Uploaded by Paramalingam Saravanan

ks3 geo

Year 8 Geography
Knowledge Organisers
Autumn Term 1
Year 7 Unit 1. Geography Knowledge Organiser – Planet Earth
Planet Earth – The Physical World including structure of the earth/continents/ice caps/cryosphere/Geology etc. Base of core knowledge of the planet.
The Earth has 4 spheres, Atmosphere; the gasses that surround Earth (the air). Hydrosphere; water found on, under and
over the surface of the Earth. Lithosphere; the solid earth e.g. rocks, and Biosphere; all life on Earth.
The Earth consists of four concentric layers: inner core, outer core, mantle and crust. The crust is made up of tectonic plates,
which are in constant motion. Earthquakes and volcanoes are most likely to occur at plate boundaries.
1. Atmosphere
2. climatology
3. Troposphere
4. topography
5. geomorphology
6. biosphere
7. pedosphere
8. hydrosphere
9. lithosphere
An atmosphere (from Greek ἀτμός (atmos), meaning 'vapour', and σφαῖρα
(sphaira), meaning 'sphere') is a layer or a set of layers of gases surrounding
a planet or other material body, that is held in place by the gravity of that
the scientific study of climate
the lowest region of the atmosphere, extending from the earth's surface to a
height of about 6–10 km (the lower boundary of the stratosphere).
the arrangement of the natural and artificial physical features of an area.
the study of the physical features of the surface of the earth and their relation
to its geological structures.
the biosphere is the global ecological system integrating all living beings and
their relationships, including their interaction with the elements of the
lithosphere, geosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere.
The pedosphere (from Greek πέδον pedon "soil" or "earth" and σφαῖρα
sphaira "sphere") is the outermost layer of the Earth that is composed of soil
and subject to soil formation processes. It exists at the interface of the
lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere.
The hydrosphere is the liquid water component of the Earth. It includes the
oceans, seas, lakes, ponds, rivers and streams. The hydrosphere covers
about 70% of the surface of the Earth and is the home for many plants and
the rigid outer part of the earth, consisting of the crust and upper mantle.
North America
South America
Atlantic Ocean
Southern Ocean
Indian Ocean
Pacific Ocean
Arctic Ocean
Mediterranean Sea
Adriatic Sea
Planet Earth – The Physical World including structure of the earth/continents/ice
caps/cryosphere/Geology etc. Base of core knowledge of the planet.
10. Palaeozoic
Geological time: The Earth is thought to be 4,600 million years old. Life is believed to have become dominant on
earth 542 million years ago.
Chart showing the major geological periods
The geological periods relate to events which have happened in the Earth's history.
For example, during the carboniferous period there were tropical weather
conditions in the UK and coal and limestone were formed. The most recent period
in geological time is called the quaternary, when the Ice Age occurred. Rocks are
formed at different times, and are a result of the environment present during that
time. For example, chalk is formed in the cretaceous period, as this is when warm
tropical seas were present around the shores of the UK.
11. Cambrian/
12. Carboniferous
13. Mesozoic
14. cretaceous
15. Jurassic
16. Triassic
17. Cenozoic
18. Crust
19. Pangaea
20. Continental
21. Metamorphic
22. Sedimentary
23. Igneous Rock
The Paleozoic Era, which ran from about 542 million years ago
to 251 million years ago, was a time of great change on Earth.
The era began with the breakup of one supercontinent and the
formation of another. Plants became widespread. And the first
vertebrate animals colonized land.
The Cambrian Period is the first geological time period of the
Paleozoic Era (the “time of ancient life”). This period lasted about
53 million years and marked a dramatic burst of evolutionary
changes in life on Earth, known as the "Cambrian Explosion."
Among the animals that evolved during this period were the
chordates — animals with a dorsal nerve cord; hard-bodied
brachiopods, which resembled clams; and arthropods —
ancestors of spiders, insects and crustaceans.
During the Mesozoic, or "Middle Life" Era, life diversified rapidly
and giant reptiles, dinosaurs and other monstrous beasts
roamed the Earth. The period, which spans from about 252
million years ago to about 66 million years ago, was also known
as the age of reptiles or the age of dinosaurs.
The Cretaceous Period was the last and longest segment of the
Mesozoic Era.
The Jurassic Period was the second segment of the Mesozoic
Era. It occurred from 199.6 to 145.5 million years ago, following
the Triassic Period and preceding the Cretaceous Period. During
the Jurassic Period, the supercontinent Pangaea split apart.
The Triassic Period was the first period of the Mesozoic Era and
occurred between 251 million and 199 million years ago.
The Cenozoic Era, which began about 65 million years ago and
continues into the present, is the third documented era in the
history of Earth. The current locations of the continents and their
modern-day inhabitants, including humans, can be traced to this
The crust is the outermost layer of a planet. The crust of the
Earth is composed of a great variety of igneous, metamorphic,
and sedimentary rocks.
A supercontinent that existed during the late Paleozoic and early
Mesozoic eras.
Continental drift is the movement of the Earth's continents
relative to each other.
A metamorphic rock is a result of a transformation of a preexisting rock. The original rock is subjected to very high heat and
pressure, which cause obvious physical and/or chemical
changes. Examples of these rock types include marble, slate
Sedimentary rocks are types of rock that are formed by the
deposition and subsequent cementation of that material at the
Earth's surface and within bodies of water. e.g. iron ore
Extrusive igneous rocks cool and solidify quicker than intrusive
igneous rocks. They are formed by the cooling of molten magma
on the earth's surface. E.g. basalt
Wave-Cut Platform
Headland and Bay Formation
Headlands are formed when the sea attacks a section of coast with alternating
bands of hard and soft rock. The bands of soft rock, such as sand and clay, erode
more quickly than those of more resistant rock, such as chalk. This leaves a
section of land jutting out into the sea called a headland. The areas where the soft
rock has eroded away, next to the headland, are called bays
Long Shore Drift
Weather weakens the top of the cliff.
The sea attacks the base of the cliff forming a wave-cut notch.
The notch increases in size causing the cliff to collapse.
The backwash carries the rubble towards the sea forming a wave-cut
The process repeats and the cliff continues to retreat.
4 types of Erosion
Hydraulic action. Air may become trapped in joints
and cracks on a cliff face. When a wave breaks, the
trapped air is compressed which weakens the cliff and
causes erosion.
Abrasion. Bits of rock and sand in waves grind down
cliff surfaces like sandpaper.
Attrition. Waves smash rocks and pebbles on the
shore into each other, and they break and become
Solution. Acids contained in sea water will dissolve
some types of rock such as chalk or limestone.
Waves can approach the coast at an
angle because of the direction of the
prevailing wind. The swash of the
waves carries material up the beach at
an angle. The backwash then flows
back to the sea in a straight line at 90°.
This movement of material is called
longshore drift and occurs in a zigzag
Knowledge organiser
They are created in calm weather and are less powerful than destructive
waves. They break on the shore and deposit material, building up
They have a swash that is stronger than the backwash. They have a long
wavelength, and are low in height.
are created in storm conditions. They are created from big, strong waves
when the wind is powerful and has been blowing for a long time. They
occur when wave energy is high and the wave has travelled over a long
fetch. They tend to erode the coast. They have a stronger backwash than
A spit is an extended stretch of beach
material that projects out to sea and is
joined to the mainland at one end. Spits
are formed where the prevailing wind
blows at an angle to the coastline,
resulting in longshore drift.
Caves, Arches, Stacks and Stumps
Ice Ages
Formation of a Corrie (Cirque)
There have been many ice ages during the last 2.6 million
years but when people talk about the Ice Age, they are
often referring to the most recent glacial period, which
peaked about 21,000 years ago and ended about 11,500
years ago.
What causes ice ages is not completely understood. The
composition of the atmosphere, changes in the position of
our planet around the Sun, and changes in ocean currents
are some of the important factors that control the climate
Hanging Valley
Glacial System
Knowledge organiser
A glacier is a system. There is a zone of
accumulation where snow is added. This is
normally at the start of a glacier in a highland
area. As more and more snow falls, it is
compacted so the bottom layers become ice.
Glacial Erosion
Plucking occurs when rocks and stones become frozen to the base or sides of the glacier and are plucked from
the ground or rock face as the glacier moves. It leaves behind a jagged landscape.
