious organizations
8. _____________________
National Council of Churches, American Jewish Congress,
National Catholic Welfare Council
Public- Interest Groups
of Women Voters, Common Cause, Public Citizen, Inc.
9. League
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
the Welfare of Certain Groups
© Pearson Education, Inc.
Examples
B. Reviewing Key Terms
Match the groups in Column I with the interest group type in Column II.
Column I
Column II
c
_____
10. a group that pushes for public policies that benefit
most or all people in the country, regardless of whether
they belong to or support the group
a. trade association
a
_____
11. an interest group for a segment of the business community
b. labor union
c. public-interest group
b
_____
12. an organization of workers who work in the same type
of job or who work in the same industry
Guided Reading and Review
Chapter 9 47
NAME
CLASS
CHAPTER
9
DATE
Section 3: Guided Reading and Review
Interest Groups at Work
A. As You Read
Answers will vary for 1–9. Possible answers are listed below.
As you read Section 3, write three supporting details for each of the main ideas given.
Main Idea A: Interest groups try to influence public opinion.
1.
Interest groups supply the public with information to support their interests.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
2.
Interest groups try to build positive reputations in society.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
3.
Interest groups work to persuade the public to adopt their views on policy issues.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
Main Idea B: Interest groups help and make use of political parties.
4.
Interest groups try to secure the support of one or both parties.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
5.
Much campaign funding comes from interest groups.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
6.
Single-interest groups often campaign hard against candidates who oppose their stand on an issue.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
Main Idea C: Lobbying involves many functions.
7.
Lobbying is more than just working to influence legislation before it is passed.
________________________________________________________________________________
8.
Lobbyists work to influence how strictly a law is enforced.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
9.
Lobbyists also try to influence how laws are interpreted by the courts.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
B. Reviewing Key Terms
On a separate sheet of paper, define each key term below and use it in a sentence.
10. propaganda a technique of persuasion aimed at influencing individual or group behavior
11. single-interest group organization that concentrates on one issue
12. lobbying all of the methods by which group pressures are brought to bear on all aspects of the publicpolicy-making process
13. grass roots related to the people, the average voter
48 Chapter 9
Guided Reading and Review
© Pearson Education, Inc.
________________________________________________________________________________
NAME
CLASS
DATE
Section 1: Guided Reading and Review
The National Legislature
CHAPTER
10
A. As You Read
The main points of Section 1 are supplied for you below in the form of questions. As you read the
section, fill in the answers to the questions.
Two Houses of Congress
The British
1. What is the historical reason for Americans choosing a bicameral system? __________
Parliament
and most colonial legislatures were bicameral.
__________________________________________________________________________
Bicameralism
2. What is a practical reason for Americans choosing a bicameral system? ____________
settled
the conflict between the Virginia and New Jersey plans of 1787 and reflected American federalism.
__________________________________________________________________________
Bicameralism
3. What is a theoretical reason for Americans choosing a bicameral system? __________
allows
each house to act as a check and balance on the other.
__________________________________________________________________________
Terms and Sessions
4. What is a term of Congress?
the length of time elected officials serve after being elected
________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
5. What is a session of Congress?
the regular period of time during which Congress performs
______________________________________________
legislative
work
__________________________________________________________________________
© Pearson Education, Inc.
two
6. How many sessions are there in a term of Congress? ____________________________
B. Reviewing Key Terms
Define the following terms.
to suspend a session until the next session
7. adjourn ____________________________________________________________________
a meeting of Congress called by the President to deal with some pressing issue
8. special session ______________________________________________________________
Guided Reading and Review
Chapter 10 49
NAME
CLASS
CHAPTER
10
DATE
Section 2: Guided Reading and Review
The House of Representatives
A. As You Read
Using information from this section, complete the chart below, which shows data related to the
House of Representatives.
Characteristics
of House
Description
1. Size
435 seats
2. Terms
two years
3. Date of election
Tuesday following first Monday in November of each even-numbered year
Characteristics
of Its Members
4. Age
at least 25 years
5. Length of citizenship
at least seven years
6. Residence
inhabitant of State from which chosen
B. Reviewing Key Terms
Define the following terms
Gerrymandering is drawing congressional districts to the advantage of the party in power.
7. gerrymandering ____________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
Reapportionment is redistributing the seats in the House of Representatives in keeping with
the latest census.
8. reapportionment ________________________________________________________
An off-year election is an election for Congress in a year without a presidential election.
9. off-year election ____________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
50 Chapter 10
Guided Reading and Review
© Pearson Education, Inc.
Qualifications
NAME
CLASS
DATE
Section 3: Guided Reading and Review
The Senate
CHAPTER
10
A. As You Read
Using information from this section, compare data about the Senate with data about the House by
filling in the blanks in the chart below.
The Congress
Characteristic
House
Senate
Size
435
100
1. _______________________
Term Length
2 years
6 years
2. _______________________
Date of Elections
Tuesday following first
Tuesday following first Monday
3. _______________________
Monday in November of
in November of each even_______________________
each even-numbered year
numbered year
_______________________
Qualifications
Age
At least 25 years
at least 30 years
4. _______________________
Length of Citizenship
At least 7 years
at least 9 years
5. _______________________
Residence
Inhabitant of the State
inhabitant of State from which
6. _______________________
chosen
© Pearson Education, Inc.
How Chosen
Originally
By voters in district
by State legislatures
7. _______________________
Today
By voters in district
by voters in the State
8. _______________________
B. Reviewing Key Terms
Complete each sentence by writing the correct term in the blank provided.
continuous body
9. The Senate is a _______________,
that is, all of its seats are never up for election
at the same time.
Constituencies
10. _______________
are the people and interests the senators represent.
Guided Reading and Review
Chapter 10 51
NAME
CHAPTER
10
CLASS
DATE
Section 4: Guided Reading and Review
The Members of Congress
A. As You Read
As you read Section 4, answer the questions below on the roles played by members of Congress
and the compensation and privileges of the job.
Roles Played by a Member of Congress
makes laws
1. Legislator: What does a legislator do? ________________________________________________
2. Committee member: What do members do as part of a congressional committee?
__________
evaluate
bills, perform oversight function
__________________________________________________________________________________
decides issues on merit alone,
3. Trustee: How does a member of Congress act as a trustee? ______________________________
regardless
of the views of constituents or other groups
__________________________________________________________________________________
acts as the constituents’ agents,
4. Delegate: How does a member of Congress act as a delegate? ____________________________
regardless
of personal beliefs
__________________________________________________________________________________
votes in line with wishes of party
5. Partisan: How does a member of Congress act as a partisan? ____________________________
platform
and leaders
__________________________________________________________________________________
combines roles of trustee, delegate,
6. Politico: How does a member of Congress act as a politico? ______________________________
Compensation and Privileges
7. Salary: What is the current salary of a member of Congress?
$141,300
____________________________
8. Nonsalary compensation: What are some fringe benefits for members of Congress? __________
tax
deductions, travel allowances, low-cost health insurance, pension plan, money for offices and staffs, franking privilege
__________________________________________________________________________________
Members of Congress
9. Privileges: To what does the phrase “cloak of legislative immunity” refer? __________________
are
immune from arrest for misdemeanors during congressional sessions and may not be sued for libel.
__________________________________________________________________________________
B. Reviewing Key Terms
Define the following terms.
the people of a legislator’s State or district
10. constituency _____________________________________________________________________
congressional duty to see that the agencies in the executive branch are working effectively
11. oversight function ________________________________________________________________
and according to legal policies
52 Chapter 10
Guided Reading and Review
© Pearson Education, Inc.
and
partisan and acts as a “practical” politician
__________________________________________________________________________________
NAME
CLASS
DATE
Section 1: Guided Reading and Review
The Scope of Congressional Powers
CHAPTER
11
A. As You Read
Compare the concepts of strict and liberal constructionism by completing the chart below.
Construction of the Constitution
Strict
Liberal
Definition
narrow, literal interpretation of the
1. _________________________
broad interpretation of the
2. _________________________
Major proponent
Jefferson
3. _________________________
Hamilton
4. _________________________
Attitude toward
implied powers
only when necessary to carry out
5. use
_________________________
use often and energetically
6. _________________________
Attitude toward
national power
should be restrained and limited,
7. _________________________
be strong and allowed to grow
8. should
_________________________
Attitude toward
State power
should remain strong and keep
9. _________________________
should be restrained
10. ________________________
Constitution
expressed powers
except for defense
most power
Constitution
B. Reviewing Key Terms
© Pearson Education, Inc.
Complete each sentence by writing the correct term in the blank provided.
11. The Constitution gives powers to the Congress in three ways:
expressed
a. through the _________________________,
or clearly stated, powers,
implied
b. through the _________________________,
powers (powers deducted from
the clearly stated powers),
inherent
c. through the _________________________powers,
those possessed by all
sovereign states.
Guided Reading and Review
Chapter 11 53
NAME
CLASS
CHAPTER
11
DATE
Section 2: Guided Reading and Review
The Expressed Powers of Money and Commerce
A. As You Read
Complete the chart below showing the major powers granted to Congress by the Constitution in
the areas of money and commerce.
Congress’s Constitutional Powers of Money and Commerce
Power
Allows Congress to...
Taxation
lay and collect taxes to pay debts and provide for common defense and
1. ________________________________________________________
general welfare
________________________________________________________
Borrowing
borrow money to finance projects
2. ________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
Commerce
regulate interstate and foreign trade
3. ________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
Currency
coin money and regulate its value
4. ________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
Bankruptcy
establish uniform laws on the subject of bankruptcies
5. ________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
B. Reviewing Key Terms
charge levied by government on persons or property to meet government needs
6. tax __________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
tax paid by one party and passed on to another
7. indirect tax ____________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
spending more than is taken in and borrowing to make up the difference
8. deficit financing ________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
all the money government borrowed over the years that is not yet repaid
9. public debt ____________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
money that must be accepted in payment of a debt
10. legal tender ____________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
the legal proceeding in which the court distributes people’s assets among their creditors
11. bankruptcy ____________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
54 Chapter 11
Guided Reading and Review
© Pearson Education, Inc.
Define the following terms.
NAME
CLASS
DATE
Section 3: Guided Reading and Review
Other Expressed Powers
CHAPTER
11
A. As You Read
Fill in the supporting points in the outline below in the form of answers to the questions.
Foreign Relations Powers
1. Which parts of the National Government share the power in the field of foreign affairs? ______
Congress
and the President
__________________________________________________________________________________
the President
2. Which part is primarily responsible for conducting foreign relations? ______________________
The States have no role because they are
3. What is the role of the States in foreign affairs and why? _________________________________
not
sovereign powers.
__________________________________________________________________________________
War Powers
Congress
4. Who has the power to declare war? ___________________________________________________
Congress has the power to restrict use of U.S.
5. What did the War Powers Resolution of 1973 state? _____________________________________
forces
in combat areas that are not in a state of war.
__________________________________________________________________________________
Other Expressed Powers
the postal power
6. What power gives Congress the right to make laws regulating mailing? _____________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
7. What is the role of the National Institute of Standards and Technology in fulfilling an expressed
It maintains the standard of weights and measures.
power? ___________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
© Pearson Education, Inc.
Judicial Powers
8. The Constitution specifically mentions the following four kinds of federal crimes:
counterfeiting
a. __________________________________
piracy and felonies on the high seas
b. __________________________________
offenses against law of nations
c. __________________________________
treason
d. __________________________________
9. Which part of the National Government has the expressed power of creating and providing for
Congress
the organization of federal courts?_____________________________________________________
B. Reviewing Key Terms
Complete each sentence by writing the correct term in the blank provided.
Naturalization
10. _________________________
is the process of making non-citizens into citizens.
copyright
11. A _______________________
protects the right of an author over original writings.
patent
12. A _______________________
protects an inventor’s rights to inventions.
Eminent domain
13. _________________________
is the right of a government to take private property for public use.
Guided Reading and Review
Chapter 11 55
NAME
CHAPTER
11
CLASS
DATE
Section 4: Guided Reading and Review
The Implied Powers
A. As You Read
Complete the following time line by inserting the correct events described in Section 4 in the spaces
indicated. Then answer the questions that follow.
1. 1790
3. 1816
5. 1819
Hamilton recommended
Congress created
Congress establish a
______________________
a second national bank
______________________
the
Constitution need not expressly
______________________
national bank
______________________
______________________
empower
Congress to create a bank,
______________________
______________________
______________________
supporting implied powers
______________________
2. 1791
4. 1818
Congress set up first
Maryland placed a tax on
The Supreme Court ruled
national bank
______________________
all
notes issued by banks doing
______________________
______________________
business in the State but not
______________________
______________________
chartered
by the State legislature
______________________
6. Explain why the Necessary and Proper Clause has often been called the Elastic Clause.
The
clause has been used to stretch the meaning of the Constitution to meet the needs of the
______________________________________________________________________
American
people.
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
7. Why does Congress have the power to appropriate funds for various purposes? ________
The
Necessary and Proper clause allows for implied powers.
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
56 Chapter 11
Guided Reading and Review
© Pearson Education, Inc.
B. Reviewing Key Terms
NAME
CLASS
DATE
Section 5: Guided Reading and Review
CHAPTER
11
The Nonlegislative Powers
A. As You Read
On a separate sheet of paper, answer the following questions as you read Section 5.
Possible answers below
Constitutional Amendments
1. What are two ways Congress may propose an amendment to the Constitution?
2. What are some current issues that many Americans have thought worthy of
constitutional amendment?
1. by two-thirds vote in each house or by calling a national convention at the
Electoral Duties
request of two-thirds of the State legislatures
2. prayer in public schools, abortion, school busing, requiring a balanced
budget, prohibiting flag burning, term limits
3. What electoral duty does the House have?
4. What electoral duty does the Senate have?
3. If the electoral college cannot choose a President by
majority vote, the House must choose.
4. If the electoral college cannot choose a Vice President
by majority vote, the Senate must choose.
Impeachment
5. What role does the House have in the impeachment process?
6. What role does the Senate have in the impeachment process?
Executive Powers
5. It has the sole power to vote
articles of impeachment.
6. It has the sole power to try the
defendant based on the charges
contained in the articles of
impeachment passed by the House.
© Pearson Education, Inc.
7. What are the two executive powers possessed by the Senate?
7. The Senate must confirm major appointments of the President and
8. What is “senatorial courtesy”?
confirm treaties entered into by the President.
8. The Senate will turn down a presidential appointment of a federal
officer to serve in a particular State if the appointment is opposed
Investigatory Powers
by a senator of the President’s party who is from the State involved.
9. What is the usual forum for congressional investigations?
9. congressional committees and
subcommittees
10. What are some reasons for congressional investigations?
10. gather information, oversee
operations of executive agencies,
expose questionable activities by public
officials, and promote the interests of
some members of Congress
B. Reviewing Key Terms
Complete the sentence by writing the correct term in the blank provided.
try an impeached President,
11. It is the Senate, not the House, which has sole power to _______________
Vice President, and all civil officers of the United States.
censure
12. Congress may _____________________
someone by issuing a formal condemnation of the
individual’s actions.
Guided Reading and Review
Chapter 11 57
NAME
CHAPTER
12
CLASS
DATE
Section 1: Guided Reading and Review
Congress Organizes
A. As You Read
Complete the graphic organizer below showing the organization of the House of Representatives
and the Senate. Fill in the presiding officers that are missing from the organizer and code each box,
using the key provided, to indicate whether each officer is a party officer, an official presiding officer, or both.
House
Presiding Officer and Party Leader
Speaker of the House
1. ____________________________________________________________
Party Officers
Majority Floor Leader
2. _________________________
Minority Floor Leader
3. _________________________
Majority Whip
4. _________________________
Minority Whip
5. _________________________
Senate
Presiding Officers
President of the Senate
6. _________________________
President Pro Tempore
7. _________________________
Majority Floor Leader
8. _________________________
Minority Floor Leader
9. _________________________
Majority Whip
10. _________________________
Minority Whip
11. _________________________
B. Reviewing Key Terms
12. He or she presides and maintains order, recognizes speakers,
interprets rules, refers bills to committees, puts questions to a
vote, decides the outcome of most votes,
Answer the following questions on a separate piece of paper.
names members to all committees, and
12. What are the functions of the Speaker of the House?
signs all bills and resolutions.