Abrasion occurs when rocks and stones become embedded in the base and sides of the glacier. These are then
rubbed against the bedrock (at the bottom of the glacier) and rock faces (at the sides of the glacier) as the glacier
moves. This causes the wearing away of the landscape as the glacier behaves like sandpaper. It leaves behind
smooth polished surfaces which may have scratches in them called striations. Striations are carved out by
angular debris embedded in the base of the glacier.
Glacial Transportation
Supraglacial (on top of the ice) and englacial
(within the ice) sediments that slide off the
melting front of a stationary glacier can form a
ridge of unsorted sediments called an end
moraine. The end moraine that represents the
farthest advance of the glacier is a terminal
moraine. Sediments transported and
deposited by glacial ice are known as till.
Subglacial sediment (e.g., lodgement till) is
material that has been eroded from the
underlying rock by the ice, and is moved by the
Glacial landforms
Drainage basins
A river basin or drainage
basin is an area of land
drained by a river and its
tributaries. The edge of the
drainage basin is known as
the watershed.
V- Shaped Valley
As the river moves through the upper
course it cuts downwards. The gradient
here is steep and the river channel is
narrow. Vertical erosion in this highland
part of the river helps to create steepsided V-shaped valleys, interlocking
spurs, rapids, waterfalls and gorges
Erosion involves the wearing away of rock
and soil found along the river bed and
banks. Erosion also involves the breaking
down of the rock particles being carried
downstream by the river.
When a river loses energy, it will drop or
deposit some of the material it is carrying.
Deposition may take place when a river
enters an area of shallow water or when the
volume of water decreases - for example,
after a flood or during times of drought.
4 types of Erosion
Hydraulic action - the force of
the river against the banks can
cause air to be trapped in
cracks and crevices. The
pressure weakens the banks
and gradually wears it away.
Abrasion - rocks carried along
by the river wear down the
river bed and banks.
Attrition - rocks being carried
by the river smash together
and break into smaller,
smoother and rounder
Solution - soluble particles are
dissolved into the river.
The hydrological cycle
Describes the continuous movement of water on, above and
below the surface of the Earth.
Meander formation
Knowledge organiser
Bradshaw Model
Hjulström curve
Formation of fold mountains
The cool nights and hot days always cause things to expand and contract. That
movement can cause rocks to crack and break apart. Roots and plants also push into
the rocks and break them apart. They act like wedges and push the rocks apart.
Little animals also help by burrowing and digging through the ground.
Freeze-thaw weathering occurs when the water inside of rocks freezes and expands.
That expansion cracks the rocks from the inside and eventually breaks them apart.
The freeze-thaw cycle happens over and over again and the break finally happens.
Biological weathering would include the effect of animals and plants on the
landscape. This is more than roots digging in and wedging rocks. There are things
called lichens (combinations of fungi and algae) which live on rocks. Lichens slowly
eat away at the surface of rocks. The amount of biological activity that breaks down
minerals depends on how much life is in that area.
Reactions such as oxidation, hydrolysis, and acidification can happen when all of
the elements are together. Oxidation makes rocks softer. Hydrolysis usually causes
rocks to expand and then mechanical weathering can begin. These chemical
reactions are happening all of the time. When you see rocks next to each other that
are different colors (often shades of red) then you know chemical reactions have
taken place.
1.Where an area of sea separates two plates, sediments settle on the sea floor in
depressions called geosynclines. These sediments gradually become compressed
into sedimentary rock.
2.When the two plates move towards each other again, the layers of sedimentary
rock on the sea floor become crumpled and folded.
3.Eventually the sedimentary rock appears above sea level as a range of fold
Where the rocks are folded upwards, they are called anticlines. Where the rocks
are folded downwards, they are called synclines. Severely folded and faulted rocks
are called nappes.
Mountains Knowledge organiser
Mass Movements
Rockfall is the rapid, free-fall of rock from a steep cliff face. Rock
fragments fall from the face of the cliff because of the action of
gravity. This is made worse by freeze-thaw action loosening the
rock. Bare, well-jointed rock is very vulnerable to rockfall - water
enters the joint, freezes and expands, cracking the rock. A scree
slope of fallen rock is formed at the bottom of the cliff..
Soil creep is a very slow movement, occurring on very
gentle slopes because of the way soil particles repeatedly
expand and contract in wet and dry periods. When wet,
soil particles increase in size and weight, and expand at
right angles. When the soil dries out, it contracts vertically.
As a result, the soil slowly moves downslope.
Landslips or land slumps are occasional, rapid movements of a
mass of earth or rock sliding along a concave plane. They can occur
after periods of heavy rain, when the water saturates overlying
rock, making it heavy and liable to slide. Undercutting of a steep
slope by river or sea erosion weakens the rock above, also making
a slump likely.
Mudflow occurs on steep slopes over 10°. It's a rapid
sudden movement which occurs after periods of heavy
rain. When there is not enough vegetation to hold the soil
in place, saturated soil flows over impermeable sub soil,
causing great devastation and endangering lives.
How high is a mountain?
The recognized threshold for when a hill
becomes a mountain is 609.6m (2,000ft)
the force of the river against the banks can cause air to be trapped
in cracks and crevices. The pressure weakens the banks and
gradually wears it away.
rocks carried along by the river wear down the river bed and banks.
rocks being carried by the river smash together and break into
smaller, smoother and rounder particles.
soluble particles are dissolved into the river.
Erosion involves the wearing away of rock and soil found along the
river bed and banks.
When a river loses energy, it will drop or deposit some of the
material it is carrying.
A river basin or drainage basin is an area of land drained by a river
and its tributaries.
is the rapid, free-fall of rock from a steep cliff face.
or land slumps are occasional, rapid movements of a mass
of earth or rock sliding along a concave plane.
Soil creep
is a very slow movement, occurring on very gentle slopes
because the soil particles repeatedly expand and contract.
occurs on steep slopes over 10°. It's a rapid sudden
movement which occurs after periods of heavy rain.
Mechanical The cool nights and hot days always cause rocks to expand
weathering and contract. Rocks to crack and break apart.
Freeze-thaw occurs when the water inside of rocks freezes and expands.
That expansion cracks the rocks and breaks them
would include the effect of animals and plants on the
weathering landscape. More than roots digging in and wedging rocks.
Chemical 1. the erosion or disintegration of rocks, building materials,
weathering etc., caused by chemical reaction.
Occurs when rocks and stones become frozen to the base or sides of
the glacier and are plucked from the ground or rock face.
Occurs when rocks and stones become embedded in the base and
sides of the glacier and are then rubbed against the bottom.
smooth polished surfaces which may have scratches in them.
Striations are carved out by angular debris embedded in the base of
the glacier.
Supraglacial Sediment on top of the ice.
Sediments within the ice.
end moraine A ridge formed of unsorted sediments that slide off the melting
front of a stationary glacier.
The end moraine that represents the farthest advance of the glacier
Sediments transported and deposited by glacial ice
Air may become trapped in joints and cracks on a cliff face.
Trapped air is compressed and causes erosion.
Waves smash rocks and pebbles on the shore into each other,
and they break and become smoother.
Bits of rock and sand in waves grind down cliff surfaces like
Acids contained in sea water will dissolve some types of rock
such as chalk or limestone.
They have a swash that is stronger than the backwash. They
have a long wave length and are low in height.
They tend to erode the coast. They have a stronger backwash
than swash.
the movement of material along a coast by waves in a zig
zag pattern.
an extended stretch of beach material that projects out to sea
and is joined to the mainland at one end.
Knowledge Organiser KS3 Year 7- Weather & Climate
Key terms
1. Meteorology
1. The study of the weather.
2. Precipitation
2. Water in any form falls to earth
(rain, snow, sleet and hail).
3. Microclimate
3. The climate of a small area.
4. Convectional
5. Frontal
6. Anticyclone
7. Depression
8. Relief
9. Hurricane
10. Monsoons
4. Rain that is produced when air
rises after being warmed by a
5. When warm air has to rise over
cold air in a depression.
6. A weather system with high
pressure at its centre.
7. A weather system with low
pressure at its centre.
8. Rain caused by air being forced
to rise over hills and mountains.
9. A violent wind that has a circular
movement, especially in the West
Atlantic Ocean
10. A seasonal shift in the prevailing
wind direction, that usually brings
with it a different kind of weather.
Extended Learning Opportunity
Compare the UK with another country.
Think about why different Biomes occur and why they are
where they are in the world.
Why is there a need to measure weather? Who does it help?
Key questions
1. What is Climate?
2. What is Weather?
3. What is the link between Weather
and Climate?
4. Does Extreme Weather happen in
the UK?
5. What are Weather Hazards?
6. How is Weather measured?
7. How did Hurricane Katrina cause
so much damage?
Weather is the state of the atmosphere
around us. It can change from hour to
hour. An example of the weather are rain
in the morning and sunshine in the
Climate is the average weather in a
place, over a long period of time. Climate
is a measure of the average rainfall and
temperature. Examples would be a
desert climate, a tropical climate and a
temperate climate (such as the UK).
Reasons for temperature differences across Britain.
1. Wind direction – This is where the air comes from; a North wind will
be colder, a West wind will be wetter.
2. Ocean currents - In winter a warm ocean current coming across the
Atlantic from the Caribbean, called the North Atlantic Drift, warms
west of the UK.
3. Latitude – The further north
or south from the equator,
the cooler the temperatures
will be because of the
decreased intensity of the
sun’s rays. Therefore the
north of the UK is cooler
than the south.
4. Altitude – The height
above sea level will affect
temperatures due to the
lower air pressure and
fewer air molecules.
Temperatures decrease by
about 1 ͦ C for every 100m
in height.
Measuring and Recording the Weather
Weather Type
Measured in…
Air Pressure
Wind Speed
Wind Direction
A thermometer
A rain gauge
A barometer
An anemometer
A wind vane
Cloud Cover
Oktas (sixteenths)
A rain gauge
A barometer
An anemometer
Saffir-Simpson Scale
Mm or cm
Compass directions
Organiser KS3 Year 7- Climate ChangeKey questions
1. What Was Hurricane Katrina?
Tropical Storms
2. What types of Climate are there?
3. What is meteorology?
4. What is the water cycle?
5. Is Climate change just happening now?
6. Can we prevent Climate Change?
7. What is Global Atmospheric
Extended Learning Opportunity
Climate is the average weather in a place, over a
long period of time. Climate is a measure of the
average rainfall and temperature. Examples would
be a desert climate, a tropical climate and a
temperate climate (such as the UK).
Climate Change
A microclimate is when the climate in a small
area is different from the general
Factors affecting microclimates:
1. Physical feature - Trees provide shade,
water, such as a lake, have cooling effect.
2. Buildings - Buildings give off heat,
temperatures around buildings will be
higher, buildings change wind speeds and
the wind direction.
3. Shelter - Trees, hedges, walls, buildings
and hills provide shelter from the wind.
4. Surface - The colour of the ground
surface affects warming; dark surfaces
such as tarmac will become warmer.
Aspect - The direction in which a place is
facing. In Britain South-facing places are
usually warmer.
Hurricane Katrina- A Case Study
Hurricane Katrina was a devastating storm that hit the area around New
Orleans, USA, on 25 August 2005. It had social, economic and
environmental impacts:
What is an ecosystem?
Example of a Food Web
1. An ecosystem is a natural system made up of plants, animals and the environment.
2. They contain Abiotic and Biotic components
3. Abiotic – Non-Living e.g. climate, water temperature, soil and light
4. Biotic – Living – plants, mammals, fish, fungi
Ecosystems can be identified at different scales:
- A local small-scale ecosystem can be a pond, hedgerow or woodland.
- A global-scale ecosystem can be a tropical rainforest or deciduous woodland. These
global ecosystems are called biomes.
Impacts of change on an ecosystem
1. Natural changes
- Climate change, weather events e.g. drought,
- Droughts can be devastating to ponds and lakes
- They could dry up in places. Plants will dry out and die.Fish, starved of oxygen, might not
2. Human changes
Global ecosystems-map
- Agricultural fertiliser, draining of ponds, deforestation, water pollution
- Avington Park – restoration, 2014  desilting and redefining lake, creating new waterside
The distribution of global ecosystems
Large-scale scale ecosystems are known as global ecosystems or biomes. Global ecosystems form
broad belts across the world from west to east. This is because the climate and the characteristics of
ecosystems are deremined by global atmospheric circluation.
Variations in these east to west belts of vegetation are due to factors such as:
- Ocean currents,winds and the distribution of land and sea
Global ecosystems
1. Tropical rainforest- found near the Equator. The climate is hot and humid and many
different species can be found here.
2. Desert-found near the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn. Conditions here are very hot and
dry. Plants and animals are specially adapted to survive in the harsh conditions.
3. Polar- Arctic and Antarctic, north and south pole, very low temperature and dry conditions.
Temperature can fall below -50°C.
4. Decidious and coniferous forests- roughly 50-60° north of the Equator. Decidious trees
shed their leaves in winter. Coinferous trees are cone-bearing evergreens. The UK’s natural
vegetation is decidious forest.
5. Temperate grassland- found in Hungary, South Africa, Argentina and the USA. Consists of
grass and trees that thrive in a temperate continental climate of moderate rainfall and mild
6. Meditrranean-roughly 40-45° north of the Equator, Hot, sunny and dry summers with mild
winters. Other part of the world have similar climate, California (USA), South Africa and part
of Austarlia
7. Tropical grassland (savanna)- between 15-30° north and south of the Equator, wet and dry
seasons. Often with wild fires and and violent thunderstorms.
8. Tundra- found near the North and South poles. Very few plants and animals can survive
A fresh water pond ecosystem
Where are tropical rainforest found?
Central and South America
South East Asia
- Central Africa
- Northern Australia
What is the climate like?
1. Temperature- is high and constant
throughout year. The powerful Sun is
overhead for most of the time.
2. The rainfall-is high. The global
atmospheric circulation causes an
area of low pressure to form at the
Equator. The rising air creates clouds
and triggers heavy rain.
3. Rainfall varies throughout the yeara distinct wet season lasting about 6
months, when the equatorial low
pressure area is directly overhead.
What animals are there?
Only a small percentage of the animals live on the forest floor.
Many live in the trees. It is thought that in the Amazon rainforest there are over
2,000 species of birds and 1,500 species of fish. There is also thought to be
50,000 kinds of insects in a single square mile.
What are the soils like?
Infertile soils
Most nutrients are found at the surface, where dead
leaves decompose rapidly in the hot and humid
Many trees and plants have shallow roots to absorb
these nutrients.
Fungi growing on the roots transfer nutrients straight
from the air.
Heavy rainfall can quickly dissolve and carry away
nutrients. This is called leaching. It leaves behind an
infertile red, iron-rich soil called latosol.
How have plants adapted to rainforests?
Many leaves have flexible bases so that they can turn to face the Sun
Many leaves have a “drip tips” to allow the heavy rain to drip off the leaf
Lianas- woody creepers rooted to the ground but carried by the trees into the
canopy where they have their leaves and flowers
Thin, smooth bark on trees to allow water to flow down easily
Buttresses-massive ridges help support the base of the tall trees and help transport
Vocabulary- Ecosystems
Relating to non-living things.
Relating to living things.
Creature that eats animals and/or plant matter.
An organism such as a bacterium or fungus, that breaks down dead tissue, which is
then recycled to the environment.
A community of plants and animals that interact with each other and their physical
Food chain
The connections between different organisms (plants and animals) that rely on one
another as their source of food.
Causes of deforestation in Malaysia
- Malaysia is a country in South East Asia
- It is made up of Peninsular Malaysia and East
Malaysia, which is part of the island of Borneo.
- The natural vegetation in Malaysia is tropical
- 67 per cent of Malaysia is covered by rainforest
Food web
A complex hierarchy of plants and animals relying on each other for food.
Nutrient cycling
A set of processes whereby organisms extract minerals necessary for growth from
soil or water, before passing them on through the food chain - and ultimately back to
the soil and water.
Global ecosystem
Very large ecological areas on the earth’s surface (or biomes), with fauna and flora
(animals and plants) adapting to their environment. Examples include tropical
rainforest and hot desert.
An organism or plant that is able to absorb energy from the sun through
Deforestation is the cutting down of trees, often
on a very large scale.