13. The president of the Senate is the pre13. What are the functions of the president of the Senate?
siding officer of the Senate and recognizes
speakers, puts ques14. What are the functions of the floor leaders and their whips in both houses? tions to a vote, and
may only vote to break a tie. The Vice President fills this post. 14. The leaders devise legislative strategies, carry out
decisions of party caucuses, and steer floor action. By virtue of his or her majority position, the majority leader plans
the order of business on the floor. The whips assist the leaders by advising them and organizing votes on each issue.
58 Chapter 12
Guided Reading and Review
© Pearson Education, Inc.
Party Officers
NAME
CLASS
DATE
Section 2: Guided Reading and Review
Committees in Congress
CHAPTER
12
A. As You Read
Complete the graphic organizer below by answering the questions about congressional committees.
Standing Committees
Select Committees
a permanent
1. What is a standing committee? ________
a temporary
4. What is a select committee?____________
group of either the House or Senate to consider bills
in specific subjects
____________________________________
2. What are the committees’ functions?
Standing committees investigate, evaluate, and sift
through proposed bills.
____________________________________
3. Give 3 examples of such committees.
panel set up for some specific purpose
____________________________________
Select
5. What does a select committee do? ______
committees investigate some current matter for
possible new laws or for special issues.
____________________________________
Possible answers: House Ways and Means; Senate
____________________________________
6. Give 2 examples of a select committee
House Select Committee to
from 1987.__________________________
Finance; House National Security. See chart on
____________________________________
Investigate Covert Arms Transactions with Iran;
____________________________________
Student Edition p. 330 for a list of other possible
____________________________________
Senate Select Committee on Secret Military
____________________________________
answers.
Assistance to Iran and the Nicaraguan Opposition
____________________________________
© Pearson Education, Inc.
Types of Congressional Committees
Joint Committees
Conference Committees
a committee
7. What is a joint committee? ____________
10. What is a conference committee? ______
composed
of members from both houses
____________________________________
A conference committee is temporary and composed
____________________________________
8. What does a joint committee do? investi______
of members of both houses.
____________________________________
gates and issues reports; deals with issues common
____________________________________
to both houses; some have routine duties
9. Give 3 examples of a joint committee.
____________________________________
11. What does a conference committee do?
Joint Economic Committee, Joint Committee
____________________________________
irons out differences between similar bills in the
____________________________________
on Printing, Joint Committee on the Library
____________________________________
House and Senate and produces compromise bills
____________________________________
of Congress
____________________________________
____________________________________
B. Reviewing Key Terms
Answer the question below on a separate sheet of paper.
12. How does the House Rules Committee act as a “traffic cop” in the lower house? It manages
the flow of bills for action by the full House and grants rules, or schedules for consideration, to bills as they emerge
from committees.
Guided Reading and Review
Chapter 12 59
NAME
CLASS
CHAPTER
DATE
Section 3: Guided Reading and Review
12
How a Bill Becomes a Law: The House
A. As You Read
Fill in the information below by writing the answers in the blanks provided.
the executive branch, pressure groups, and private citizens.
1. Most bills are introduced in Congress by ______________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
a proposed law.
2. A bill is __________________________________________________________________________
a matter that concerns either house alone.
3. A resolution deals with ____________________________________________________________
it has the force of law.
4. A joint resolution is like a bill because ________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
matters in which both houses must act jointly without the force of law.
5. A concurrent resolution deals with __________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
numbers and names the bill and enters it into the House Journal and
6. At a first reading of a bill, the clerk __________________________________________________
the Congressional Record.
__________________________________________________________________________________
report it favorably; refuse to report it;
7. Five courses of action a committee may take on a bill are:________________________________
report it in amended form; report it unfavorably; or report a substitute bill written by the committee.
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
voice votes, standing votes, teller votes, and roll-call votes.
8. Four types of votes in the House are: ________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
B. Reviewing Key Terms
Define the following terms.
10. rider
a provision that is attached to a measure that is likely to pass
__________________________________________________________________________
the portion of the full membership that must be present in order to do business
11. quorum ________________________________________________________________________
matters in which the Senate and the House must act jointly
12. concurrent resolution______________________________________________________________
a move that forces a committee to present a bill for consideration to the House
13. discharge petition ________________________________________________________________
all the members of the House sitting as one large committee
14. Committee of the Whole __________________________________________________________
60 Chapter 12
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© Pearson Education, Inc.
it is placed on the Senate president’s desk.
9. After a bill has been passed and signed by the Speaker, __________________________________
NAME
CLASS
DATE
Section 4: Guided Reading and Review
The Bill in the Senate
CHAPTER
12
A. As You Read
Fill in the blanks on the flowchart below that outlines the movements of a bill through the Senate.
1. Bill
introduced,
given number
and title, read
two
_____times.
5. The Senate
votes on the
bill; if it
passes the bill
goes to the
House
___________.
2. Bill
referred to
committee
___________.
6. If the
House passes
a different
version of the
bill, aconference committee
____________
is formed.
Majority Floor
3.__________
Leader
____________
calls bill to
debate on
floor.
7. The
conference
committee
works out a
compromise
____________
version of the
bill.
8. The bill is
sent to the
President
___________.
4. Senators
may use the
filibuster
____________
to prevent a
vote on a bill.
9. The Constitution gives
the President
four
____________
options.
B. Reviewing Key Terms
© Pearson Education, Inc.
Complete each sentence by writing the correct term in the blank provided.
cloture
10. The Senate is reluctant to use ___________________
to limit debate.
filibuster
11. In practice, just the threat of a _______________,
an attempt to “talk a bill to death,”
can result in the Senate’s failure to consider certain bills.
12. By not acting on a bill sent by Congress within 10 days of adjourning, the President
pocket veto
performs a ________________
.
veto
13. The President may _______________
a bill sent to him by Congress by refusing to sign it.
Guided Reading and Review
Chapter 12 61
NAME
CLASS
CHAPTER
13
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Section 1: Guided Reading and Review
The President’s Job Description
A. As You Read
As you read Section 1, fill in a brief description for each of the roles of the President given below.
Formal Qualifications for President
1. Age
at least 35
2. Citizenship
must have been born a U.S. citizen
3. U. S. residence
must have lived in United States at least 14 years
Term and Compensation
4. Maximum term length
maximum 10 years (2 full terms plus no more than 2 years)
5. Annual salary
$400,000
6. Annual expenses
$50,000
B. Reviewing Key Terms
Column I
b
_____
7. chief of state
h
_____
8. chief executive
d
_____
9. chief administrator
e
_____
10. chief diplomat
g
_____
11. commander in chief
a
_____
12. chief legislator
f
_____
13. chief of party
c
_____
14. chief citizen
62 Chapter 13
Column II
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
proposes laws to Congress
ceremonial head of government
represents the American people
heads the federal bureaucracy
determines foreign policy
leads his or her political party
commands the armed forces
sees that the nation’s laws are carried out
Guided Reading and Review
© Pearson Education, Inc.
Match the descriptions in Column 1 with the terms in Column II. Write the correct letter in each
blank.
NAME
CLASS
DATE
Section 2: Guided Reading and Review
Presidential Succession and the Vice Presidency
CHAPTER
13
A. As You Read
As you read Section 2, use the chart below to write the correct order of succession to the presidency.
The Order of Succession to the Presidency
President
1. Vice
______________________________________________
of the House
2. Speaker
______________________________________________
pro tempore of the Senate
3. president
______________________________________________
of state
4. secretary
______________________________________________
of the treasury
5. secretary
______________________________________________
Answer the following questions in the blanks provided. Possible answers below
Twenty6. How does the Constitution provide for situations in which the President is disabled? The
________
fifth Amendment states that the Vice President may temporarily assume duties of the presidency if the President
so
requests or if the Vice President and a majority of the Cabinet inform Congress that such a move is necessary.
__________________________________________________________________________________
7. What duties are given to the Vice President by the Constitution? __________________________
The
Vice President’s constitutional duties are to preside over the Senate and to help decide presidential disability.
__________________________________________________________________________________
Vice Presidents are usually chosen to “balance the ticket,”
8. How are Vice Presidents usually selected? ______________________________________________
thus
improving the presidential candidate’s chances of winning the election.
__________________________________________________________________________________
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The Twenty-fifth Amendment states that the
9. How can a vacancy in the vice presidency be filled?______________________________________
President
nominates a new Vice President and that nomination must be confirmed by a majority vote of both houses.
__________________________________________________________________________________
B. Reviewing Key Terms
Write the definition of each term in the blank provided.
the order in which lesser officials take over the duties of the presidency in case
10. presidential succession ____________________________________________________________
those
above them die, resign, or are removed from office
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
presidential candidate chooses a running mate who can strengthen his or her chance of
11. balance the ticket__________________________________________________________________
being
elected by virtue of ideological, geographic, racial, ethnic, gender, or other characteristics
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
Guided Reading and Review
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Section 3: Guided Reading and Review
Presidential Selection: The Framers’ Plan
A. As You Read
As you read Section 3, answer the following questions on the lines provided.
1. What were three methods of presidential election discussed by the Framers? ____________
election by Congress, popular vote, and electoral college
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
2. How did the Framers arrange for the electors to choose the President and Vice President?
They would meet in their States, each casting votes for two different presidential candidates. The person who won
the largest number of votes would be President; the runner-up, Vice President.
______________________________________________________________________________
3. Why did the Framers choose this method of electing the President? What kind of person did
Framers did not want either congressional or popular election of the President.
They expected electors to be respectable, well-informed citizens.
they envision as an elector? ______________________________________________________
Parties nominated not only
4. How did the rise of political parties affect the electoral college? ______________________
presidential and vice-presidential candidates, but also candidates for the electoral college. It was understood
that these electors would not be free agents but were pledged to vote for their parties’ ticket.
______________________________________________________________________________
The election of 1800
5. How did the election of 1800 lead to passage of the 12th Amendment? ________________
ended in a tie between the two candidates of the Democratic-Republican party, Jefferson and Burr. Though the
party clearly meant for Jefferson to be President, the election went through 36 ballots in the House before he was
______________________________________________________________________________
elected. The Twelfth Amendment ensured that this would never happen again by requiring electors to designate
which vote was cast for President and which for Vice President.
B. Reviewing Key Terms
Today, presidential electors are pledged to vote for their parties’ candidates.
6. presidential electors ____________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
The Framers designed the electoral college in order to ensure that the President would be
7. electoral college ________________________________________________________________
elected by knowledgeable people.
______________________________________________________________________________
64 Chapter 13
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© Pearson Education, Inc.
Use each key term below in a sentence that shows the meaning of the term. Possible answers below
NAME
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CHAPTER
Section 4: Guided Reading and Review
13
Presidential Nominations
A. As You Read
Complete the outline below by filling in the blanks to complete the sentences.
The Role of Conventions
congressional caucus
1. From 1800 to 1824, presidential candidates were chosen by ____________________________
________________________________________________________________________________.
national convention
2. In 1832, that system was replaced by the ____________________________________________.
3. Today, the Democratic and Republican parties allot each State a number of party delegates
its past voter support for party candidates
based on the State’s electoral vote and ______________________________________________.
4. The procedure for selecting delegates in a primary is governed by State laws and/or ________
party
rules
________________________________________________________________________________.
Presidential Primaries
choose delegates to the national
conventions
5. A State’s presidential primary may either be a process to ________________________
or to
express preferences for presidential candidates
indicate ____________________________.
proportional representation
6. Winner-take-all primaries have nearly disappeared in favor of __________________________.
caucuses
7. The few States that do not hold primaries choose delegates in ________________________
and
conventions
________________________________________________________________________________.
The National Convention
platform
8. The _________________________
is the statement of a party’s basic principles.
keynote address
9. The _________________________
is the speech that is usually given on the first day of a
convention.
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Who Is Nominated?
incumbent
10. An ____________________________
President who wants to run again is usually nominated.
11. The greatest number of people who have been nominated for President have previously served
State governors
as __________________________.
B. Reviewing Key Terms
Define the following terms.
a popular vote to either (a) elect some or all of a State’s delegates to a national
12. presidential primary ______________________________________________________________
party
convention and/or (b) express a preference among the various contenders for a party’s nomination
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
allowing a State’s delegates to cast votes in proportion to his or her share
13. proportional representation ________________________________________________________
of
the State’s primary vote
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
Guided Reading and Review
Chapter 13 65
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Section 5: Guided Reading and Review
The Election
A. As You Read
Using information from Section 5, complete the chart below, which shows different plans for
electing the President.
Actual or Proposed System
Electoral College
How it Works
Flaws
Voters in each State vote for
1. electors for a party’s presidential
and vice presidential candidates,
and each State’s votes are
awarded on a winner-take-all basis.
District Plan
Proportional Plan
Direct Popular Election
National Bonus Plan
The winner of the national popular
2. vote may not win the electoral vote;
electors may break their pledges
to vote for the candidates; if there
is no majority, the House decides.
Two electors are chosen from each
3. State at large and cast votes in
4. The winner of the popular vote may
not win the electoral vote.
accordance with statewide popular
vote. All other delegates are
elected separately from State’s
congressional districts.
5. Candidates would receive the same 6. The election may not produce a
percentage of a State’s electoral
clear winner, and third parties
vote as he or she receives in the
would gain power.
State’s popular vote.
7. The electoral college would be
scrapped and the President and
Vice President would be elected by
direct popular vote.
Electoral votes allotted State by
9. State, on winner-take-all basis;
national pool of 102 electoral votes
awarded to winner of popular vote.
In a tie, run-off between two top contenders in popular vote.
requires a Constitutional
8. It
amendment, would weaken
federalism, small States would
oppose it, and it might not
produce a clear winner.
10. This plan is not well known or
understood.
1824
electoral vote for the presidency? _______________
1876
_______________
1888
_______________
B. Reviewing Key Terms
Define the following key term.
the mass of people who actually cast votes
12. electorate ________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
66 Chapter 13
Guided Reading and Review
© Pearson Education, Inc.
11. In which three elections of the past has the winner of the popular vote failed to win the
NAME
CLASS
DATE
Section 1: Guided Reading and Review
The Growth of Presidential Power
CHAPTER
14
A. As You Read
As you read Section 1, complete the sentences below.
Article II
Executive Article
1. Article II is known as the _________________________________
because it establishes
the presidency.
2. Article II establishes the following presidential powers:
the armed forces
a. command
_____________________________________________________
treaties
b. make
_____________________________________________________
or veto acts of Congress
c. approve
_____________________________________________________
and receive diplomatic representatives
d. send
_____________________________________________________
pardons and reprieves
e. grant
_____________________________________________________
that the laws are faithfully executed
f. see
_____________________________________________________
3. Beginning at the Philadelphia Convention in 1787, there has been a struggle between those
strong presidency
weak presidency (in either order)
who want a ________________________
and those who want a __________________________.
Why Presidential Power Has Grown
strong presidency
4. Throughout American history, those who want a _______________________________
have usually prevailed.
5. One reason for the growth of presidential power has been the nation’s increasingly
social and economic life
complex ____________________________________________________.
© Pearson Education, Inc.
decisive action in times of national emergency
6. The frequent need for ___________________________________________________
has
also strengthened presidential power.
Congress
7. Even ___________________
has strengthened the presidency by passing laws that added
to the activities of the executive branch.
The Presidential View
stewardship
8. Some strong, effective Presidents have stated the _______________________
theory,
which takes a broad view of their powers.
9. Critics of strong presidential power compare the President to an emperor, calling a
imperial presidency
strong presidency a(n) _____________________________________.
B. Reviewing Key Terms
Define the following key term on the lines provided.
10. mass media
means of communicating with people, such as the press, radio, television, and the Internet
____________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
Guided Reading and Review
Chapter 14 67
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Section 2: Guided Reading and Review
The President’s Executive Powers
A. As You Read
As you read Section 2, use the chart below to indicate whether the power is implied or expressed
and to describe each executive power shown.