- The timber is a highly valued export
- The rate of deforestation in Malaysia is
increasing faster than in any tropical country in
the world.
What are the threats to Malaysia’s rainforests?
1. Logging
- Malaysia became the
world’s largest exporter of
tropical wood in the 1980s.
- Clear felling was very
common and this led to the
total destruction of forest
2. Road building
- Road are constructed to
provide access to mining area,
new settlements and energy
- Logging requires road
construction to bring in
3. Energy development
- In 2011, the controversial
Bakun Dam started to generate
- The dam supplies energy for
industrialised Peninsular
4. Mineral extraction
- Mining (mainly tin and smelting) is
common here
- Rainforest has been cleared for mining
and road construction
- Drilling for oil and gas has recently
started on Borneo
Clear felling has largely
been replaced by selective
logging, where only fullygrown trees are cut down.
5. Population pressure
- In the past, poor urban
people were encouraged by
the government to move
into the countryside from
the rapidly growing cities
- This is called transmigration
- Hectares of rainforest was
felled for settlers, many
then set up plantations
1. Soil erosion
- Soil takes thousands of
years to form
- Removal of soil by wind and
rain is called soil erosion
- The roots of trees and plants
bind the soil together
- Deforestation means that
soil can easily become loose
and erode away
machinery and take away the
The dam’s reservoir flooded
over 700km² of forests and
6. Commercial farming
- Malaysia is the largest
exporter of palm oil in the
- During 1970s, large areas of
land were converted to palm
oil plantations
7. Subsistence farming
- Tribal people living in the
rainforest practise subsistence
- One method of clearing land is
“slash and burn.” This involves
the use of fire to clear land. The
burning creates valuable
nutrients that help plants grow.
These fires can grow out of
control, destroying large areas
of forest
Impacts of deforestation in Malaysia
2. Loss of biodiversity
- Biodiversity is a measure of
the variety of plants and
animals in a particular
- Deforestation destroys the
ecosystem and the many
habitats that exist on the
ground and in the trees
- This reduces the biodiversity
3. Contribution to climate change
- Deforestation can have an
impact on local and global
- During photosynthesis, trees
absorb CO₂ and emit oxygen
- By absorbing CO₂ trees store
the carbon (the greenhouse gas
that is partly responsible for
global warming) and help to
reduce the rate of global
4. Economic development
- Gains (mining and farming creates jobs,
hydro-electric power is cheap,
improved infrastructure, companies pay
taxes which lead to improved education
or water supply)
- Losses ( pollution of water, , fires,
plants used for medicines become
extinct, climate change, decreasing
number of tourists
Why should tropical rainforests be protected?
1. Biodiversity
- Tropical rainforests contain
half of all the plants and
animals in the world
2. Climate change
- Rainforests absorb and store
carbon dioxide, a gas that is
partly responsible for climate
3. Climate
- Known as the “lungs of the
world”,28 per cent of the
world’s oxygen comes from the
4. Medicine
- Around 25 per cent of all medicines
come from rainforest plants
- More than 2000 tropical forest plants
have anti-cancer properties
Some plants may become
extinct before they have been
5. Resources
- Tropical rainforests trees
provide valuable hardwoods
as well as nuts, fruit and
6. Water
- Rainforests are important
sources of clear water
- 20 per cent of the world’s
water comes from the
Amazon Basin
They prevent the climate from
becoming too hot and dry
7. People
- Indigenous tribes live in
harmony in the world’s
rainforests making use of the
forest’s resources without
causing any long-term harm
How can rainforests be managed sustainabily?
1. Selective logging and replanting
- The most damaging form of deforestation is clear
felling, this completely destroys ecosystem
- More sustainable approach to logging involves
selective logging
2. Conservation and education
- Rainforests can be preserved in
conservation areas, such as national
parks or nature reserve
- These areas can be used for education,
scientific research and tourism
3. Ecotourism
- Ecotourism aims to introduce people to the natural
world, to benefit local communities and protect the
environment for the future
- Tourists generate income
4. International agreements
- Rainforests are now understood to be of global
- International agreements have been made to help
protect rainforests
5. Hardwood forestry
- The Forest Stewardship Council (FSC)
tries to educate manufacturers and
consumers about the need to buy
sustainable hardwood
Vocabulary- Tropical Rainforests
6. Debt reduction
- Some donor countries have reduced debts in return
for agreement that rainforests will not be deforested
(“debt-for-nature swapping”)
The variety of life in the world or a particular habitat.
Commercial farming
Farming to sell produce for a profit to retailers or food processing companies.
Debt reduction
Countries are relieved of some of their debt in return for protecting their rainforests.
The chopping down and removal of trees to clear an area of forest.
Responsible travel to natural areas that conserves the environment, sustains the
wellbeing of the local people, and may involve education. It is usually carried out in small
groups and has minimal impact on the local ecosystem.
The business of cutting down trees and transporting the logs to sawmills.
Mineral extraction
The removal of solid mineral resources from the earth. These resources include ores,
which contain commercially valuable amounts of metals, such as iron and aluminium;
precious stones, such as diamonds; building stones, such as granite; and solid fuels, such
as coal and oil shale.
Selective logging
The cutting out of trees which are mature or inferior, to encourage the growth of the
remaining trees in a forest or wood.
Soil erosion
Removal of topsoil faster than it can be replaced, due to natural (water and wind action),
animal, and human activity. Topsoil is the top layer of soil and is the most fertile because
it contains the most organic, nutrient-rich materials.
Subsistence farming
A type of agriculture producing food and materials for the benefit only of the farmer and
his family.
Actions and forms of progress that meet the needs of the present without reducing the
ability of future generations to meet their needs.
What are hot deserts like?
A desert is an area that receives less than
250mm of rainfall per year.
This resulting dryness or aridity is the main
factor controlling life in a desert
Where are hot deserts found?
Deserts are mostly found in dry continental
interiors away from coasts, in a belt
approximately 30ºN and 30ºS
There are some coastal desert like Atacama
Desert in South America
What plants and animals are found in a hot
Hot deserts are home to a surprisingly
diversity of plants, animals and birds
Plants tend to have very thin leaves or spines
to refuse water loss
Some plants have very long roots to reach
deep underground water
How have plants and animals adapted?
Many rodents are nocturnal, surviving the
extremely hot temperatures by living in
burrows underground and only venturing out
during the cooler nights
Snakes and lizards retain water by having
waterproof skin and producing only tiny
amounts of urine
A) store water in their roots, stems, leaves
or fruit (succulent),
B) Small leaves, spines, glossy and waxy
leaves all help reduce water loss
C) Some have long taproots (7-10metres
long) to reach groundwater
D) Seeds can stay dormant for years, but
can germinate quickly when it rains
What is the climate like?
There are three factors which form desert areas:
1. the presence of high pressure, creating
cloud-free conditions
2. cold ocean currents
3. mountain ranges to create rain shadows
Opportunities for development in hot deserts
Where is Thar Desert?
The Thar desert is one of the major hot deserts of the world
It is the most densely populated desert in the world
Mineral extraction
The desert region has valuable
reserves of minerals
Gypsum for making plaster for
construction and cement
Feldspar used to make
Phospherite used for making
Thar Desert has become a
popular tourist destination
Desert safaris on camel have
become very popular with
An annual Desert Festival held
reach winter is very popular
- It stretches across north-south India into Pakistan
- The Thar desert is slightly smaller than the whole of the UK
The Thar Desert is a rich energy
Wind- renewable form of energy
Solar- ideal conditions for solar
power generation
Most of the people are involved
in subsistence farming
They graze animals on the
grassy areas and cultivate
vegetables and fruit tree
Commercial farming has been
made possible by irrigation (the
Local people benefit by
providing food and
They also act as guides or
rearing and looking after the
Indira Ghandi Canal
constructed in 1958)
Wheat and cotton now thrive
Challenges of development in hot deserts
Water supply
As the population has grown and farming and Due to extreme weather and the presence of
industry have developed, demand for water
vast barren areas there is a limited road
has increased
What are the water sources
The high temperatures can cause the tarmac
1. Traditionally, drinking water for people and
to melt and the strong winds often blow sand
animals is stored in ponds (natural and
over the roads
Many places are accessible only by a camel
2. There are few rivers and streams that flow
Public transport often involves seriously
through the desert, these are intermittent and
overladen busses
flow only after rainfall. Most settlements are
found alongside rivers
3. Some water can be obtained from
underground sources (aquifers) using wells
but this water is salty and not very good
The Indira Ghandi Canal – the main form of irrigation in the canal. This source of fresh water has transformed an extensive area of the desert and has
revolutionised farming.
1. Constructed in 1958 the canal has a total length of 650km
2. Commercial farming, growing crops such as wheat and cotton, now flourishes
3. The canal provides drinking water to many people in the desert
Causes of deforestation in hot desert
What is desertification?
What causes desertification?
Desertification happens where land is gradually turned into a desert, usually
Desertification can be caused by natural events, such as
on the edges of an existing desert
droughts, as well as poor land management
This can occur when land is overgrazed by livestock or stripped of vegetation
The areas close to deserts are ecologically very fragile
by people collecting firewood
Slight changes in temperature and rainfall associated with
Once exposed to the weather, it will crack and break up. It will then be eroded
climate change can have serious impacts
by wind and water
This makes these semi-deserts areas even more prone to
Desertification affects rich countries as well as poorer one (Sahara desert)
overgrazing or over-cultivation
It is a significant problem in parts of the USA, Europe (especially Spain) and
Extreme temperatures
The Thar desert suffers from extremely high
temperatures, sometimes exceeding 50º C in
the summer
Working outside can be very hard for farmers
High rates of evaporation lead to water
Plants and animals have to adapt to survive
in the extreme heat
Some animals are nocturnal , hibernating in
the cooler ground during day time
Livestock, such as cattle and goats, need
shade to protect them from the intense sun
1. In some regions, such as the Sahel on the
southern fringes of the Sahara desert, climate
change is resulting in drier conditions and
2. Soil erosion is often linked to desertification.
When vegetation has been destroyed the soil is
exposed to the wind and the rain making it
vulnerable to erosion
3. Population pressure can result in land close to
existing deserts being overgrazed. This means
that there are too many animals to be supported
unreliable rainfall. On average it now rains less
than it did 50 years ago
4. Over-cultivation resulting from the need to
produce more food can lead to the soil becoming
exhausted. It will turn to dust and become
by the limited vegetation. When the vegetation
has been destroyed the land will turn to desert.
5. Population growth is also increasing the
demand for fuelwood. Trees are stripped of their
branches and eventually die.
Reducing desertification in hot desert
Land at risk of deforestation needs to be managed sustainably so that people can live and prosper without damaging the environment
1. Water and soil management
2. National parks
Commercial farming in hot deserts often involves irrigation. Water from underground In some parts of the world, hot desert areas at risk of
sources or from rivers and canals can be sprayed onto crops or used to flood fields
desertification have been protected by making them into
national parks
Too much irrigation can cause problems leading to a process called salinisation.
The high rate of evaporation in hot deserts leads to a build-up of salts on the
The Desert National Park in the Thar Desert, India was
surface. This reduces soil fertility and kills plants
created in 1992
In Australia local farmers are encouraged to use the following methods to prevent
The Zion National Park was established in 1919 to protect
soil erosion
a desert canyon near Las Vegas
a) Ponding banks- areas of land enclosed by low walls to store water
b) Contour traps- embankments built along the contours of slopes to prevent soil
from being washed down during heavy rainfall
3. Tree planting
4. Appropriate technology
Tree planting is an important way of reducing erosion
Many people living on the edges of deserts are poor
Tree roots bind the soil together and the leaves and
Appropriate technology involves using methods and materials that are appropriate to
branches provide shade, grazing for animals and fuelwood
their level of development, they may not have access to expensive machinery
Sustainable approaches have to be practical and appropriate
Vocabulary- hot deserts
Appropriate technology (Also called Intermediate technology): Technology that is suited to the needs, skills, knowledge and wealth of local people in the environment in which
they live. It usually combines simple ideas with cheap and readily available materials, especially for use in poorer countries, and is environmentally friendly.
Biodiversity: The variety of life in the world or a particular habitat.
Desertification: The process by which land becomes drier and degraded, as a result of climate change or human activities, or both. Hot desert Parts of the world that have
high average temperatures and very low precipitation.
Irrigation: Artificial application of water to land or soil.
Mineral extraction: The removal of solid mineral resources from the earth. These resources include ores, which contain commercially valuable amounts of metals, such as
iron and aluminium; precious stones, such as diamonds; building stones, such as granite; and solid fuels, such as coal and oil shale.
Over-cultivation: Exhausting the soil by over-cropping the land.
Overgrazing: Grazing too many livestock for too long on the land, so it is unable to recover its vegetation.
Salinisation: occurs when the water in soils evaporates in high temperatures, drawing salts from the soil to the surface. These salts are toxic to many plants and make the
land unusable. This has consequences such as low yields, poor profits and even starvation. Irrigation of land - when water is brought to land that is naturally dry - can
cause salinisation on desert margins.
What are cold environments?
Cold environments experience temperatures that are at or below zero degrees Celcius for long periods
of time.
Examples of cold environments
1. Antarctica
2. Greenland
3. Canada
4. Northern Alaska
5. Parts of Iceland
6. Norwegian islands- Svalbard
Characteristics of cold environments
1. Climate
1. Climate
- Winter temperatures often fall
- The climate is less extreme,
below -50° C
winter temperature may drop
- These areas have low
to -20° C
precipitation (snow) totals
- The brief summers can be
2. Soils
quite warm
- Permanently covered by ice so
- Amounts of precipitation
soils are permanently frozen
(mainly snow) can be high in
3. Plants
coastal regions
2. Soils
- Some plants such as mosses
and lichens are found on the
- Soils are frozen (permafrost)
fringes of the ice
but in summer will melt closer
4. Animals
to surface
- Polar bears are well adapted
- Soils are generally infertile.
(to retain heat they have thick
Water draining through soils
fur, an insulating layer of fat
removes nutrients.
3. Plants
and foot pads to absorb
- Low-growing flowering plants
- In the Antarctic, penguins lay
such as Arctic moss.
their eggs on land and bring up
- Low bushes and small trees
their young before returning to
may grow in warmer regions
4. Animals
the ocean.
- More animals live here such
as Arctic fox and Arctic hare
How does vegetation adapt to
cold environments?
Few plants, if any, are found in
polar region, but a wide variety of
plants live in tundra environments.
The plants evolved a number of
special adaptations:
- Flowering and seed
formation happens in a
short time, so reproduction
take place during the short
- Plant are low-growing and
cushion-like to protect and
insulate them from the
strong dry winds
- Hairy stems help to keep
plants warm
- Thin and waxy leaves
reduce water loss
Opportunities for
development in Svalbard
1. Mineral Extraction
- Svalbard has rich
reserves of coal (main
economic activity)
2. Tourism
- Many people seek to
explore extreme
natural environments
3. Energy
- The most likely future
source is geothermal
energy, tapping into
the heat of the earth
and using it to
generate electricity
4. Fishing
- The cold water of
Barents Sea south of
Svalbard are one of
the richest fishing
grounds in the world
Challenges for development in
1. Extreme Temperatures
- Winter temperatures
can fall below -30° C.
- Such extreme temperatures
make it dangerous to work
outside, with a serious risk
of frostbite.
2. Construction
- There are many forms
of constructions
(building houses, shops,
constructing roads, harbours
and mining operations to
extract coal)
- Most construction work is
carried out during the brief
summers (limited light during
the winter)
3. Services
- Include water, electricity and
- Overground heated water
- and sewage pipes (the need
to be kept off the ground to
prevent them causing any
possible thawing of the
permafrost and allow easy
4. Accessibility
- Svalbard is located in a
remote part of Europe and
can only be reached by plane
or ship.
- Most people use
Cold environments
The variety of life in the world or a particular habitat.
Fragile environment
An environment that is both easily disturbed and difficult to restore if disturbed
Plant communities in fragile areas have evolved in highly specialised ways to
deal with challenging conditions. As a result, they cannot tolerate
environmental changes.
The basic equipment and structures (such as roads, utilities, water supply
and sewage) that are needed for a country or region to function properly.