Function
The Executive Powers of the President
Implied or
Gives the President Power to…
Expressed?
Executing the Law
1.
expressed
2.
uphold and carry out all federal laws, with some
discretion in interpreting and enforcing them
The Ordinance Power
3.
implied
4.
direct the administration of the executive branch;
issue orders and delegate responsibility within
the bureaucracy
The Appointment
Power
5.
expressed
6.
appoint some officials on his own authority and
appoint other officials with the Senate’s approval
The Removal Power
7.
implied
8.
remove any person he or she has appointed, except
for federal judges; Congress may set limits on his
or her power to remove the heads of independent
agencies that are not purely executive agencies
Use each key term below in a sentence that shows the meaning of the term. Possible answers below
Article II, Section 1 of the Constitution stipulates that the President must take the oath of
9. oath of office _____________________________________________________________________
office on the day he takes office.
________________________________________________________________________________
A President’s executive order does not need Senate approval, but has the force of law.
10. executive order ___________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
68 Chapter 14
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© Pearson Education, Inc.
B. Reviewing Key Terms
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CHAPTER
Section 3: Guided Reading and Review
14
Diplomatic and Military Powers
A. As You Read
As you read Section 3, complete the outline by filling in the blanks.
The Power to Make Treaties
two or more sovereign states
1. A treaty is a formal agreement between ______________________________________________.
Senate
2. After the President negotiates a treaty, the __________________
must approve it by a
two-thirds vote.
___________
joint resolution
3. Presidents Tyler and McKinley encouraged Congress to pass a __________________
to
annex territory after the approval of a treaty had been defeated in the Senate.
Executive Agreements
a pact between the President and the head of a foreign state, or a subordinate
4. An executive agreement is __________________________________________________________.
5. One difference between an executive agreement and a treaty is that an executive agreement
Senate consent
does not require __________________________________________________________________.
The Power of Recognition
6. By exercising the power of recognition, the President acknowledges the
legal existence
______________________
of another country and its government.
guarantee
7. Prompt recognition of a country or its government may ______________
its existence.
8. Displeasure with another country’s conduct may be shown by the President’s asking for
recall of that country’s ambassador or other diplomat
__________________________________________.
9. The most serious diplomatic rebuke one nation may give another is the _____________
withdrawal of recognition
__________________________________________.
© Pearson Education, Inc.
Commander in Chief
unlimited
10. The President’s powers as commander in chief are almost ______________________________.
a congressional declaration of war
11. Presidents have used the armed forces in combat abroad without ________________________.
wartime
12. A President’s power as commander in chief is greatest during __________________________.
13. Congress passed the War Powers Resolution in 1973 to limit the President’s war-making
the war in Vietnam
powers in response to ____________________________________________________________.
14. The constitutionality of the War Powers Resolution remains
in dispute
__________________________.
B. Reviewing Key Terms
Define the following term.
15. persona non grata
Guided Reading and Review
an unwelcome person; when referring to a diplomat, it means a person who is
unwelcome in the country to which he or she has been posted
______________________________________________________________
Chapter 14 69
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Section 4: Guided Reading and Review
Legislative and Judicial Powers
A. As You Read
As you read Section 4, complete the outline on legislative powers by writing the correct words or
phrases in the blanks.
1. Using his message power, the President regularly sends these three major messages to Congress:
the State of the Union message
a. _____________________________________________________________
President’s budget message
b. the
_____________________________________________________________
the annual Economic Report
c. _____________________________________________________________
2. The President’s four options in dealing with a measure passed by Congress are:
sign the bill into law
a. _____________________________________________________________
the bill
b. veto
_____________________________________________________________
not sign it, allowing it to become law
c. _____________________________________________________________
pocket veto, not sign a bill at the end of a congressional session, which does not allow
to become law
d. it
_____________________________________________________________
3. Throughout history Presidents have requested the veto power to include the
line-item veto
__________________
that would allow them to cancel specific dollar amounts in spending.
special session
4. Article II, Section 3 allows the President to call Congress into ____________________________.
prorogue (adjourn)
5. No President has yet used the power to ______________________________________
Congress.
Match the descriptions in Column I with the terms in Column II. Write the correct letter
in each blank.
Column I
Column II
c
_____
6. a general pardon offered to a group of lawbreakers
a. commutation
b
_____
7. mercy or leniency given in cases involving federal offenses
b. clemency
d
_____
8. a postponement of the execution of a sentence imposed
by a court
c. amnesty
a
_____
e. pardon
9. a reduction in the severity of a sentence or fine imposed
by a court
d. reprieve
e
_____
10. legal forgiveness of a crime
70 Chapter 14
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© Pearson Education, Inc.
B. Reviewing Key Terms
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CHAPTER
Section 1: Guided Reading and Review
15
The Federal Bureaucracy
A. As You Read
Fill in the outline below by answering the questions in the spaces provided.
What Is a Bureaucracy?
1. Name the three main characteristics of a bureaucracy and explain why each is important.
hierarchical authority: Makes it clear who has the power to make decisions, thus reducing conflicts
a.
over authority.
____________________________________________________________________________
b.
who have gained highly specialized skills.
____________________________________________________________________________
c.
formalized rules: Decisions are based on rules and standards and not by any individual’s likes or dislikes.
____________________________________________________________________________
job specialization: Because each person has a specific job, the work is conducted more efficiently by people
Major Elements of the Federal Bureaucracy
The Constitution
2. How does the Constitution make reference to a federal bureaucracy? ________________
makes the President the chief administrator of the Federal Government and gives him the power to require heads
of
executive departments to assist in the administration of government.
_______________________________________________________________________
3. Which two departments does the Constitution anticipate?
department for foreign affairs
a. _________________________________
department for the military
b. _________________________________
The Name Game
Define the following titles of executive branch units and give one example of each unit. You may
use section content and the chart on Student Edition page 417.
refers to agencies of Cabinet rank; possible answers: Department of State, Department of Defense
4. department ____________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
can refer to any governmental body or to a major unit headed by a single administrator of near5. agency ________________________________________________________________________
Cabinet
status; possible answers: Environmental Protection Agency, Central Intelligence Agency
________________________________________________________________________________
like agency, refers to a major unit headed by a single administrator of near-Cabinet status;
6. administration __________________________________________________________________
possible
answers:
Social
Security Administration, Small Business Administration
________________________________________________________________________________
© Pearson Education, Inc.
used for agencies charged that regulate business activities and for agencies that investigate,
7. commission ______________________________________________________________
revise,
and report; possible answers: Federal Communications Commission, Civil Rights Commission
________________________________________________________________________________
title given to agencies that conduct business-like activities; possible answers:
8. corporation/authority ____________________________________________________________
Federal
Deposit Insurance Corporation, Tennessee Valley Authority
________________________________________________________________________________
Staff and Line Agencies
Define the following terms and give an example of each.
agencies that support the President and other administrators by offering advice and assistance;
any agency that is part of Executive Office of the President
9. staff agency ______________________________________________________________________
agencies that perform the task for which the agency exists; Environmental Protection Agency
10. line agency ______________________________________________________________________
B. Reviewing Key Terms
On a separate sheet of paper, use each key term in a sentence that shows the meaning of the term.
11. bureaucrat
12. administration
11. A person who works for a bureaucracy and who has defined duties and responsibilities is known
as a bureaucrat.
12. The government’s many administrators and agencies comprise the administration, without which
policies would not be executed.
Guided Reading and Review
Chapter 15 71
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Section 2: Guided Reading and Review
The Executive Office of the President
A. As You Read
As you read Section 2, use the chart below to organize information about the Executive Office of
the President (EOP). Describe the major function of each agency in the Executive Office shown in
boxes 1–11. Possible answers below
Function
1. White House Executive Office
acts as the “nerve center” of the executive branch; houses
key executive personnel
2. National Security Council
advises President in domestic, foreign, and military
matters relating to national security
3. Office of Management and Budget
prepares federal budget that the President submits to
Congress; reports on functioning of all executive agencies;
checks agency stands on legislative matters
4. Office of National Drug Control Policy
prepares a drug-control strategy and coordinates
federal agencies that fight drugs
5. Council of Economic Advisers
provides information and advice to the President on
nation’s economy
6. Office of Policy Development
advises the President on domestic affairs
7. Council of Environmental Equality
helps the President with environmental policy matters
and helps the President prepare the “state of the
environment” report
8. Office of the Vice President
aids the Vice President in his duties
9. Office of the U.S. Trade Representatives
advises the President in foreign trade matters
10. Office of Science and Technology
advises the President on all scientific matters that
apply to national policies and programs
11. Office of Administration
provides Executive Office agencies with support services
B. Reviewing Key Terms
Define each of the following terms in the space provided.
a detailed estimate of the nation’s income and spending for the coming fiscal year
12. federal budget __________________________________________________________________
a 12-month period used for record-keeping, budgets, and other financial management purposes;
the Federal Government’s fiscal year is October 1–September 30
13. fiscal year ______________________________________________________________________
any matters within the United States’ borders
14. domestic affairs __________________________________________________________________
72 Chapter 15
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© Pearson Education, Inc.
Executive Office Agencies
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Section 3: Guided Reading and Review
The Executive Departments
CHAPTER
15
A. As You Read
As you read Section 3, fill in the answers to the questions below.
Cabinet departments
1. What is another name for the executive departments? ________________________________
2. What is the title for the heads of most executive departments?
secretary
________________________
attorney general
3. What is the title for the head of the Department of Justice? ____________________________
to serve as
4. What are the two main duties of the heads of the executive departments? ________________
advisors to the President and to serve as heads of their own departments
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
15
5. How many executive departments are there today? __________________________________
6. About what percentage of employees of executive departments are career people, not political
80%
appointees? ____________________________________________________________________
7. About what percentage of employees of executive departments do not work in Washington,
90%
D.C.? __________________________________________________________________________
8. What is the role of the Cabinet?
to serve as an informal advisory board to the President
__________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
9. What is the process for appointing the heads of executive departments?
________________
the President appoints the heads and the Senate must confirm them
________________________________________________________________________________
It is the product of custom and usage.
10. What is the basis for the existence of the Cabinet? ____________________________________
© Pearson Education, Inc.
in 1933
11. When was the first woman appointed to the Cabinet? ________________________________
12. What President appointed the greatest number of women and minority members to the
Clinton
Cabinet? ______________________________________________________________________
B. Reviewing Key Terms
Define the following term in the space provided.
An executive department is a department of Cabinet rank.
13. executive department ____________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
Guided Reading and Review
Chapter 15 73
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Section 4: Guided Reading and Review
Independent Agencies
A. As You Read
As you read Section 4, fill in the chart below describing the functions of the three types of independent agencies, and giving at least two examples of each type of agency.
Type of Agency
Independent Executive
Agencies
Independent Agencies
Functions
1. function much like Cabinet departments,
but without Cabinet status
Examples
2. Possible examples: General Services
Administration, NASA, Federal
Election Commission
Possible examples: Federal Reserve
Independent Regulatory 3. regulate important parts of the
nation’s economy
Commissions
4. System, Federal Communications
Government
Corporations
6. U.S. Postal Service, FDIC, TVA
5. carry out government’s business-like
activities
Commission, Nuclear Regulatory
Commission
B. Reviewing Key Terms
Complete each sentence by writing the correct term or phrase in the blank provided.
7. The term independent agencies means that the agencies are not part of ____________________
quasi-legislative
8. Independent regulatory commissions are ______________________
bodies, which means they
have the power to make rules and regulations.
deciding disputes in those fields in
9. They also have quasi-judicial powers, which they exercise by ____________________________
which
Congress has given them policing authority.
____________________________________________________________________________________________________.
74 Chapter 15
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© Pearson Education, Inc.
Cabinet
departments
__________________________________________________________________________________.
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Section 5: Guided Reading and Review
The Civil Service
CHAPTER
15
A. As You Read
As you read Section 5, answer the questions below about changes in the manner of choosing
federal employees.
1. How did the first Presidents choose federal officials?
The first Presidents chose federal officials on
__________________________________
the basis of who was best qualified for the job, but favored those who shared their political views or belonged to the
same
party.
______________________________________________________________________
Jackson fired thousands of officeholders and handed out
2. How did Jackson choose federal officials? ____________________________________________
their jobs to his own friends and supporters. Jackson believed that any person of normal intelligence was qualified to
hold
any government post, so he paid no attention to choosing the best person for a job.
______________________________________________________________________
3. What government action began civil service reform and how did it work?
________________
With the passage of the Pendleton Act, the civil service system of merit hiring began to replace the spoils system.
Classified
employees were hired by the Civil Service Commission on the basis of competitive examinations.
______________________________________________________________________
4. What two agencies run and oversee the civil service system today? Describe the functions of
The Office of Personnel Management recruits, hires, and trains federal employees. The Merit System
each. ____________________________________________________________________________
Protection
Board polices the merit system and hears appeals from federal workers who have complaints about
______________________________________________________________________
personnel
actions.
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
5. How has the Federal Employees Political Activities Act of 1993 relaxed restrictions placed by
In addition to allowing federal employees to vote, the 1993 act allows them to help
the Hatch Act of 1939? ____________________________________________________________
register
new voters, contribute money to parties and candidates, participate in campaigns, and hold office in a
______________________________________________________________________
political
party.
______________________________________________________________________
© Pearson Education, Inc.
______________________________________________________________________
B. Reviewing Key Terms
Use each key term below in a sentence that shows the meaning of the term. Possible answers below
If I had known that this company used the spoils system and hired friends and supporters and
6. spoils system ____________________________________________________________________
not
necessarily those most qualified for the position, I might never have applied.
________________________________________________________________________________
Andrew Jackson’s patronage practices rewarded friends and supporters with government jobs
7. patronage ______________________________________________________________________
rather
than those most qualified.
________________________________________________________________________________
After taking the civil service examination, I am hoping that I will be placed on the Office of Personnel
8. register__________________________________________________________________________
Management’s
register of people who have passed.
________________________________________________________________________________
The bipartisan committee had an equal number of Democrats and Republicans.
9. bipartisan ______________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
I am trying to decide whether to take the civil service exam and apply for a job in the government.
10. civil service ______________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
Guided Reading and Review
Chapter 15 75
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Section 1: Guided Reading and Review
Taxes
A. As You Read
Write the answers to the questions below in the blanks provided.
The Power to Tax
1. What are the expressed constitutional limitations to the power to tax?
may be levied only for public purposes.
a. Taxes
______________________________________________________________________________
Export taxes are prohibited.
b. ______________________________________________________________________________
Direct taxes must be equally apportioned among the States according to their populations.
c. ______________________________________________________________________________
Indirect taxes, such as duties and imposts, must be levied at the same rate throughout the country.
d. ______________________________________________________________________________
2. What is the implied limitation on the power to tax State and local governments and how can
the Federal Government tax them?
Federal Government may not tax State or local governments in the exercise of their governmental duties.
a. The
______________________________________________________________________________
The Federal Government may tax nongovernmental State and local activities, such as a tax on State-sold liquor.
b. ______________________________________________________________________________
Current Federal Taxes
3. What are the six types of revenue-raising taxes imposed by the Federal Government?
income tax
a. individual
______________________________________________________________________________
corporation income tax
b. ______________________________________________________________________________
social insurance taxes (includes OASDI, Medicare, and unemployment compensation)
c. ______________________________________________________________________________
taxes
d. excise
______________________________________________________________________________
estate and gift taxes
e. ______________________________________________________________________________
customs duties
f. ______________________________________________________________________________
Taxing for Nonrevenue Purposes
B. Reviewing Key Terms
Progressive taxes are
5. What is the difference between a progressive tax and a regressive tax? ____________________
levied according to level of income while regressive taxes are levied at a flat rate.
________________________________________________________________________________
Place a check mark next to each phrase that correctly pairs a type of tax with an example of that tax.
❒
❒
6. payroll tax; Medicare
7. excise tax; federal tax on
imported peanuts
8. progressive tax; income tax
❒
❒ 9. custom duty; tax on tobacco products
76 Chapter 16
10. regressive tax; Medicare
❒
11. estate tax; tax on inheritance
❒
❒ 12. tax return; income tax form
❒ 13. gift tax; tax on gifts
worth more than $1,000
Guided Reading and Review
© Pearson Education, Inc.
4. For what reason other than to raise revenue does Congress levy taxes and how is this power
limited?
Congress levies taxes to regulate activities deemed harmful to the public.
a. ______________________________________________________________________________
power is limited by the Constitution and by the Supreme Court.
b. This
______________________________________________________________________________
NAME
CLASS
DATE
Section 2: Guided Reading and Review
Nontax Revenues and Borrowing
CHAPTER
16
A. As You Read
Answer the following questions as you read Section 2. Possible answers below
Nontax Revenues
1. What are sources of interest that the government collects as nontax revenue? ______________
loans
made by some federal agencies, canal tolls, fees for passports, copyrights, patents and trademarks
______________________________________________________________________
the profit made by the U.S. Mint; they can make money for more than its face value
2. What is seigniorage? ______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
3. What government corporation generates nontax revenue for the government? ______________
United
States Postal Service
______________________________________________________________________
Borrowing
It borrows money to meet
____________________
costs
of crises, to finance large projects, and to pay for deficit financing.
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
4. For what three reasons does the government often borrow money?
The treasury issues securities to
5. Explain the process by which the government borrows money. __________________________
investors.
These securities often take the form of treasury bills and the government promises to repay them with
____________________________________________________________
interest
on a certain date.
____________________________________________________________
The Public Debt
6. What has been the trend of the public debt over the past 20 years?
The public debt has
______________________
© Pearson Education, Inc.
increased
tremendously.
____________________________________________________________
B. Reviewing Key Terms
Define the following terms in the space provided.
7. interest
a fee for borrowing money; generally a percentage of the amount borrowed
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
the yearly shortfall between income and spending; when spending is higher than income
8. deficit __________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
9. surplus
the yearly excess between income and spending; when income is higher than spending the public debt
________________________________________________________________________
is
reduced
________________________________________________________________________________
10. public debt
the government’s total outstanding indebtedness, including all of the money borrowed and not
____________________________________________________________________
yet
repaid plus the accrued interest
________________________________________________________________________________
Guided Reading and Review
Chapter 16 77
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CLASS
CHAPTER
16
DATE
Section 3: Guided Reading and Review
Spending and the Budget
A. As You Read
Complete the chart below by filling in the missing information in the blanks provided.
Possible answers below
Federal Spending
Type of Spending
Controllable
Spending
Uncontrollable
Spending
Meaning
Examples
and the President decide how
1. Congress
___________________________
equipment
2. a. military
_______________________
much will be spent on a specific item in
___________________________
to education
b. aid
_______________________
the budget.
___________________________
protection
c. environmental
_______________________
that Congress and the
3. spending
___________________________
Security benefits
4. a. Social
_______________________
President have no power to change
___________________________
stamps
b. food
_______________________
___________________________
c. Medicare
_______________________
As you read the section, fill in the answers to the questions below.
the President
5. Who initiates the spending process? ________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
It serves as a plan for the execution
6. How does the federal budget serve as a political statement? ____________________________
of public policy.
________________________________________________________________________________
7. According to the chart on page 460, in what three categories has the government spent the
Health and Human Services
________________________________________________________________________________
8. Where does the budget-making process begin?
It begins with each federal agency submitting its
______________________________________
spending plans to the OMB.
________________________________________________________________________________
Congress reviews the budget with the
9. How does Congress become involved in the process? __________________________________
Congressional Budget Office, and congressional committees study it, hold hearings, change it, and prepare
appropriations bills.
________________________________________________________________________________
10. What happens if the 13 appropriations measures are not passed by the beginning of the fiscal
Congress passes a continuing resolution to allow emergency spending.
year? __________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
B. Reviewing Key Terms
Explain the meaning of the following term and give some examples.
any benefit that federal law says must be paid to all those who meet the eligibility requirements;
11. entitlement ______________________________________________________________________
possible
examples: OASDI, Medicare, Medicaid
________________________________________________________________________________
78 Chapter 16
Guided Reading and Review
© Pearson Education, Inc.
Social Security Administration, Department of the Treasury, Department of
most money since 1997? __________________________________________________________
NAME
CLASS
DATE
Section 1: Guided Reading and Review
Foreign Affairs and National Security
CHAPTER
17
A. As You Read
As you read Section 1, answer the questions below in the space provided.
1. What major change took place in the United States’ relationship with the rest of the world
relationships shifted from isolationism to internationalism.
after World War II? These
______________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
policy involves all of a country’s relationships—diplomatic, military,
2. What is foreign policy? Foreign
____________________________________________________________
commercial,
and other—with other countries.
________________________________________________________________________________
The State Department advises the President and
3. What is the main function of the State Department?____________________________________
formulates
and conducts U.S. foreign policy.
________________________________________________________________________________
Foreign Service represents the United States abroad.
4. What does the Foreign Service do? The
__________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
The Framers of the Constitution believed that military power
5. Why is the military under civilian control?____________________________________________
could
threaten a free government if the military were not under civilian control.
________________________________________________________________________________
the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs; army
6. Who are the chief military aides to the secretary of defense? ____________________________
chief
of staff; chief of naval operations; Commandant of the Marine Corps; and air force chief of staff
________________________________________________________________________________
Army, Navy, and Air Force
7. What are the three military departments? the
____________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
B. Reviewing Key Terms
© Pearson Education, Inc.
Match the descriptions in Column I with the terms in Column II. Write the correct letter in each
blank.
Column I
Column II
d
_____
8. refusal to become involved in the world’s affairs
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
e
_____
9. events that take place in one’s own country
b
_____
10. the right to send and receive diplomatic representatives
a
_____
11. freedom of a nation’s ambassadors from the laws
of the country to which they are accredited
f
_____
12. a nation’s relationship with other countries
diplomatic immunity
right of legation
ambassador
isolationism
domestic affairs
foreign affairs
c
_____
13. the President’s representative to another nation
Guided Reading and Review
Chapter 17 79
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CLASS
CHAPTER
17
DATE
Section 2: Guided Reading and Review
Other Foreign and Defense Agencies
A. As You Read
Use the following chart to organize information from this section. If an acronym is used, write out
the full name of the agency on the blank provided. Then answer the questions below the chart on a
separate sheet of paper.
Organization
CIA
1.
Function
to coordinate all information-gathering activities in the Federal
2. ______________________________________________
Government, analyze and evaluate the data it receives, and report
______________________________________________
Central Intelligence Agency
the data to the President
______________________________________________
INS
to deal with people who come to the United States to live and/or
4. ______________________________________________
Immigration and Naturalization
3. Service
work, grant political asylum when appropriate, and naturalize
______________________________________________
new citizens
______________________________________________
NASA
plans and carries out the nation’s space programs toward both
6. ______________________________________________
National Aeronautics and Space
5. Administration
military and peaceful ends
______________________________________________
______________________________________________
Selective Service System
administers the military draft for men between 18 and 26, which
7. ______________________________________________
It may not conduct activities within
8. What limit has Congress imposed on the operations of the CIA? the United States.
9. Briefly describe the history of military conscription in the United States. Colonies and States often
required militia service; conscription was used in the Civil War; a national draft was first used in 1917, and was revived
during the Korean and Vietnam wars.
B. Reviewing Key Terms
Complete each sentence by writing the correct term in the blank provided.
draft
10. When they reach the age of 18, all men must register for the ______________________,
or
compulsory military service.
espionage
11. CIA operations include ______________________,
or spying.
12. People suffering persecution in their own countries may come to the United States for
political asylum
______________________,
or safe haven.
80 Chapter 17
Guided Reading and Review
© Pearson Education, Inc.
exists only on a standby basis today
______________________________________________
NAME
CLASS
DATE
Section 3: Guided Reading and Review
American Foreign Policy Overview
CHAPTER
17
A. As You Read
Using information from Section 3, complete the graphic organizer below.
Key Events in American Foreign Policy
© Pearson Education, Inc.
Dates
Event
Result
1823
Monroe Doctrine
1. ________________
________________
The United States stays out of European affairs
and warns others to stay out of the Americas.
Early 1900s
Roosevelt Corollary to
2. ________________
United States polices Latin America
the Monroe Doctrine
1899
3.__________
Open Door in China
equal trade access to China and preservation
4. promoted
________________________________________
1917
5.__________
U.S. enters World
War I
Intention is “to make world safe for democracy.”
1941
Japan bombs United
States naval base at
Pearl Harbor, Hawaii
States becomes involved in World War II
6. United
________________________________________
________________________________________
________________________________________
After World
War II
Collective security
by the United States, nations form the United Nations
7. Led
________________________________________
with
the intention of acting together to protect peace.
________________________________________
1947
Truman Doctrine
8. ______________
United States supports nations that remain free of
Soviet control.
1948–1949
Berlin Blockade
9. ______________
After Soviets try to blockade West Berlin, the
United States mounts a massive airlift to provide
supplies to West Berlin.
1950–1953
Korean War
10. ______________
UN forces, largely American, defend South Korea
against Communist North Korea.
1962
11. ________
Cuban Missile Crisis
Soviets built up military weapons in Cuba, the
12. After
______________________________________
1965–1973
Vietnam War
13. ______________
United States becomes increasingly involved in a
civil war in Vietnam.
1991
14. ________
Persian Gulf War
15. ______________
United States and allies deploy troops to force
Iraq to withdraw from Kuwait.
of China’s independence
United States orders naval blockade of Cuba.
16. an agreement among the nations of the world to act together
against any nation that threatened world peace 17. the policy of
making America and its allies so militarily strong that their very
will discourage any attack 18. a
Define the following key terms on a separate sheet of paper. strength
period of more than 40 years during which the
16. collective security
18. cold war
20. détente relations between two superpowers were tense and hostile
17. deterrence
19. containment but no military action took place 19. anti-Communist
policy followed by the United States from the mid-1940s
through the 1980s 20. a policy in which tensions
among nations is relaxed
Guided Reading and Review
Chapter 17 81
B. Reviewing Key Terms
NAME
CHAPTER
17
CLASS
DATE
Section 4: Guided Reading and Review
Foreign Aid and Defense Alliances
A. As You Read
Use the chart below to organize the information presented in the textbook on security alliances.
Members
Agreement
NATO
1. United States,
2. mutual defense pact—an armed attack against one is
Rio Pact
3. United States,
4. mutual defense pact and agreement to seek peaceful
ANZUS
5. Australia, New
6. regional security alliance, ensure collective security in
Japanese Pact
7. Japan, United
8. in return for American protection, Japan agrees to allow
Philippines Pact
9. Philippines, United
Korean Pact
Canada, and 17
European Nations
Canada, 32 Latin
American nations
Zealand, United
States
States
States
considered an attack against all
settlements of all disputes among member nations
Pacific region
the United States to maintain land, sea, and air forces in
Japan
10. continuing American military presence in the Philippines to
guarantee Philippine independence (now being revised)
11. South Korea, United 12. United States agrees to aid South Korea in the event of
States
an invasion
On a separate sheet of paper, describe the duties of each of the United Nations organizations listed
below.
13. General Assembly of Justice 13. debates issues, makes recommendations to Security Council and other
bodies, elects officials, proposes amendments to charter, shares power to
14. Security Council
admit, expel, and suspend members 14. responsible for keeping the peace;
15. Economic and Social Council can adopt measures ranging from recommendations to economic and military
sanctions 15. carries out the UN’s many economic, cultural, educational,
16. International Court of Justice health, and related programs 16. decides cases voluntarily brought to it
17. civil service, administrative chores; also, secretary-general has power to
17. Secretariat
bring matters before the Security Council
B. Reviewing Key Terms
Complete each sentence by writing the correct term in the blank provided.
foreign aid
18. Of all the regions that receive American _______________,
Asia has received the greatest
economic assistance.
regional security alliance
19. The Rio Pact is an example of a _______________.
UN Security Council
20. The nonpermanent members of the __________________
are elected to two-year terms by the
General Assembly.
82 Chapter 17
Guided Reading and Review
© Pearson Education, Inc.
Name of Pact or
Organization
NAME
CLASS
DATE
CHAPTER
Section 1: Guided Reading and Review
18
The National Judiciary
A. As You Read
As you read Section 1, answer the questions below.
1. What did Article III, Section 1 of the Constitution create?
Article
III, Section 1 of the Constitution
__________________________
created the national judiciary.
______________________________________________________________________________
courts, sometimes called regular courts, are federal
2. What are constitutional courts? Constitutional
__________________________________________________
courts that Congress formed under Article III. They exercise broad judicial powers.
______________________________________________________________________________
courts, sometimes called legislative courts, were created to hear cases
3. What are special courts? Special
________________________________________________________
arising under the expressed powers given to Congress in Article I. They hear a much narrower range of cases than
the constitutional courts.
______________________________________________________________________________
courts may hear a case if it
4. Under what circumstances may federal courts hear a case? Federal
__________________________
deals with constitutional issues or matters on U.S. waters or the high seas or if the parties in the case are U.S.
officers, one of the 50 States, a foreign government, or a citizen of another State.
______________________________________________________________________________
President appoints federal judges
5. What is the procedure for the selection of federal judges? The
____________________________
and the Senate confirms them.
______________________________________________________________________________
hear and decide cases
6. What is the primary function of federal judges? to
____________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
7. How long are the terms of judges of constitutional courts? life
__________________________
years, depending on the specific court
8. How long are the terms of judges in special courts? 8–15
________________________________
B. Reviewing Key Terms
© Pearson Education, Inc.
Write the definition of each term in the left column in the box in the right column.
Term
exclusive jurisdiction
Definition
9. cases that can be heard only in federal courts
concurrent jurisdiction
10. cases that can be heard either in federal or in State courts
plaintiff
11. the party that files a lawsuit
defendant
12. the party that must defend against a complaint in a lawsuit
original jurisdiction
13. the court in which a case is first heard
appellate jurisdiction
14. a court that hears a case on appeal from a lower court
Guided Reading and Review
Chapter 18 83
NAME
CLASS
CHAPTER
18
DATE
Section 2: Guided Reading and Review
The Inferior Courts
A. As You Read
As you read Section 2, fill in the chart below to help you organize information about each type of
federal court shown.
Court
1. District Court
2. Courts of Appeals
Number of
Courts
a.
a.
Number of
Judges
94
b.
12
b.
Types of Cases
632
c. civil and criminal cases
179
c. appeals only from federal
3. Supreme Court
a.
1
b.
9
4. Court of International
Trade
a.
1
b.
9
5. Court of Appeals
for the Federal
Circuit
a.
1
b.
12
involving federal law
courts and regulatory
agencies
c. appeals from State and federal courts and a few types of
cases with original jurisdiction
c. civil cases relating to
trade and tariffs
c. appeals in federal cases
from across the country
Answer the following questions. Possible answers below
State forms at least one
6. On what basis is the United States divided into judicial districts? Each
________________________
federal
judicial district, no matter what its size or population. States with larger populations are further divided.
__________________________________________________________________________________
were created in 1891 in order to relieve the
7. When and why were the courts of appeals created? They
____________________________________
Supreme
Court of much of the burden of hearing appeals because the High Court’s docket had become overwhelming.
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
B. Reviewing Key Terms
Define the following terms.
a case in which a defendant is tried for committing some action that has been declared by law to
8. criminal case______________________________________________________________________
be
a crime
__________________________________________________________________________________
case involving a noncriminal matter, such as a dispute over terms of a contract or claims of patent
9. civil case a________________________________________________________________________
infringement
__________________________________________________________________________________
of cases to be heard
10. docket list
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
84 Chapter 18
Guided Reading and Review
© Pearson Education, Inc.
There
are also district courts in the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico.