Mineral extraction
The removal of solid mineral resources from the earth. These resources
include ores, which contain commercially valuable amounts of metals, such
as iron and aluminium; precious stones, such as diamonds; building stones,
such as granite; and solid fuels, such as coal and oil shale.
Permanently frozen ground, found in polar and tundra regions.
The regions of Earth surrounding the North and South Poles. These regions
are dominated by Earth's polar ice caps, the northern resting on the Arctic
Ocean and the southern on the continent of Antarctica.
The flat, treeless Arctic regions of Europe, Asia and North America, where the
ground is permanently frozen. Lichen, moss, grasses and dwarf shrubs can
grow here.
Wilderness area
A natural environment that has not been significantly modified by human
activity. Wilderness areas are the most intact, undisturbed areas left on Earth
–places that humans do not control and have not developed.
Sustainable development
Development that meets the needs of the present without limiting the ability of
future generations to meet their own needs.
Cold environments under threat
1. Why are cold environments fragile?
- Cold environments are extremely fragile and the can be easily damaged by
human activities.
- Tundra is a fragile environment and can take a very long time to recover from
any damage that is done by human activity.
Managing cold environments
1. How can the risk to cold environments be reduced?
- Cold environments offer many opportunities for economic development. To ensure they
don’t suffer any long-term damage, they need to be managed sustainably. This can be
done through:
a) Use of technology
- In 1969 oil was discovered on the north coast of Alaska. Winter sea ice in the Arctic
Ocean prevented oil being transported by tanker
- In 1974 the trans-Alaskan pipeline was opened
- Technology has been used to reduce its impact on the environment
2. Off-road vehicle damage in Alaska
- Off -road vehicle driving is a popular tourist activity in the Alaskan wilderness
(hunting for animals, fishing)
- It will take many years-possibly decades- for land to recover from damage
b) Role of governments
The United States government has been involved in the protection of Alaska since oil
was discovered in many different ways:
- The National Environmental Policy Act- companies to protect the natural environment
and recognise the rights of native people
- The Western Arctic Reserve- a 9 million-hectare protected wilderness, home to many
animals. Drilling for oil is kept away from sensitive areas.
- The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration- oversees sustainable fisheries
and protect marine habitats
c) International agreements
- In 1959 the Antarctic Treaty was signed by countries with territorial claims to Antarctica
- The Treaty recognises the importance of the continent for scientific research, particularly
into climate change and controls tourism
3. How can cold environments be harmed by economic development?
- Cold environments have rich reserves of oil, gas and other precious minerals
such as gold
- Countries are keen to exploit their resources for the economic benefits
- Road and houses for the workers have to be constructed across the tundra
and through forests
4. Why do cold environments need to be protected?
- Many indigenous people live a traditional life here
- Cold environments are home to many birds, animals and plants
- Unpolluted and unspoilt, cold environments are important outdoor laboratories
for scientific research
- The beauty and potential for adventure activities attracts tourists
- They provide opportunities for forestry and fishing
d) Conservation groups
- The World Wildlife Fund is a conservation group that helps to protect Arctic
environments in Canada.
- The WWF works with local communities to manage critical ecosystems, supports
scientific research to help protect important species and works with oil companies and
government regulators to plan for sustainable future for the Arctic
Knowledge Organiser KS3 Year 7 POPULATION
Key terms
Birth Rate
Number of births per thousand
Death Rate
Number of deaths per
When the population as a
whole is becoming older
Life expectancy The average number of years
expected before death
Those in the country too young
or old to work
The structure of population
within a country/community
A model used to indicate the
relative condition of a country
based on wealth
Infant mortality The percentage of population
likely to die under one year
The difference between birth
and death rate.
Extended Learning Opportunity
Compare the UK with another European country –
how do we compare on coping with the elderly
How has China’s population policy changed over
the past 20 years?
Compare one More Economically Developed
Country with one Less Economically Developed
Country. What do you notice about the structure of
the population?
Key questions
8. Where and why are people
9. How is the human population
10. Jamaica: How do we describe the
structure of populations?
11. Rio de Janeiro: Is population growth
sustainable? – natural barriers
12. Mumbai: Is population growth
sustainable? - policies
13. UK: How is the UK population
14. UK: How do we cope with an ageing
Growth in human population over time
Case Studies
High Income Country (HIC)
Newly Emerging Economy (NEE)
Knowledge Organiser KS3 Year 7 Summer 1 - Migration
Key terms
Push factors
Reasons for leaving a place
Pull factors
Reasons for going to a place
Movement of people to a permanent
home for a minimum of 1 year
Relating to a country
Relating to many countries
Host country
The place you have go to
Origin country
The place you have come from
Moving INTO the country
Moving OUT of the country
Economic migrant
The main reason to leave is to
become more financially stable
Moving to a place of safety from
Moving from villages/towns to cities
Extended Learning Opportunity
Migration impacts on both the place left behind, and on
the place where migrants settle. It also has a major impact
on those who migrate, this isn’t always good.
Check with your family about people who have migrated? Do
you know why they left their area/country and decided to
Choose a story from migration diaries. Why did the person
migrate? How long did they travel for? What did they
experience as they travelled?
What would you do if you were unable to find work of your
choice in your local area? Why would choose this?
Key questions
15. Why do people choose to
16. What impact can migration
have on the host country?
17. How has the UK been shaped
by migration?
18. Why is migration a
controversial topic?
Socially – migrants often change the
culture of an area from what it used to
Economically – migration can be
costly at first and profitable later
Environmentally Politically – migration divides people
Case Studies
LONDON: London is now an
immigrant city, for better or worse; the
question is what we make of it….
There is hardly a business or public
service in London which doesn’t
depend on immigrant workers — from
supermarkets and sandwich shops to
law firms, tech start-ups and research
institutes like my own.(Londonist)
Syrian refugees have fled to many
countries, the vast majority have
ended up in Lebanon, Jordan and
Turkey. However, there can be
problems "Syrian women ride on a
motorcycle behind their husbands.
That's not done here." BBC News
Data on migration 2014
Knowledge Organiser KS3 Year 7 Summer 1 - Settlement
Key terms
A place to build on
Spread out
Lined near a road/ river
Grouped together
Small population, no services
Slightly larger population, few
Higher population, range of
Large population, wide range of
services in many different areas
10 million plus population, most
people have access to lots of
services, some live in very poor
Rural sites
Areas without a large number of
Movement to cities by large
High numbers in a small area.
Extended Learning Opportunity
According to the UN, at least one third of the global
urban population suffers from inadequate living
conditions. Lack of access to basic services (drinking
water and/or sanitation, not to mention energy, waste
recollection, and transportation). Source The Nature of
1 in 5 people live in cities with more than 1 million
Key questions
19. Why and where do people
20. Why are there conflicts over
land use?
21. How can land use conflicts be
Cities are places where large numbers
of people live and work; they are hubs
of government, commerce and
How we define a city can affect the way
we work out its population. City of
London has about 7,000; Greater
London about 8; and the metro area
about 10-18 mil.
On current figures that means London is
one of the 30th largest world cities.
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Favela’s overlooking the city and coastline of Rio.
Case Studies
LONDON, UK Londinium, as it was
known, quickly became the capital
of Rome's Britannia province, and by
the 2nd century AD, Londinium was a
thriving trade center with a population of
around 60,000 people.
The city proper has a population density
of 5,377 people per square kilometer, or
13,930 per square mile. In a 2010
population estimate by Demographia,
Rio de Janeiro was the home of more
than 11.6 million residents, but is still
The world’s oldest known city, Ur, (Modern Iraq).
According to one estimate, Ur was the largest city in
the world from c.2030BC to 1980BC at about 65,000
(or 0.1 per cent share of global population then).
only the 2nd largest in Brazil.
Knowledge Organiser KS3 Year 7 – Industrial development
Key terms
When a country improves by becoming
Economic development achieved without
running down the natural resources
High Income
When individuals have an average Gross
National income of US$12,746 or above
Low Income
When individuals have an average Gross
National Income of US$1,045 or less
Brandt line
An imaginary division show a rough
division of the countries in the world into
the rich poor.
The primary sector involves extracting raw
materials, rearing animals and growing
A type of industry where raw materials are
made into something. Often called
Providing services and includes retail,
tourism, education, health and banking.
The section of employment that is
knowledge-based, eg ICT and research.
Extended Learning Opportunity
Development is a huge topic. Every society on earth can be
classified based on its stage of development, but each person
in a country could have their own experience of what
development means.
Some families might think that they are socially wealthy if their
children can have health care and education for free when it is
needed. Other families might think they are economically
wealthy if they earn a certain amount. Others might say they
are not wealthy if the environment is damaged.
Which of these things is most important to your family?
Key questions
22. What are resources?
23. How has industry changed?
24. How does industry connect to
Geographers use social, economic
and political indicators to measure
development in countries throughout
the world. Developed countries have
better standards of living than less
developed countries. Geographers
need to be mindful that every country
is unique. There are very rich areas
within countries which may be
considered poor and vice versa.
Adding labels may help to classify
countries but it may also hide
differences between countries.
Case Studies
This map shows the differences in
levels of wealth per person across
Asian countries in 2011.
Showing the stages of development for countries.
Rostow’s model, developed in the 1960, can be
used to help to categorise the stage that a country
may be in and its next most likely stage of
Knowledge Organiser KS3 Year 7 – Resource Management Food
Key terms
Key questions
A substance consumed for
25. Where does our food come from?
nutritional support
26. Would you eat what others throw away?
Reclaiming and eating food
that has been discarded
Cultivating land to produce
1/3 of the world’s entire food supply could be
animal and plants for
saved by reducing waste. That could feed 3
billion people.
Catching wild fish for
An estimated ¼ of all the food produced in the
Breeding sea foods for
USA never gets to the table… so what is
happening to it?
Food waste
Not using substances grown
for consumption
The bread and other cereal products thrown
Food security Having ready access to as
away in UK households is enough to lift 30
much food as is needed
million people out of malnourishment.
Tristram Stuart Waste: Uncovering the Global
Discomfort, weakness or
Food Scandal
pain caused by lack of food
Lack of nutrition caused by
food insecurity
Case Studies
The UK has a mean wealth of US$102,641
https://feedbackglobal.org/campaigns/feedingper adult. The UK supplies just under half
(49%) of its food. The leading foreign supplies
came from the EU (30%), Africa (5%), Asia,
North and South America all provided (4%) The
Extended Learning Opportunity
three largest value imports (at 2016 prices) were
Food poverty means that an individual or
fruit & vegetables, meat and beverages.
household isn’t able to obtain healthy, nutritious
Kenya has a mean wealth of US$662 per
food, or can’t access the food they would like to
adult. It is a leading producer of tea and
eat. Despite increasing choice and affordability
of food in the UK, many people eat what they
coffee, as well as the third-leading exporter of
fresh produce, such as cabbages, onions and
can afford, not what they want.
Find out if your local shops plan for their food
mangoes. Small farms grow most of the corn
and also produce potatoes, bananas, beans
waste. Does it get used or dumped?
and peas
In Kenya people are employed to go through all
household waste. Food which is dumped is often
collected to feed to animals
Food production in the UK over time
Knowledge Organiser KS3 Year 7 – Resource Management Energy
Key terms
Key questions
Fossil Fuels
Oil, gas, and coal burnt to release
27. What are non-renewable
Things transformed from one
28. How can our use of energy be
state to another to provide energy
more sustainable?
Global Warming
Rise in average temperatures
around the world
Renewable energy sources quickly
Green energy
Natural sources of energy e.g.
replenish themselves and can be used
geothermal, solar, wind, tidal
again and again. For this reason they
Electricity is produced by water
are sometimes called infinite energy
flowing to spin a turbine
Something that is going to run out
It is important to remember that biomass
if we use it
and wood are only renewable if the trees
Something that has an ongoing
and crops are replanted. Many people
source of supply even when we
fall into the trap of thinking that bio
use it
means renewable - it doesn't!
A material (generally found in
nature) that we make use of
Something that continues
because of how we use it.
Case Studies
The UK government wants to reduce its
carbon dioxide emissions. It also wants
to increase the amount of energy which
Extended Learning Opportunity
comes from renewable sources.
https://www.bbc.com/education/clips/zxchsbk - watch the
By 2020 20% of energy should come
clip. Why should we make our homes more energy
from renewable sources, according to
the EU. Each member state of the EU
https://www.bbc.com/education/clips/zyj3r82 - Calculate
may have a different target, as 20% is
how much energy various appliances use. Why is this
an average figure for the EU.
The UK has a target of 15% of its energy
consumption being sourced from
renewable energy.
Geothermal energy
Urban populations
HIC Population Pyramid
Most of the world’s population now live in urban areas, this is a significant change from the
What factors affect Birth Rate and Death Rate?
Birth Rate
1. Access to contraception
2. Infant mortality rates
3. Children needed to work to support
Push Factors
Not enough jobs
High crime rate
Poor climate
Poor quality medical care
Inadequate living conditions
Lack of services
High risk of natural hazards
LIC Population Pyramid
Death Rate
1. Diseases
2. Quality of healthcare
3. War
Pull Factors
More job opportunities
Clean air
Low crime rate
Good climate
High quality medical care
Better living conditions
Many services
Low risk of natural hazards
1. Population
2. Population
3. Birth Rate
4. Death Rate
Push Factors
Pull Factors
9. Megacities
10. Urban
Mumbai is a rapidly growing Megacity in
India, due to this it has many population
living is slums (poor quality conditions)
One example of a slum is Dharavi, below is
a list of conditions found in the slum.
1. 40% live in poor quality housing
2. Lack of clean water
3. Growing demand for health
4. Limited job opportunities
5. Low wages
6. Air pollution
How many people live per square mile on average
How people are spread around the world
Number of births per 1,000 people in the population
per year
Number of deaths per 1,000 people in the population
each year
The movement of people from one place to another
The reasons for people leaving a place
The reasons for people moving to a place
Where there are too many people and not enough
resources to support a satisfactory quality of life
A megacity is a city which has more than 10 million
The problems faced by people living in towns/cities
London is the capital of England and a good
example of a HIC city. Living in a city like this
brings many challenges, below are some of the
main challenges.
1. House prices and rents are highest in
London than any city in the UK
2. Air pollution
3. Traffic congestion
4. Overcrowding on underground trains
5. Inadequate waste disposal
6. Deprivation
Urban structure
Central Business District
Traffic Management
Most cities traditionally follow a similar form, with a central business district, surrounded by rings CBD is the original centre of cities As population grows and more
of development show on the Burgess model
and towns, these contain shops,
people drive cars, we need to take
offices and government building.
measures to reduce the impact this
Modern cities
As urban areas have develop and change, the structure has changed to meet the needs of the Many are original market areas that has on the environment. So
were the main trading locations for governments have introduced
people who live there.
an area.
schemes to reduce pollution in
Urban areas traditional followed the Burgess model, with concentric rings moving out from
urban areas.
the CBD, with the high class residential in the outer ring, (the suburbs). This has rapidly
1. Congestion charge
changed as transport networks develop and the populations ability to be travel. This now
developed and changed. New out
2. Clean air zones
means that many business facilities are on the outskirts of urban areas, taking advatage of
of town retail parks started to
access to transport, cheap land and links to other urban areas.
3. Higher road tax on diesel
replace the CPD, with easy
transport access and parking.
4. Cycle and bus lanes
Urban structure models
Hoyt and Harris & Ullman
1. Urbanisation
When an increasing percentage of a countries
population live in towns and cities.
2. Megacities
An urban area with a total population of more
than ten million people.
3. CBD
Central Business district – location of all the
main shops and offices in an urban area.
4. Urban Models
Models used to show the urban social
The concentric zone model, one of the
5. Burgess Model
earliest theoretical models to explain urban
social structures. (1925)
6. Hoyt’s Model
The sector model, a model of urban land use
proposed in 1932. It is a modification of the
concentric zone model of city development.
7. Harris and
Multiple nuclei model of 1945, based on the
Ullman Model
argument that the cities have multiple growth
points or “nuclei” around which growth take
8. Regeneration
Urban renewal is a program of land
redevelopment in cities, often where there is
The Burgess model was designed in 1925 Both Hoyt and Harris and Ullman modified
urban decay.
to show the urban structure of cities.
the Burgess model to show that the social
9. Traffic
Schemes that are designed to reduce the
Clearly showing the different areas found urban structure had different growth areas
volume of traffic in an area, to reduce pollution
in an urban area and how they changed and that cities would continue to adapt with
and congestion.
as you move away from the CBD.
development and technology.