__________________________________________________________________________________
NAME
CLASS
DATE
Section 3: Guided Reading and Review
The Supreme Court
CHAPTER
18
A. As You Read
Complete each sentence by finishing it in the blank provided.
the power to decide if an act is constitutional
1. The term “judicial review” means ___________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________.
the Supreme Court
2. In the United States, the court of last resort in questions of federal law is__________________
________________________________________________________________________________.
v. Madison
3. The first case in which the court used its power of judicial review was Marbury
____________________
________________________________________________________________________________.
a State
4. The Supreme Court has original jurisdiction in cases involving ______________________
or
ambassadors
and
other
public
ministers
those affecting ___________________________________________________________________.
four
5. A case is accepted if at least _________________
Court justices agree to place it on the docket.
briefs
6. When the Supreme Court accepts a case, it receives written documents called _____________
oral arguments
and hears _______________________________________________________________________.
the first Monday in October
7. The opening day of each Supreme Court term is ______________________________________.
B. Reviewing Key Terms
Complete each sentence in Column I by writing the letter of the
correct term from Column II in the blank.
Column I
Column II
d
_____
8. A justice who agrees with the Opinion of the Court
may nonetheless decide to write a ___.
a. writ of certiorari
© Pearson Education, Inc.
e
_____
9. If the Chief Justice agrees with the Opinion of the
Court, he or she decides who will write the ___.
a
_____
10. When the Supreme Court accepts a case for review,
it issues a ___.
c
_____
11. Justices who disagree with an Opinion of the Court
may register their views by writing a ___.
b. certificate
c. dissenting opinion
d. concurring opinion
e. majority opinion
b
_____
12. If an inferior court wants guidance from the Supreme
Court on a particular question of law, it may issue a ___.
Guided Reading and Review
Chapter 18 85
NAME
CLASS
CHAPTER
18
DATE
Section 4: Guided Reading and Review
The Special Courts
A. As You Read
As you read Section 4, fill in the chart below to organize information about each special court
shown.
Court
Number of
Judges
1. United States Court
of Federal Claims
a.
2. Territorial Courts
a.
3. Court of Appeals for
the Armed Forces
a.
4. Court of Appeals for
Veterans Claims
a.
5. United States
Tax Court
a.
Term of
Judges
Types of Cases
b.
hears cases in which there are
claims against the government of the United States
c. from all over the country
hear cases like those heard in
local State courts throughout
c. the United States
b. 15 years
c. court-martial convictions
7
b. 15 years
hears appeals from the
decisions of the Board of
Appeals in the
c. Veterans
Department of Veterans
Affairs
19
b. 15 years
c. hears civil cases involving
16
5
b. 15 years
hears appeals of serious
disputes over tax laws
B. Reviewing Key Terms
of a claim
6. redress satisfaction
____________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
court consisting of military officers who try cases of violation of military law by members of the
7. court-martial a______________________________________________________________________
armed
services
__________________________________________________________________________________
court operating as part of the judicial branch, entirely separate from the military establishment
8. civilian tribunal a____________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
86 Chapter 18
Guided Reading and Review
© Pearson Education, Inc.
Define the following terms.
NAME
CLASS
DATE
Section 1: Guided Reading and Review
The Unalienable Rights
CHAPTER
19
A. As You Read
Fill in the blanks in the following paragraph with the appropriate words or phrases from the section content.
protect individual rights
The Framers believed that the primary purpose of government was to (1.)___________________.
of Independence and the (3.) ___________________.
Constitution
They stated this belief both in the (2.) Declaration
___________________
people wanted a guarantee
The Bill of Rights was added to the Constitution because (4.) ___________________.
of individual rights
limited government
This document fit well with the principle of (5.) ___________________,
which states that
governments have only those powers which the people have granted to them. But even in a democracy, individual rights are not unlimited. Each individual’s rights are limited by
the rights of others
(6.) ___________________.
Often, the rights of individuals conflict and, when this occurs,
the courts
(7.) ___________________
may be called upon to decide which rights take precedence. For the most
citizens
part, the protections of the Bill of Rights are extended to (8.) ___________________
as well as
aliens
(9.) ___________________,
but there are some rights that may be denied to
aliens
(10.) ___________________.
Answer the following question in the space provided. Possible answer below
11. How has the Supreme Court ensured that States do not deny basic rights to the people?
The Court has engaged in the process of incorporation. Through decisions in various court cases dating as far
________________________________________________________________________________
back as 1925, the Court has incorporated most Bill of Rights protections into the Due Process Clause, which
________________________________________________________________________________
essentially prevents States from depriving people of their basic rights.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
© Pearson Education, Inc.
B. Reviewing Key Terms
Match the descriptions in Column I with the terms in Column II. Write the correct letter in each
blank.
Column I
c
_____
12. the positive acts of government that seek to make
the guarantees of the Constitution a reality for
all people
d
_____
13. foreign-born resident; noncitizen
f
_____
14. inclusion of the essential Bill of Rights into the
Due Process Clause
Column II
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
Bill of Rights
civil liberties
civil rights
alien
Due Process Clause
process of incorporation
a
_____
15. the first 10 amendments to the Constitution,
which guarantee certain personal freedoms to all people
e
_____
16. part of the Constitution that prevents States from
denying people their basic rights
b
_____
17. protections against government
Guided Reading and Review
Chapter 19 87
NAME
CLASS
CHAPTER
DATE
Section 2: Guided Reading and Review
19
Freedom of Religion
A. As You Read
On a separate sheet of paper, write the decisions for each of the cases listed below. The cases on the
left involved an interpretation of the Establishment Clause and the cases on the right involved an
interpretation of the Free Exercise Clause. Answers can be found on the following Student Edition pages:
Establishment Clause
Free Exercise Clause
1. Pierce v. Society of Sisters, 1925
12. Reynolds v. United States, 1879
2. Everson v. Board of Education, 1947
13. McGowan v. Maryland, 1961
3. Zorach v. Clauson, 1952
14. Welsh v. United States, 1970
4. Engel v. Vitale, 1962
15. Lyng v. Northwest Indian Cemetery
5. Abington School District v.
Schempp, 1963
Protective Association, 1988
16. Cantwell v. Connecticut, 1940
6. Wallace v. Jaffree, 1985
17. Sherbert v. Verner, 1963
7. Santa Fe Independent School District v.
18. West Virginia Board of Education
Doe, 2000
v. Barnette, 1943
9. Lynch v. Donnelly, 1984
10. County of Allegheny v. ACLU, 1989
11. Marsh v. Chambers, 1983
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
p. 538
p. 538
p. 538
p. 539
p. 539
p. 539
p. 539
p. 540
p. 542
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
p. 542
p. 542
p. 543
p. 543
p. 543
p. 543
p. 543
p. 544
p. 544
B. Reviewing Key Terms
Define the following terms in the space provided.
part of the First Amendment that separates church and government
19. Establishment Clause the
____________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
guarantees people the right to have whatever religious belief they choose
20. Free Exercise Clause ______________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
21. parochial
church-related
______________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
88 Chapter 19
Guided Reading and Review
© Pearson Education, Inc.
8. Lemon v. Kurtzman, 1971
NAME
CLASS
DATE
Section 3: Guided Reading and Review
CHAPTER
19
Freedom of Speech and Press
A. As You Read
Use the chart to organize information about important Supreme Court rulings in cases involving
freedom of speech and press.
Case
Date
Schenck v. United States
Miller v. California
Ruling
1919
1. ____________
upheld conviction of Schenck for obstructing the
2. __________________________________
war effort by sending out leaflets urging
__________________________________
drafted men to resist the draft
__________________________________
1973
lust according to an average person’s standards;
3.__________________________________
(2) deals with a form of sexual conduct specifically
__________________________________
covered in an anti-obscenity law; and (3) has no
__________________________________
ruled that obscenity is material that (1) excites
literary, artistic, political, or scientific value
New York Times v. United States
1971
4. ____________
1972
Branzburg v. Hayes
6. ________________________________________________________________
7. ____________
© Pearson Education, Inc.
Burstyn v. Wilson
upheld the “heavy presumption” of the unconsti5.__________________________________
tutionality of prior restraint by allowing the New
__________________________________
York Times to publish the Pentagon Papers
__________________________________
held that reporters must respond to
relevant questions in a valid grand
jury investigation or a criminal trial
1952
held that expression through motion pictures
8. ________________________________________________________
is protected by the First and Fourteenth
____________________________
amendments
____________________________
Red Lion Broadcasting Co. v. FCC
9. ______________________________
1940
held that television is protected by
the First Amendment, but its protection is
very limited
Thornhill v. Alabama
10. ______________________________
1940
struck down a law that made
picketing a place of business a crime
Greater New Orleans Broadcasting
Association v. United States
struck down a federal law that barred casinos
1999
11. __________
12.________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
from advertising on radio or television
__________________________________
__________________________________
B. Reviewing Key Terms
Answers can be found on the following
On a separate sheet of paper, define the following terms. Student Edition pages:
13. libel
16. seditious speech
19. symbolic speech
14. slander
17. prior restraint
20. picketing
15. sedition
18. shield law
p. 546
p. 547
p. 547
Guided Reading and Review
p. 547
p. 549
p. 551
p. 551
p. 550
Chapter 19 89
NAME
CHAPTER
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CLASS
DATE
Section 4: Guided Reading and Review
Freedom of Assembly and Petition
A. As You Read
First
assemble
The (1.) _________________
Amendment guarantees the right of people to (2.) _________________,
redress of grievances The (4.) _________________
Fourteenth
peaceably and to petition government for (3.) _________________.
Amendment extends this protection to actions by State and local governments. However, the Court
has allowed government to place reasonable limits on these rights in the form of
time-place-manner regulations. For example, parades cannot be held near a courthouse when
(5.) _________________
intended to influence the
court is in session if they are (6.) _________________.
But government regulation of the right of
Court’s proceedings
fairly administered
assembly must be precisely drawn and (7.) _________________.
In addition, while government can
time,
place,
or
manner
regulate assembly on the basis of (8.) _________________, it cannot regulate on the basis of
what is said
(9.) _________________.
the demonstrators want
to influence the public
Most demonstrations take place in public places because (10.) _________________.
However, the Court has held that it is permissible for the government to require demonstrators to give
advance notice
permits
(11.) _________________
and acquire (12.) _________________
before demonstrating in public
places.
In the case of Gregory v. Chicago, 1969, the Court held that demonstrators cannot be
acted peacefully
charged with disorderly conduct as long as they (13.) _________________,
even if their actions lead
disorder
to (14.) _________________.
abortion clinics
In more recent years, cases have focused on demonstrations at (15.) _________________.
The Court has held that local ordinances can require a buffer zone to avoid blocking access to
them.
private property
Demonstrations on (16.) _________________,
such as shopping malls, are viewed differently by the Court. The Court has ruled that State supreme courts may interpret State constitutions
reasonable exercise of
the right of petition on
in such a way as to allow (17.) _________________.
private property
B. Reviewing Key Terms
Define the following key terms in the space provided.
gather in groups
________________________________________________________________________
18. assemble to
________________________________________________________________________________
related to what is said
__________________________________________________________________
19. content neutral not
________________________________________________________________________________
right to associate with others to promote causes
__________________________________________________________
20. guarantee of association the
________________________________________________________________________________
90 Chapter 19
Guided Reading and Review
© Pearson Education, Inc.
The following paragraphs summarize Section 4. As you read the section, fill in the blanks with the
missing words or phrases.
NAME
CLASS
DATE
Section 1: Guided Reading and Review
Due Process Law
CHAPTER
20
A. As You Read
Use the chart below to organize information about the legitimate uses of the States’ police power.
Possible answers below
Uses of the Police Power
States’ Duty to Protect:
Health
Examples
to combat pollution, regulation of liquor and tobacco,
1. laws
____________________________________________
mandatory
vaccinations
____________________________________________
2. safety
__________________________
__________________________
Morals
seat-belt laws, drunk driving laws, laws against
concealed weapons
against gambling, prostitution, obscenity
3. laws
____________________________________________
____________________________________________
welfare
4. general
__________________________
__________________________
compulsory education laws, regulation of public
utilities, assist medically needy
B. Reviewing Key Terms
Define the following terms on a separate sheet of paper. Then, describe a court case involving each.
See possible answers below
5. procedural due process
© Pearson Education, Inc.
6. substantive due process
7. right of privacy
In the space provided, use each key term in a sentence that shows the meaning of the term.
Possible answers below
8. police power
The State uses its police power to protect and promote the public health, safety, morals, and
____________________________________________________________________
general welfare.
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
9. search warrant
Courts order search warrants to give police the authority to search a suspect’s house.
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
Answers to questions 5–7
5. The government must act fairly and in accordance with established principles in the way it takes action. In the case of
Rochin v. California, 1952, the Supreme Court found that Los Angeles deputies violated procedural due process by illegally
entering a suspect’s home, trying to force him to spit out pills, and pumping the victim’s stomach to recover the pills.
6. The laws under which the government acts must be fair. In the case of Pierce v. Society of Sisters, 1925, the Supreme
Court declared unconstitutional an Oregon law requiring children ages 8–16 to attend public schools. The substance of the
law violated due process. 7. “the right to be free, except in very limited circumstances, from unwanted governmental
intrusions into one’s privacy;” answers will vary as students can choose from several cases including Roe v. Wade, Webster
v. Reproductive Health Services, and Ohio v. Akron Center for Reproductive Health
Guided Reading and Review
Chapter 20 91
NAME
CLASS
CHAPTER
20
DATE
Section 2: Guided Reading and Review
Freedom and Security of the Person
A. As You Read
As you read the section, fill in the chart below. Write the provisions of each amendment in the first
column. In the second column, give an example of a Supreme Court ruling that was based on the
provisions of each amendment.
Amendment
13th
Provisions
1. Slavery and involuntary servitude are banned
2. Possible answer: In Jones v. Mayer, 1968,
3. The people have the right to keep and bear
4. In United States v. Miller, 1939, the Court
in the United States. Congress has the
power to abolish “the badges and incidents
of slavery.”
2nd
arms in order to provide for a well
regulated militia.
3rd
Examples
the Court ruled that Congress has the
power to secure the right for African
American men to hold the same property
that a white man can hold.
ruled that certain types of weapons could
not be shipped across State lines without
the payment of a tax and the registration
of the weapons.
5. forbids the quartering of soldiers in
private homes in peace or war searches
and seizures
4th
6. People may not be subjected to
unreasonable searches and seizures; a
search warrant must be obtained with
probable cause.
Not Applicable
7. Possible answer: In Florida v. J.L., 2000,
the Court ruled that two police officers
violated the Fourth Amendment when they
searched a man based on an anonymous,
unsubstantiated tip.
Match the descriptions in Column I with the terms in Column II. Write the correct letter in each
blank.
Column I
Column II
e
_____
8. forced labor
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
d
_____
9. a reasonable suspicion of a crime
c
_____
10. bias; unfairness
a
_____
11. illegally seized evidence cannot be used against the
person from whom it was seized
exclusionary rule
writ of assistance
discrimination
probable cause
involuntary servitude
b
_____
12. a blanket search warrant
92 Chapter 20
Guided Reading and Review
© Pearson Education, Inc.
B. Reviewing Key Terms
NAME
CLASS
DATE
Section 3: Guided Reading and Review
CHAPTER
20
Rights of the Accused
A. As You Read
Copy the chart below onto a separate sheet of paper and then fill in the blanks to organize information about the legal terms introduced in this section.
Legal Term
Purpose
2. to prevent unjust imprisonment
5. ex post facto law
criminal law that applies to
an act committed before its
passage
6. banned to prevent the government
indictment
7. formal complaint laid before a grand
prevents overzealous
prosecutors from recklessly
charging people with crimes
8. presentment
formal accusation brought by
a grand jury on its own
motion
allows grand jury to act when
a prosecutor has some interest
in not prosecuting
double jeopardy
9. crime
writ of habeas corpus
bill of attainder
© Pearson Education, Inc.
Definition
a court order to bring a prisoner
1. before a court and show cause why
he or she should not be released
legislative act that inflicts
3. punishment without a court trial
banned to preserve individual freedom
4. and the separation of powers
from trying to punish people for
actions that were not crimes at the
time they were committed
jury by a prosecutor
trying a person twice for the same
banned to protect citizens after being
10. acquitted of a crime
bench trial
11. trial in which the judge alone hears
the defendant always has the
right to a jury trial, but that
may be waived if the
defendant is fully aware of
his or her rights
12. Miranda Rule
13. rule based on the Court decision of
to prevent the police from
coercing confessions or selfincriminating testimony from
uninformed suspects
the case, rather than a jury
Miranda v. Arizona, stating that
suspects must be told of their
rights before being questioned by
police
Answer the following questions on a separate sheet of paper.
14. What four criteria are used to determine if a trial delay is unconstitutional?
15. What is a petit jury?
16. What was the Supreme Court’s ruling in Escobedo v. Illinois, 1964?
17. What does the 5th Amendment ban?
B. Reviewing Key Terms
Define the following term on a separate sheet of paper.
18. grand jury
Answers to questions 14–17
14. the length of the delay, the reasons for it,
whether the delay harmed the defendant, and
whether the defendant asked for a prompt trial
15. A petit jury is a trial jury.
16. The Court ruled that Escobedo was denied his
right to counsel and therefore should be freed.
17. self-incrimination
a formal device by which a person can be accused of a serious crime
Guided Reading and Review
Chapter 20 93
NAME
CHAPTER
20
CLASS
DATE
Section 4: Guided Reading and Review
Punishment
A. As You Read
Each of the statements under the main heading in the outline below is incorrect. Rewrite each on a
separate sheet of paper to make it correct. Possible answers below
Bail and Preventive Detention
1. Every person accused of a crime must be allowed to set his or her own bail. Every person accused
of a crime is not automatically granted bail; bail is set by the court.
2. The Supreme Court rejected preventive detention in Stack v. Boyle, 1951. The Court upheld
preventive detention in United States v. Salerno, 1987.
Cruel and Unusual Punishment
3. The 6th Amendment prohibits cruel and unusual punishment and the 13th Amendment
extends that prohibition to the States. The Eighth Amendment prohibits cruel and unusual punishment and the
Fourteenth Amendment extends that prohibition to the States.
4. The Supreme Court has ruled that death by firing squad is cruel and unusual.
The Supreme Court has ruled that death by firing squad is not cruel or unusual.
Capital Punishment
5. Thirty States have capital punishment laws. Thirty-eight States have capital punishment laws.
6. A State can impose the death penalty only for crimes resulting in excessive cruelty to the victim.
A State can impose the death penalty only for crimes resulting in the death of the victim.
Treason
7. Treason is the only crime specifically defined in the Constitution because the Framers knew
that its meaning would be lost with time. Treason is the only crime specifically defined in the Constitution
because the Framers knew that this charge is often used by tyrants to silence their opponents.
8. A person can be convicted of treason if there is one eyewitness to the treasonous act.
A person can be convicted of treason if there are two eyewitnesses to the treasonous act or there is a confession in
open court.
Match the descriptions in Column I with the terms in Column II. Write the correct letter in each
blank.
Column I
d
_____
9. levying war against the United States or giving aid
and comfort to its enemies
b
_____
10. holding the accused without bail when there is reason
to believe the accused will commit serious crimes
before trial
Column II
a.
b.
c.
d.
bail
preventive detention
capital punishment
treason
a
_____
11. money an accused person must deposit with the court
to guarantee an appearance at trial
c
_____
12. the death penalty
94 Chapter 20
Guided Reading and Review
© Pearson Education, Inc.
B. Reviewing Key Terms
NAME
CLASS
DATE
Section 1: Guided Reading and Review
Diversity and Discrimination in American Society
CHAPTER
21
A. As You Read
As you read the section, summarize the information given on each group below in the space provided.
Possible answers below
African Americans
Americans constitute
1. African
____________________
the largest minority group in
the United States. Africans
______________________
originally came to the country
in 1619 as slaves; slavery was
______________________
not abolished until 1865. Many
of the gains in equality in the
______________________
U.S. have been made by and for
African Americans.
______________________
______________________
Native Americans
In the 1600s, more than half
2. ____________________
of the Native American population
died
from disease and at the hands
____________________
of those pushing for westward
expansion.
Today, many Native
____________________
Americans live on reservations
and
some are impoverished as a
____________________
result of past discrimination.
____________________
____________________
© Pearson Education, Inc.
Asian Americans
Asian Americans suffered
4. ____________________
discrimination at several points
in
U.S. history. Asian American
________________________
miners suffered through violent
attacks
in the late 1800s and
________________________
Asian Americans on the West
Coast
were forced into war
________________________
relocation camps during World
War
II.
________________________
________________________
Hispanic Americans
Americans make up
3. Hispanic
____________________
the second largest minority group
in the country. There are four main
________________________
groups of Hispanic Americans—
Mexican Americans, Puerto
________________________
Ricans, Cuban Americans, and
Central and South Americans.
________________________
________________________
________________________
Women
Despite the large numbers of
5. ____________________
women living in the United States,
women are underrepresented in
________________________
government and in higher level
business positions. Woman
________________________
suffrage, the Equal Pay Act, and
the Civil Rights Act have improved
________________________
women’s position in society.
________________________
________________________
B. Reviewing Key Terms
Place a check mark next to each of the following pairs that correctly matches a term from this
chapter with its definition.
6. reservation—land set aside by the government for Native-American use
❑
7. heterogeneous—made up of several ingredients
❑
❑
8. assimilation—agreement
❑
9. refugee—person who comes to the United States for religious reasons
❑ 10. immigrant—new citizen
Guided Reading and Review
Chapter 21 95
NAME
CHAPTER
21
CLASS
DATE
Section 2: Guided Reading and Review
Equality Before the Law
A. As You Read
Complete the outline by supplying the missing words or phrases in the blanks.
Equal Protection Clause
discriminate
1. Reasonable Classification—The government is allowed to ______________________,
or draw
unreasonably
distinctions, between groups, but it may not do so ______________________.
2. The Rational Basis Test—The rational basis test asks: Does the classification in question
proper governmental purpose
bear a reasonable relationship to the achievement of some ______________________
______________________?
fundamental rights
3. The Strict Scrutiny Test—In cases dealing with “______________________,”
such as the right
suspect classifications
to vote, or “______________________,”
such as those based on race or sex, the Supreme Court
imposes the strict scrutiny test, which requires that the State prove that some
compelling governmental interest
“______________________________________________”
justifies the distinctions it has drawn.
Segregation in America
4. The Separate-but-Equal Doctrine—In 1896, the Supreme Court upheld racial segregation by
saying that segregated facilities for African Americans were lawful as long as the separate
equal to those for whites
facilities were ______________________.
5. Brown v. Topeka Board of Education, 1954—In 1954 the Court reversed itself, ruling that
unconstitutional
segregation was ______________________
and must be ended.
Classification by Sex
sex-based
7. Until 20 years ago, the Court has upheld ______________________
classifications.
8. Today, sex is a “suspect classification,” and is allowed only in cases where the law is intended
governmental
to serve an “important ______________________
objective.”
B. Reviewing Key Terms
Define the following terms on a separate sheet of paper.
9. segregation
the separation of one group from another
10. Jim Crow law law that separates one group
from another based on race
11. separate-but-equal doctrine
Developed by the Supreme Court, it held that
segregation was acceptable as long as facilities
for each race were equal.
96 Chapter 21
12. integration the process of bringing a group into
equal membership in society
13. de jure segregation
segregation by law
14. de facto segregation
segregation in fact, even if no law requires it
Guided Reading and Review
© Pearson Education, Inc.
6. De Jure and De Facto Segregation—Attention turned toward schools that practiced
de facto segregation
______________________,
often brought about by housing patterns.
NAME
CLASS
DATE
CHAPTER
Section 3: Guided Reading and Review
21
Federal Civil Rights Laws
A. As You Read
Use the time line to organize information on the legislation and Supreme Court cases dealing with
civil rights. Fill in the appropriate act or case for each date indicated on the time line in the space
provided. Then explain the significance of each event. Possible answers below
Federal Civil Rights Laws
1960
2.
4.
7., 8.
9.
1968
1979
1989
1995
1964
1.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
© Pearson Education, Inc.
7.
8.
9.
10.
1970
1978
1980
1987
3.
5.
6.
1990
2000
1996
10.
The Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibits discrimination in the workplace or in public accommodations and requires
that federal funds be cut off from any program that discriminates on the grounds of race, color, religion, national
origin,
sex, or physical disability.
________________________________________________________________________________
The Civil Rights Act of 1968 forbids anyone to refuse to sell or rent a dwelling to any person on grounds of race,
color,
religion, national origin, sex, disability, or to a family with children.
________________________________________________________________________________
In Regents of the University of California v. Bakke the Supreme Court ruled that the Constitution does not allow
race
to be used as the only factor in the making of affirmative action decisions.
________________________________________________________________________________
In United Steelworkers v. Weber, 1979, the Court upheld quotas that were put in place to correct “longstanding and
flagrant”
past discrimination.
________________________________________________________________________________
Fullilove v. Klutznick, 1980, upheld use of quotas to correct blatant and longstanding bias in the construction
industry.
________________________________________________________________________________
The Johnson v. Transportation Agency of Santa Clara County, 1987, ruling allowed preferential treatment on the
basis
of sex.
________________________________________________________________________________
Richmond v. Croson, 1989, rejected use of quotas in the city of Richmond, Virginia, on the basis that the city had
not
proved that the quotas they used in the construction industry were justified by past discrimination.
________________________________________________________________________________
Wards Cove Packing Co. v. Atonio, 1989, placed the burden of proof on the employee rather than employer to show
that
discrimination exists.
________________________________________________________________________________
Adarand Constructors v. Pena, 1995, departed from previous Court rulings by making it more difficult for the
Federal
Government to use affirmative action programs.
________________________________________________________________________________
California passed Proposition 209, forbidding affirmative action in State and local agencies. Although a federal
district
court found it unconstitutional, the decision was overturned by the Court of Appeals, and the Supreme
________________________________________________________________________________
Court refused to hear an appeal.
B. Reviewing Key Terms
Define the following terms on a separate sheet of paper.
11. affirmative action positive steps to remedy the effects of past discrimination
12. quota rule requiring certain numbers of jobs or promotions to be set aside for certain groups
13. reverse discrimination discrimination against the majority in favor of the minority
Guided Reading and Review
Chapter 21 97
NAME
CLASS
CHAPTER
21
DATE
Section 4: Guided Reading and Review
American Citizenship
A. As You Read
Use the information from Section 4 to complete the chart below. Possible answers below
Changes in U.S. Immigration Policy
Date
Independence–
Policy
Features
Open frontier
no attempt to regulate immigration
1.__________________________________________________________
Chinese Exclusion Act
2. __________________________________________________________
severely limited immigration
1880s
1882
from Asia
1921–1929
Immigration Acts of 1921, 1924,
set quotas favoring northern and western
3.______________________________
Europeans, generally prohibited Asian and
African
immigration
______________________________
and the National Origins Act of 1929
1952
4. __________________________________________________
Immigration and Nationality Act
5. ______________________________
______________________________
1965
Immigration Act of 1965
1990
7. __________________________________________________
Immigration Act of 1990
modified quotas to cover all
countries outside Western Hemisphere
allowed 270,000 immigrants to enter United
6.______________________________
States without regard to race, nationality,
or
country of origin; gave preference to
______________________________
families of U.S. citizens and legal aliens
increased annual number of immigrants;
8.______________________________
preference to families of U.S. citizens, legal
aliens,
and skilled workers
______________________________
Answer the following question on a separate sheet of paper.
9. Write a paragraph summarizing the information provided under the heading “Undocumented Aliens.”
B. Reviewing Key Terms
Match the descriptions in Column I with the terms in Column II. Write the correct letter in each blank.
Column I
Column II
e
_____
10. citizen of a foreign state living in this country
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
d
_____
11. legal process by which a person becomes a citizen
of a country at some time after birth
a
_____
12. one who owes allegiance to the state and is entitled to
its protection
f
_____
13. legal process by which citizenship is lost
g
_____
14. involuntary loss of citizenship by someone not born here,
usually because of fraud
citizen
jus soli
jus sanguinis
naturalization
alien
expatriation
denaturalization
deportation
h
_____
15. legally requiring an alien to leave the United States
b
_____
16. the law of the soil; where one is born
c
_____
17. the law of the blood; to whom one is born
98 Chapter 21
Guided Reading and Review
© Pearson Education, Inc.
Answers will vary.
NAME
CLASS
DATE
Section 1: Guided Reading and Review
Great Britain
CHAPTER
22
A. As You Read
The chart below compares the governments of the United States and Great Britain. As you read
Section 1, complete the chart by filling in the information that describes the government of Great
Britain for each category shown.
A Comparison of the Governments of the United States and Great Britain
United States
Great Britain
Constitution
Written
1. written and unwritten
Monarch
None
2. limited by constitution; head of state
Government Powers
Separated
3. unitary executive, legislative,
and judiciary
Legislative Body
Bicameral Congress (Senate;
House of Representatives)
4. bicameral Parliament (House of Lords,
House of Commons), with most power in
House of Commons
President (head of state and head
5. prime minister; head of government
Executive
of government)
Elections
Regularly scheduled
(representatives, 2 years; senators,
6. no fixed date, but must occur every
5 years or if government falls; members
of Parliament popularly elected
© Pearson Education, Inc.
6 years; President, 4 years)
Parties
2 major parties (Republican and
Democratic)
National and Local
Separate federal and State
Government
governments
Judiciary
Independent Supreme Court
7. 2 major parties (Conservatives and
Labour), also Liberal party
8. unitary, all power belongs to
central government, except for some
self-government in Scotland, Wales,
and Northern Ireland
9. House of Lords serves as the final
court of appeals. Scotland and Ireland
have separate systems.
10. a government in which the head of state is a hereditary ruler
11. a special election held to choose a new MP if the current one dies
or resigns
a temporary alliance of parties for the purpose
Define the following terms on a separate sheet of paper. 12. of
forming a government
B. Reviewing Key Terms
10. monarchy
11. by-election
12. coalition
13. minister
14. shadow cabinet
15. devolution
13. British cabinet member
14. members of the opposition party who are potential cabinet members and
are appointed to watch one particular member of the cabinet in power
15. delegation of authority from the central government to regional governments
Guided Reading and Review
Chapter 22 99
NAME
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22
CLASS
DATE
Section 2: Guided Reading and Review
Japan
A. As You Read
As you read Section 2, answer the following questions on a separate sheet of paper.
Possible answers below
1. What type of government did Japan have until the 1850s–1860s? Japan had a feudal system with an
emperor (mikado), military dictator (shogun), noble families (daimyo), and warriors (samurai).
2. What was Japan’s objective after it encountered Western powers? Japan worked to become a modern
state, and tried to conquer East Asia in the process.
3. What event caused a dramatic change in Japanese politics from 1945 to 1952? The Japanese
were defeated in World War II by the U.S., who forced the Japanese to accept a new, democratic constitution.
4. What form of government did Americans force the Japanese to accept?
Americans forced the Japanese to accept a democratic system.
5. What unique feature did the new constitution have? The Japanese renounced their sovereign power to
make war.
6. What is the House of Councillors and what kind of power does it have? The House of Councillors
is the upper house of Japan’s parliament; it has little power and tends to be deliberative and advisory.
7. What is the House of Representatives and what kind of power does it have? The House of Representatives is the lower house of Japan’s parliament; it can make laws, treaties, raise funds, and spend money.
8. What is political consensus and what role does it play in Japanese politics? Consensus is broad
agreement on issues and is a valued Japanese tradition, based on the people’s wish to avoid personal confrontation.
9. What causes the prime minister and the cabinet to maintain agreement on most issues?
The prime minister and cabinet believe in collective responsibility for their acts.
10. What is the bureaucracy and what role does it play in Japanese government? The bureaucracy is
the Japanese civil service which wields great power and serves as day-to-day administrators of government.
11. Which party dominated Japanese politics during most of the period after World War II?
the Liberal Democratic party (LDP)
12. How are Japanese courts like the courts of the United States? They are independent of the other
branches of government and have various levels, from local courts to the Supreme Court.
B. Reviewing Key Terms
Column I
Column II
b
_____
13. For political purposes, Japan has been divided into
47 districts called ___.
a. National Diet
e
_____
14. The prime minister has the power to dissolve the
House of Representatives, a step called ___, which leads
to immediate elections.
c. multiseat district
a
_____
15. The ___ is the name of the Japanese parliament.
e. dissolution
b. prefectures
d. consensus
c
_____
16. An area that has more than one representative is known as a ___.
d
_____
17. The Japanese value ___, or broad agreement on political issues.
100 Chapter 22
Guided Reading and Review
© Pearson Education, Inc.
Complete each sentence in Column I by writing the letter of the correct term from Column II
in the blank.
NAME
CLASS
DATE
CHAPTER
Section 3: Guided Reading and Review
22
Mexico
A. As You Read
As you read Section 3, complete the chart below comparing the government of Mexico to that of
the United States. Then answer the question that follows on a separate sheet of paper.
Mexico
Early History
United States
Gained independence from
Gained independence from
1. Spain
________________________
England
Three Branches of
headed by president
2. executive,
________________________
Executive, Legislative,
Government
bicameral
3. legislature,
________________________
Judicial
4. judiciary
________________________
Presidential Term
one
May serve 5. ______________
May serve two four-year terms
six
6. ____________-year
term(s)
Congress
Court System
Senate
Bicameral: 7. ______________
Bicameral: Senate and House
Chamber of Deputies
and 8. ____________________
of Representatives
systems of state and
9. independent
________________________
Independent system of State
federal
courts
________________________
Political Parties
and federal courts
Revolutionary Party
10. Institutional
______________________
Two major parties: Democratic
Revolutionary Party
11. Democratic
______________________
and Republican
© Pearson Education, Inc.
Action Party (PAN)
12. National
______________________
13. What major change took place with the election of President Vicente Fox in 2000?
For the first time since 1929, Mexicans elected a president who is not a member of the PRI;
President Fox is a member of PAN.
B. Reviewing Key Terms
Complete each sentence by writing the correct term in the blank provided.
nationalization
14. Since 1938 the ____________________
of the oil industry has served as a symbol of Mexican
independence from foreign domination.
mestizo
15. Mexico has a ____________________
culture, made up of both Spanish and Native American
elements.
NAFTA (North American
Free Trade Agreement)
16. The free-trade agreement known as ____________________
removes trade restrictions among
the United States, Mexico, and Canada.
Guided Reading and Review
Chapter 22 101
NAME
CLASS
CHAPTER
22
DATE
Section 4: Guided Reading and Review
Russia
A. As You Read
The incomplete chronological chart below outlines some of the dramatic events of Russian and
Soviet political history. As you read Section 4, fill in the missing event.
Major Russian Political Events
Year
Event
1721
1. Russian empire established by Peter the Great
1905
2. Russo–Japanese War brings heavy losses, and czarist rule begins to collapse
1917
3. Russian Revolution; Lenin and Communist party come to power; Soviet Union replaces
1924
4. Lenin dies, Stalin comes to power
1950s–1990s
Russian empire
5. Soviet Union becomes superpower, engages United States in a cold war, and controls
all of Eastern Europe
1985
6. Gorbachev comes to power and begins reforms in Soviet Union
1991
7. Soviet Union ceases to exist
1993
8. new Russian constitution drafted
1999
9. Vladimir Putin elected president of Russia
Answer the following questions on a separate sheet of paper.
10. What is the structure of Russia’s legislature?
11. What kinds of local governments are there in the Russian Federation?
Russia has 49 oblasts, or provinces, 6 territories, 21 republics, and 10 autonomous areas.
B. Reviewing Key Terms
Define the following terms in the space provided.
purification of political enemies, often by brutal means such as execution, jail, and exile
12. purge __________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
elected councils at factories, farms, cities, regions, and national level
13. soviet __________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
restructuring of Soviet economy and politics
14. perestroika ______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
openness; tolerance of dissent and freedom of expression
15. glasnost ________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
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Russia’s legislature has two houses: the Council of the
Federation is the upper house, the State Duma is the lower house. Both are popularly elected.
NAME
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DATE
Section 5: Guided Reading and Review
China
CHAPTER
22
A. As You Read
Using information from Section 5, complete the chart below, which shows the organization of the
Chinese Communist party.
Unit
National Party Congress
Role
meets every 5 years to elect a Central Committee
1. ________________________________________________
______________________________________________
Central Committee
2.________________________
Politburo
elects the Politburo
makes Communist party policy (and therefore government policy)
3. ______________________________________________
______________________________________________
Politburo
4.________________________
makes day-to-day decisions for the party (and therefore
the government)
On a separate sheet of paper, answer the following questions as you read Section 5.
5. When did China’s present form of government begin and who was its leader?
It began in 1949, led by Mao Zedong.
© Pearson Education, Inc.
6. How have China’s constitutions been different from the constitutions of the United States and
most other countries? Most countries’ constitutions are meant to be fundamental law; China’s constitution
is not fundamental law, but reflects current government policies.
7. What organization effectively controls China’s government?
the Chinese Communist party (CCP)
8. What are the two main parts of China’s national government?
the National People’s Congress and the State Council
9. What is the structure of China’s judicial system?
The nation’s Supreme People’s Court supervises all the courts, both civil and criminal.
10. How is Hong Kong governed?
It is a special administrative region of China with its own governor and provisional legislature.
B. Reviewing Key Terms
Complete each sentence by writing the correct term in the blank provided.
Cultural Revolution
11. In 1966, during the _______________________________,
the Red Guards attacked teachers,
intellectuals, and others who did not have sufficient revolutionary enthusiasm.
autonomous
12. China includes five_____________________________,
or independent, regions.
Guided Reading and Review
Chapter 22 103
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DATE
Section 1: Guided Reading and Review
Capitalism
A. As You Read
On a separate sheet of paper, copy and complete the chart by writing answers to the questions in
the space provided.
1. What are the four factors of
production?
2. What are four characteristics of a
free enterprise system?
land
a. ______________________________
private ownership
a. ______________________________
labor
b. __________________________________
individual initiative
b. __________________________________
management
c. ______________________________
profit
c. ______________________________
capital
d. __________________________________
competition
d. __________________________________
Capitalism
demand low, price low; demand high, price high;
____________________________________
supply plentiful, price low, supply low, price high
____________________________________
____________________________________
____________________________________
4. What are three kinds of businesses
and what are their advantages and
disadvantages?
sole proprietorship; quick decisions, but
liability
a. personal
____________________________________
partnerships; more resources, but partnership
if partner leaves or dies
b. ends
____________________________________
large resources, but double taxation
c. corporation;
____________________________________
B. Reviewing Key Terms
Answer the following questions in the space provided. Possible answers below
Capitalists are those who privately
5. What is the difference between a capitalist and an entrepreneur? ________________________
own productive property and do all those things necessary to make a profit from their property; entrepreneurs are
________________________________________________________________________________
capitalists who tend to be risk takers and who take greater initiative in starting or expanding a business.
________________________________________________________________________________
The government should play a very limited, hands-off role in society. Its
6. Describe the laissez-faire theory. ____________________________________________________
activity should be limited to foreign relations and defense, the maintenance of police and courts, and the few other
________________________________________________________________________________
functions private enterprisers cannot perform for profit. In the economy, government should only function to
________________________________________________________________________________
protect free competition and the laws of supply and demand.
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3. Describe the laws of supply and demand.
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Section 2: Guided Reading and Review
Socialism
CHAPTER
23
A. As You Read
The main points of Section 2 are supplied in the outline below. As you read the section, fill in the
supporting points in the form of answers to the questions. Possible answers below
Socialism
an economic and political philosophy designed to achieve equitable distribution of wealth
1. What is socialism? ________________________________________________________________
through government ownership of the means of production
________________________________________________________________________________
The Industrial Revolution
the dramatic change of the economies of many nations as they
changed from predominantly agricultural to mainly industrial; the
2. What was the Industrial Revolution? ________________________________________________
Industrial Revolution occurred in Great Britain in the late eighteenth century and elsewhere during the nineteenth century
________________________________________________________________________________
the leading critic of the effects of the Industrial Revolution and capitalism; the
3. Who was Karl Marx? ____________________________________________________________
inventor
of
communism
________________________________________________________________________________
He criticized it as abusive of the masses and doomed to failure.
4. What did Marx think of capitalism? ________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
Both systems urged government ownership
5. How were socialism and communism alike and different? ______________________________
of
the
means
of
production
and
wanted
to
redistribute
wealth.
Socialists
advocated
peaceful evolution to socialism;
________________________________________________________________________________
communists believed a bloody revolution was inevitable as history approached Marx’s communist era.
Characteristics of Socialist Economies
a state takeover of privately owned industry
6. What is nationalization? __________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
by guaranteeing all public services and welfare for the
7. How did socialists hope to help the masses? __________________________________________
neediest
through
the
equitable
distribution
of
wealth
________________________________________________________________________________
© Pearson Education, Inc.
to pay for public services and welfare
8. Why is taxation high in socialist countries? __________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
governments that direct their economies along desired paths
9. Describe the term “command economy.” ____________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
Socialism in Developing Countries
Such countries have little or no industry and feel
10. What attracts developing countries to socialism? ______________________________________
the
need
to
take
drastic
steps
to
industrialize.
________________________________________________________________________________
Pros and Cons
(a) too much bureaucracy, (b) economies too complex
11. What are three major criticisms of socialism? ________________________________________
for central planners, (c) deprives people of freedom to make economic decisions
________________________________________________________________________________
B. Reviewing Key Terms
Define the following terms on a separate sheet of paper.
12. proletariat
14. welfare state
13. bourgeoisie
15. market economy
the workers
the capitalists
Guided Reading and Review
16. centrally planned economy
a capitalist economy
14. a country that provides extensive social
services at little or no cost to the user
an economy where the decision
making is more centralized
Chapter 23 105
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Section 3: Guided Reading and Review
Communism
A. As You Read
The chart below lists four concepts Marx analyzed as they related to capitalism. As you read
Section 3, complete the chart by explaining Marx’s view of each concept.
Marx’s Views on Capitalism
View of history
1. story of class struggle; classes competing for the control of labor
Value theory
2. value of a commodity is set by the amount of labor that went into it
Nature of the state
3. state and government are tools by which capitalists maintain power
Dictatorship of the proletariat
4. transitional phase in which authoritarian state would represent the
and productive property
interest of the masses
List the four main characteristics of communist economies.
party holds decision-making power
5. Communist
______________________________________________
plan for the development of the economy
6. bureaucrats
______________________________________________
of the means of production
7. collectivization
______________________________________________
B. Reviewing Key Terms
Define the following key terms in the space provided.
collectivist ideology where the state owns land and other productive property
9. communism ______________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
agency that ran Stalin’s centralized planning
10. Gosplan ________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
returning nationalized enterprises to private ownership
11. privatization ____________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
China’s five-year plan of 1958 aimed at modernizing quickly
12. Great Leap Forward ______________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
collective farms brought together into a larger unit
13. commune ________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
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enterprises, transportation, and other parts of the economy are state-owned
8. industrial
______________________________________________
NAME
CLASS
DATE
Section 1: Guided Reading and Review
The Texas State Constitution
CHAPTER
24
A. As You Read
As you read Section 1, write the answers to the questions in the space provided.
List the five main categories by which all State constitutions can be described.
principles
1. basic
________________________________________________________________________________
of civil rights
2. protections
________________________________________________________________________________
of State government
3. structure
________________________________________________________________________________
of the branches of State government
4. powers
________________________________________________________________________________
of constitutional change
5. process
________________________________________________________________________________
Fill in the chart to explain the amendment process for State constitutions.
Amendments can be proposed by:
Amendments can be ratified by:
6. constitutional
_____________________convention
_________________________________
9. vote
_______of
____the
_____people
______________________________________
7. legislature
______________________________________________________
8. voters
______________________________________________________
laws are laws
10. Explain the difference between statutory law and fundamental law. Statutory
______________________
© Pearson Education, Inc.
passed
by the legislature. Fundamental laws are laws of basic and lasting importance.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
B. Reviewing Key Terms
Explain each of the following key terms in the space provided.
people are the sole source of the government’s power.
11. popular sovereignty The
________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Powers given to the government are limited.
12. limited government ________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
by which voters sign a petition favoring a proposal
13. initiative process
________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Guided Reading and Review
Chapter 24 107
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Section 2: Guided Reading and Review
The Texas State Legislature
A. As You Read
As you read Section 2, write the answers to the questions on the lines provided.
1. What formal qualifications does the State of Texas set out for membership in the State
citizenship, residence
legislature? age,
______________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
or four years
2. What is the usual term for Texas State legislators? two
____________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
3. What are eight of the most important legislative powers of the Texas State legislature? ______
tax, spend, borrow, police, establish courts, define crimes and provide for their punishment, regulate commercial
________________________________________________________________________________
activities, maintain public schools
________________________________________________________________________________
4. Name three nonlegislative functions of the Texas State legislature._executive:
__________________approve
______________governor’s
___________________________
appointments; judicial: impeachment; constituent: constitution-making and amending
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
5. How does the committee system in the Texas State legislature work? _Laws
_____________are
________referred
____________________to
______________________________
committees for recommendation to full houses, similar to Congress.
________________________________________________________________________________
a wide variety of public and private sources
6. From where do a large number of bills originate? ______________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
B. Reviewing Key Terms
Define the following terms on the lines provided.
power
7. constituent power constitution-making
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
power to protect and promote public health, safety, morals, and welfare
8. police power State’s
____________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
by which a legislature sends bills to the electorate for approval
9. referendum process
______________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
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________________________________________________________________________________
NAME
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Section 3: Guided Reading and Review
The Governor and State Administration
CHAPTER
24
A. As You Read
As you read Section 3, complete the chart with information about the governor’s powers.
Executive Powers
appoint and remove key
assistants
1._____________________________
supervise staffs of executive branch
2._______________________________
prepare and submit a biennial budget
3._______________________________
serve as commander in chief of
State National Guard
4.________________________
Powers of
The Governor
Legislative Powers
recommend legislation
5._______________________________
call special sessions of legislature
6.________________________________
© Pearson Education, Inc.
veto bills
7.__________________________
Judicial Powers
pardon
8._____________________________
commute
9._______________________________
reprieve
10.______________________________
parole
11._______________________
B. Reviewing Key Terms
Complete each sentence by writing the correct term in the blank provided.
reprieve
12. The governor has the power to _______________,
or postpone, the execution of a sentence.
pardon
13. The governor has the power to _______________,
or release a person from the legal consequences of a crime.
parole
14. The governor has the power to _______________,
or release a prisoner short of the completion
of the term of his or her sentence.
commutation
15. The governor has the power of _______________,
or reducing a sentence.
Guided Reading and Review
Chapter 24 109
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Section 4: Guided Reading and Review
In the Courtroom
A. As You Read
The main points of Section 4 are supplied in the outline. As you read the section, fill in the
supporting details in the form of answers to the questions. Possible answers below
Kinds of Law Applied in State Courts
body of law based on the United States and State constitutions and
1. What is constitutional law? the
________________________________________________________
judicial interpretations of them
________________________________________________________________________________
body of law based on statutes enacted by legislative bodies
2. What is statutory law? the
____________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
orders, and regulations issued by executive branches of government
3. What is administrative law? rules,
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
unwritten, judge-made law that has developed over the centuries
4. What is common law? the
____________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
body of law that provides remedies for wrongs before they occur
5. What is equity? the
__________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
Criminal and Civil Law
(serious crimes) and misdemeanors (lesser offenses)
6. What are the two kinds of crimes? felonies
__________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
between individuals and between individuals and governments
7. What is civil law? disputes
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
grand jury determines whether the facts of a case warrant
8. What is the function of a grand jury? The
________________________________________________
bringing
a criminal case to trial.
________________________________________________________________________________
information is a formal charge filed by the prosecutor without the
9. What is an information? An
__________________________________________________________
involvement
of a grand jury; it is used for most minor offenses in Texas.
________________________________________________________________________________
are selected from lists of registered voters and
10. How are members of a petit jury chosen? They
____________________________________________
licensed
drivers.
________________________________________________________________________________
B. Reviewing Key Terms
Answer the following question on a separate sheet of paper.
11. What is a precedent and what part do precedents play in common law?
Following precedent is abiding by earlier court decisions as they have been handed down over the years by judges in
England and the United States. Precedents create a body of law known as common law.
110 Chapter 24
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The Jury System
NAME
CLASS
DATE
Section 5: Guided Reading and Review
The Courts and Their Judges
CHAPTER
24
A. As You Read
The chart below shows the various types of State and local courts. Next to the name of each type of
State and local court, briefly describe the kind of cases heard by that court. Possible answers below
© Pearson Education, Inc.
State and Local Courts
Justice of the Peace
1. usually hears only misdemeanor cases
Municipal Court
2. hears criminal cases in which the fines are under $2,000; traffic
Juvenile Court
3. hears only cases involving young people under 18 years of age
General Trial Court
4. hears most of the more important civil and criminal cases; exercises
Intermediate Appellate Court
5. reviews cases decided in lower courts
State Supreme Court
6. the State’s highest appellate court in civil cases
Court of Criminal Appeals
7. the State’s highest appellate court in criminal cases
violations make up the majority of their workload
original jurisdiction
B. Reviewing Key Terms
Use each key term below in a sentence that shows the meaning of the term Possible answers below
warrant is a court order authorizing an official action.
8. warrant A
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
A preliminary hearing is the first step in a major criminal prosecution.
9. preliminary hearing ______________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
that exercise appellate jurisdiction are reviewing cases that have already been
10. appellate jurisdiction Courts
______________________________________________________________
heard in another court.
________________________________________________________________________________
Guided Reading and Review
Chapter 24 111
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Section 1: Guided Reading and Review
Texas Counties and Special Districts
A. As You Read
The outline below lists the main points of Section 1. As you read the section, fill in the supporting
details by answering the questions on a separate sheet of paper. See answers below
The Counties
1. What are some statistics about the extremes of county sizes and populations in the U.S.?
2. What powers does the Commissioners Court have?
3. What are some of the titles of elected county officials in Texas and what do they do?
4. What obstacles exist for Texas county government in urban areas?
Special Districts
5. Why are special districts created?
6. Why are special disctricts useful?
School Districts
7. What are the responsibilities of ISD boards?
Towns and Townships
8. What is unique about the New England town?
9. How do townships in New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania differ from those in Ohio and
westward?
Complete each sentence by writing the correct term in the blank provided.
10. In most of the United States, including Texas, the main unit of local government is the
county
_______________.
special district
11. A(n) _______________
is an independent unit of local government set up to handle a specific
problem or task.
12. In the Middle Atlantic States and Midwest, counties are usually divided into subunits known
townships
as _______________,
which share the duties of local government.
Answers to questions 1–9
1. San Bernardino County, CA, covers 20,064 square miles; Kalawao County, Hawaii, 13 square miles; more than 9 million people
live in Los Angeles County, CA, but only 67 people live in Loving County, Texas. 2. The Commissioners Court sets policy and
directs the administration of the county. Its most important responsibilities are establishing a county budget and setting tax
rates. 3. sheriff, keeps jail and furnishes police protection; clerk, registers and records documents, mortgages, etc.; assessor,
appraises property and collects taxes; treasurer, keeps county funds; district attorney, chief county lawyer 4. The basic
structure and organization of the county governments are the same regardless of the population, and the complexities of urban
issues are difficult to deal with within the existing structure. 5. Special districts are created to perform one or more related
governmental functions at the local level. 6. They fill a need that existing governmental units do not because these units do
not have the necessary legal authority or financial base. 7. hiring and firing teachers, constructing new schools, buying school
supplies, setting district school tax rates, and selecting a superintendent of schools 8. has been the major unit of local
government for hundreds of years; its meetings are examples of direct democracy 9. NY, NJ, PA: formed where people settled,
so they are not uniform in shape; Ohio and westward: more uniform in shape because they were drawn in federal public land
surveys.
112 Chapter 25
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B. Reviewing Key Terms
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CLASS
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Section 2: Guided Reading and Review
CHAPTER
Cities and Metropolitan Areas in Texas
and the Nation
25
A. As You Read
As you read Section 2, fill in the chart below with information about the three forms of
city government. Possible answers below
Forms of City Government
Description
Mayor Council Form
1. elected mayor, executive branch; elected council,
Strong mayor
2. Mayor heads the administration with power to hire
Weak mayor
3. Executive duties are shared with other elected officials;
legislative branch
and fire and to prepare a budget; takes lead in
making policy.
Commission Form
appointment powers are shared or taken over by council.
4. 5 to 9 popularly elected department heads, one of
which is chosen by commission as mayor
Council Manager Form
5. strong elected council, weak elected mayor, hired
administrator
Answer the following questions in the space provided. Possible answers below
is the practice of
6. What is the practice of zoning and why is it important to city planning? Zoning
__________________
dividing a city into a number of districts, or zones, and regulating the uses to which property in each of them may
________________________________________________________________________________
© Pearson Education, Inc.
be put. It is important to ensure the orderly growth of a city.
________________________________________________________________________________
Suburbs began to grow in the years after World War II
7. Briefly describe the reasons for suburban growth.______________________________________
as people felt the need for more room, cheaper land, less pollution and noise, and greater privacy.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
B. Reviewing Key Terms
Define the following key terms in the space provided.
a city’s basic law, or constitution
8. charter __________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
a city and the areas that surround it
9. metropolitan area ________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Guided Reading and Review
Chapter 25 113
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Section 3: Guided Reading and Review
25
Providing Important Services
A. As You Read
As you read Section 3, complete the chart by writing examples of each of the State-provided
services shown. Possible answers below
State Services
Example
Education
Higher education
1. establish and run universities
Primary and secondary education
2. fund schools; set quality guidelines; establish curricula;
screen quality of materials; establish minimum length of
school year
Public Welfare
Health
3. operate hospitals; fund health programs; immunize children;
Welfare
4. provide aid to families with dependent children
Public Safety
5. provide State police protection; operate centralized offices as
Highways
6. build and maintain roads; ensure vehicle safety; license drivers
well as jails and prisons
7. set aside public lands for conservation and recreation;
regulate businesses; protect consumers
B. Reviewing Key Terms
Fill in the missing terms to complete the following sentences.
entitlement
8. The Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) is a(n) _______________
program,
meaning that anyone meeting eligibility requirements can receive benefits.
welfare
9. States help out citizens through _______________,
or cash assistance for the poor.
Medicaid
10. Low income families can get medical insurance through __________________.
114 Chapter 25
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Other Services
work with Federal Government administering programs
NAME
CLASS
DATE
Section 4: Guided Reading and Review
Financing State and Local Government
CHAPTER
25
A. As You Read
As you read Section 4, complete the diagram by writing the various sources of State and local
revenues in the space provided. Possible answers below
individual
2. ________
income
tax
__________
__________
corporate
3. ________
income tax
__________
__________
property
4. ________
tax
__________
__________
inheritance
5. ________
tax
__________
__________
sales tax
1. ________
__________
__________
estate tax
6. ________
__________
__________
State and Local Revenues
borrowing
12.________
__________
__________
franchise
7. ________
tax
__________
__________
© Pearson Education, Inc.
business
11.________
enterprises
__________
__________
tolls
10.________
__________
__________
amusement
9. ________
taxes
__________
__________
licenses
8. ________
__________
__________
B. Reviewing Key Terms
Read each statement below. If a statement is true, write T in the blank provided. If it is false, write F.
T
_____
13. A sales tax is one that is placed on the sale of commodities such as gasoline and
cigarettes.
F
_____
14. The assessed value of taxable property is always determined on a fair and equal basis.
T
_____
15. Inheritance and estate taxes are also known as “death taxes” because they are levied
after a person dies.
F
_____
16. The sales tax is probably the most difficult tax for a State to collect.
F
_____
17. Taxes that are geared according to a person’s ability to pay are called regressive taxes.
T
_____
18. Generally, taxes placed on the annual income of individuals and corporations are
progressive.
Guided Reading and Review
Chapter 25 115
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Section 3: Guided Reading and Review
25
Providing Important Services
A. As You Read
As you read Section 3, complete the chart by writing examples of each of the State-provided
services shown. Possible answers below
State Services
Example
Education
Higher education
1. establish and run universities
Primary and secondary education
2. fund schools; set quality guidelines; establish curricula;
screen quality of materials; establish minimum length of
school year
Public Welfare
Health
3. operate hospitals; fund health programs; immunize children;
Welfare
4. provide aid to families with dependent children
Public Safety
5. provide State police protection; operate centralized offices as
Highways
6. build and maintain roads; ensure vehicle safety; license drivers
well as jails and prisons
7. set aside public lands for conservation and recreation;
regulate businesses; protect consumers
B. Reviewing Key Terms
Fill in the missing terms to complete the following sentences.
entitlement
8. The Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) is a(n) _______________
program,
meaning that anyone meeting eligibility requirements can receive benefits.
welfare
9. States help out citizens through _______________,
or cash assistance for the poor.
Medicaid
10. Low income families can get medical insurance through __________________.
114 Chapter 25
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Other Services
work with Federal Government administering programs
NAME
CLASS
DATE
Section 5: Guided Reading and Review
The Courts and Their Judges
CHAPTER
24
A. As You Read
The chart below shows the various types of State and local courts. Next to the name of each type of
State and local court, briefly describe the kind of cases heard by that court. Possible answers below
© Pearson Education, Inc.
State and Local Courts
Justice of the Peace
1. usually hears only misdemeanor cases
Municipal Court
2. hears criminal cases in which the fines are under $2,000; traffic
Juvenile Court
3. hears only cases involving young people under 18 years of age
General Trial Court
4. hears most of the more important civil and criminal cases; exercises
Intermediate Appellate Court
5. reviews cases decided in lower courts
State Supreme Court
6. the State’s highest appellate court in civil cases
Court of Criminal Appeals
7. the State’s highest appellate court in criminal cases
violations make up the majority of their workload
original jurisdiction
B. Reviewing Key Terms
Use each key term below in a sentence that shows the meaning of the term Possible answers below
warrant is a court order authorizing an official action.
8. warrant A
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
A preliminary hearing is the first step in a major criminal prosecution.
9. preliminary hearing ______________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
that exercise appellate jurisdiction are reviewing cases that have already been
10. appellate jurisdiction Courts
______________________________________________________________
heard in another court.
________________________________________________________________________________
Guided Reading and Review
Chapter 24 111
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CHAPTER
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Section 1: Guided Reading and Review
Texas Counties and Special Districts
A. As You Read
The outline below lists the main points of Section 1. As you read the section, fill in the supporting
details by answering the questions on a separate sheet of paper. See answers below
The Counties
1. What are some statistics about the extremes of county sizes and populations in the U.S.?
2. What powers does the Commissioners Court have?
3. What are some of the titles of elected county officials in Texas and what do they do?
4. What obstacles exist for Texas county government in urban areas?
Special Districts
5. Why are special districts created?
6. Why are special disctricts useful?
School Districts
7. What are the responsibilities of ISD boards?
Towns and Townships
8. What is unique about the New England town?
9. How do townships in New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania differ from those in Ohio and
westward?
Complete each sentence by writing the correct term in the blank provided.
10. In most of the United States, including Texas, the main unit of local government is the
county
_______________.
special district
11. A(n) _______________
is an independent unit of local government set up to handle a specific
problem or task.
12. In the Middle Atlantic States and Midwest, counties are usually divided into subunits known
townships
as _______________,
which share the duties of local government.
Answers to questions 1–9
1. San Bernardino County, CA, covers 20,064 square miles; Kalawao County, Hawaii, 13 square miles; more than 9 million people
live in Los Angeles County, CA, but only 67 people live in Loving County, Texas. 2. The Commissioners Court sets policy and
directs the administration of the county. Its most important responsibilities are establishing a county budget and setting tax
rates. 3. sheriff, keeps jail and furnishes police protection; clerk, registers and records documents, mortgages, etc.; assessor,
appraises property and collects taxes; treasurer, keeps county funds; district attorney, chief county lawyer 4. The basic
structure and organization of the county governments are the same regardless of the population, and the complexities of urban
issues are difficult to deal with within the existing structure. 5. Special districts are created to perform one or more related
governmental functions at the local level. 6. They fill a need that existing governmental units do not because these units do
not have the necessary legal authority or financial base. 7. hiring and firing teachers, constructing new schools, buying school
supplies, setting district school tax rates, and selecting a superintendent of schools 8. has been the major unit of local
government for hundreds of years; its meetings are examples of direct democracy 9. NY, NJ, PA: formed where people settled,
so they are not uniform in shape; Ohio and westward: more uniform in shape because they were drawn in federal public land
surveys.
112 Chapter 25
Guided Reading and Review
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B. Reviewing Key Terms
NAME
CLASS
DATE
Section 2: Guided Reading and Review
CHAPTER
Cities and Metropolitan Areas in Texas
and the Nation
25
A. As You Read
As you read Section 2, fill in the chart below with information about the three forms of
city government. Possible answers below
Forms of City Government
Description
Mayor Council Form
1. elected mayor, executive branch; elected council,
Strong mayor
2. Mayor heads the administration with power to hire
Weak mayor
3. Executive duties are shared with other elected officials;
legislative branch
and fire and to prepare a budget; takes lead in
making policy.
Commission Form
appointment powers are shared or taken over by council.
4. 5 to 9 popularly elected department heads, one of
which is chosen by commission as mayor
Council Manager Form
5. strong elected council, weak elected mayor, hired
administrator
Answer the following questions in the space provided. Possible answers below
is the practice of
6. What is the practice of zoning and why is it important to city planning? Zoning
__________________
dividing a city into a number of districts, or zones, and regulating the uses to which property in each of them may
________________________________________________________________________________
© Pearson Education, Inc.
be put. It is important to ensure the orderly growth of a city.
________________________________________________________________________________
Suburbs began to grow in the years after World War II
7. Briefly describe the reasons for suburban growth.______________________________________
as people felt the need for more room, cheaper land, less pollution and noise, and greater privacy.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
B. Reviewing Key Terms
Define the following key terms in the space provided.
a city’s basic law, or constitution
8. charter __________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
a city and the areas that surround it
9. metropolitan area ________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Guided Reading and Review
Chapter 25 113
NAME
CLASS
DATE
Section 4: Guided Reading and Review
Financing State and Local Government
CHAPTER
25
A. As You Read
As you read Section 4, complete the diagram by writing the various sources of State and local
revenues in the space provided. Possible answers below
individual
2. ________
income
tax
__________
__________
corporate
3. ________
income tax
__________
__________
property
4. ________
tax
__________
__________
inheritance
5. ________
tax
__________
__________
sales tax
1. ________
__________
__________
estate tax
6. ________
__________
__________
State and Local Revenues
borrowing
12.________
__________
__________
franchise
7. ________
tax
__________
__________
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business
11.________
enterprises
__________
__________
tolls
10.________
__________
__________
amusement
9. ________
taxes
__________
__________
licenses
8. ________
__________
__________
B. Reviewing Key Terms
Read each statement below. If a statement is true, write T in the blank provided. If it is false, write F.
T
_____
13. A sales tax is one that is placed on the sale of commodities such as gasoline and
cigarettes.
F
_____
14. The assessed value of taxable property is always determined on a fair and equal basis.
T
_____
15. Inheritance and estate taxes are also known as “death taxes” because they are levied
after a person dies.
F
_____
16. The sales tax is probably the most difficult tax for a State to collect.
F
_____
17. Taxes that are geared according to a person’s ability to pay are called regressive taxes.
T
_____
18. Generally, taxes placed on the annual income of individuals and corporations are
progressive.
Guided Reading and Review
Chapter 25 115
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