10. Tourist
A facility or area that encourages people to
visit or stay in there. (museum, big wheel, etc.)
Urban Spaces – City Living
Mega cities of the world
Regeneration of Liverpool
The centre of Liverpool has undertaken a massive regeneration project, which has seen
the whole of Liverpool one and the docks completely transformed into a modern retail
area and tourist attraction.
Including new shopping areas, leisure area (Pubs and restaurants), offices, museums
and tourist attraction (including a Liverpool big wheel).
The number of mega cities, around the world is growing rapidly, with many of the largest
cities now in LIC’s.
What is an Eco Town
Meeting demands of today, without impacting on future generation.
In 2009 the UK Government named four towns as 'eco towns'. The
towns receive some government funding and are granted eco town
status on the basis of the potential for achieving a high level of
WhilteHill Bordon
Whitehill Bordon is one example of an
ecotown and was given the status in 2009. It
Affordable housing and sustainable living
carbon neutral developments
creative use of waste and high rates of
employment that is local
locals have a say in the development
local services and schools, so less demand
for use of cars.
Factors of a sustainable city
While sustainable cities are concerned about the environmental
impact the city is having on the surrounding area and aims to reduce
the resources it consumes and the wast products it gives off
(pollution). New aproaches must also consider the impact these
changes will have on the people. It must consider the social and
economic impacts.
The aim is to provide an urban space that minimises the impact on
the enviroment, while providing a living space that people want to live in. As well as providing
employment for the population, so they can earn money to maintain their life style.
Why sustainable cities are a vital part of future cities
Social Impacts
Better and affordable
Improved education
Access to medical
Accessibility to
More open green
spaces for leisure
Quicker travel times
Easier to travel
Local people have a
say in what happens
to their area.
Economic Impacts
More employment
High paid jobs
More investment in
Less congestion so
people can get to
work or deliver good
Cheaper and more
accessible ways to
More local products,
encouraging new
Environmental Impacts
Limited pollution
from cars
Reduced pollution
from industry
Use of alternative
More recycling using
less natural products
Cleaner air
More green spaces
for plants and
Energy efficient
Lower food miles
and carbon footprint.
Keywords Definition
Action that meet the needs of the present, without
1. Sustainable
reducing the ability of future generation to meet their
2. Generation
All of the people born and living at about the same
time, regarded collectively
3. Social Impacts Impact that effects people and the way the live.
Impacts that effect peoples jobs and money.
4. Economic
5. Environmental Impacts that effect the nature, plants and animals, can
be linked to pollution.
Town that is built to be sustainable, by being carbon
6. Eco Town
Basic equipment and structures, (roads, railways, water
7. Infrastructure
supply, etc.) that are needed for a country or region to
function properly.
8. Carbon Neutral Refers to achieving net zero carbon emissions by
balancing a measured amount of carbon released with
an equivalent amount sequestered or offset
Gases or resources that can cause damage to the
9. Pollution
Houses that majority of local people will be able to buy.
10. Affordable
Beddington zero Energy Development is an environmentally friendly housing
development in Hackbridge, London, England. Creating an urban living
environment that his carbon neutral.
 Alternative energy
 Solar panels
 Open garden spaces
 Rain water recycling
 Energy efficient housing
 Eco-friendly transport
East London Village
The London Olympics was designed to be the sustainable games, so the Olympic
athlete’s village had to be built to last and make a contribution to the city in the future.
Located in Stratford London.
It included:
 Sustainable energy sources
 Green open spaces
 Good transport networks
 Recycled water systems
 Affordable housing
 Recycling facilities
Knowledge Organiser KS3 Year 8- Spatial Geography- The Geography of Disease
Key terms
Key questions
1. How is Malaria distributed around
the world?
2. Is Cholera still as deadly as it has
been in the past?
3. Is Ebola the new Black Death?
4. How can the world prevent
5. What foundations are in place to
support disease? (AIDs charities)
6. Can a change in the environment
affect disease in the world?
Extended Learning Opportunity
"Globalisation can be a contributor to the spread of, and
be the eliminator of the Ebola Virus".
Discuss what is meant by this statement
"Level of economic development will determine the
mortality rate of the Ebola virus".
Discuss this statement making reference to key countries and
Ebola, where the virus hides when it's not
causing outbreaks in people — is not known for
sure, but experts say that bats are the likely
source of the deadly virus.
The first known human cases of Ebola occurred
in 1976 during two simultaneous outbreaks in
Sudan and the Democratic Republic of Congo,
which sickened more than 600 people, according
to the World Health Organisation.
The mortality rate (number of people who die) for
Ebola in the affected areas in West Africa is
between 50-90%.
Knowledge Organiser KS3 Year 8- Spatial Geography- The Geography of Sport
Key terms
Key questions
7. What is the Global Sport?
8. Do the winners in sport have a trend?
9. Why is the Premier League so popular?
10. Why is there still stereotypes in football?
11. Were the London Olympics sustainable?
12. Are there global factors that affect the
participation of sport?
13. Is the Premier League or Formula 1
more reliant on globalisation?
There were three prominent teams in the Premier League
back in 2009. They were Manchester United FC and
Arsenal FC, Chelsea FC. Each of these teams were
successful and qualified for the UEFA Champions League,
won cups and made millions of $'s in profits.
Extended Learning Opportunity
Analyse the socio-cultural factors
affecting participation (playing &
watching) in Premier League Football .
Case Studies- Premier League
The majority of revenue for football clubs is generated not
through fans who go to see live games, but those who
watch matches live on television in different parts of the
Premier League clubs have been bought by foreign
investors. Three examples are set out below:
Chelsea (London) - Roman Abramovich (Russia). Wealth
$11.3 billion & 53rd wealthiest person on earth.
Manchester City - Sheikh Mansour (United Arab Emirates).
Wealth $4.3 billion with family fortune of $1 trillion!
Manchester United - Glazier brothers (USA). Wealth $4
Knowledge Organiser KS3 Year 8- Spatial Geography- The Geography of Crime
Key terms
Key questions
14. Where does crime happen?
15. How serious is the issue of crime in the
16. How bad is crime globally?
17. What factors affect the seriousness of
18. What impact does crime have on
19. Is crime classed as a primary or
quaternary service?
20. How can crime be designed out?
Reducing crime levels can be helped by:
designing areas and houses to make it
more difficult for crimes to be committed
Extended Learning Opportunity
adding warnings and alarms so that
people are more aware of when crimes are
being committed
How can a lack of strong governance be a factor towards
crime, for example piracy?
How does crime link to SEEP in the UK?
tracking goods and people after a crime
has been committed
The definition of crime is an offence punishable by law.
Geography is important when studying crime because when a
crime happens it always has a location, a time and a reason.
Understanding the patterns behind this helps:
to see where crimes are most likely to be committed
to combat crime
to design areas to be more crime-proof
Crime can happen on an international scale as well as national
or local. Heroin trafficking and piracy are two examples of
international crime.
Knowledge Organiser KS3 Year 8 Globalisation
Key terms
Sweat shop
HIC High income
LIC Low income
Multiplier effect
How companies , trade, ideas and
lifestyles are spreading more
easily around the world
A factory where people work for
long hours and low pay
A Tax a government pay on
A Company with branches in many
Multi National Corporation
(Another name for TNC)
A system of transport products by
using freight containers.
The exchange of goods and
services between countries
Goods and services a taken in by
a country
Goods and service sold to another
A more developed country
A less developed country
A positive chain of events due to
new jobs in an area.
Case Studies: Nokia
Key questions
21. What is Globalisation?
22. In what way does globalisation affect our
23. Where and why are products are made
across the world?
TNCs such as Nokia have branches in
many countries because they want to
reduce costs. With lower costs, their profits
are higher. TNCs such as Nokia keep costs
low by
opening factories and offices in regions of
the world that have: Low labour costs
Cheap land or building costs
Low business rates(the tax paid by
a company)
Most manufactured goods sold in HICs are
manufactured in LICs
National Regional
impacts impacts
Pollution caused
by the factories lower standard of
Jobs for local
Local people can
learn new skills
Development of
local infrastructure
of mineral
New energy
projects such
as dams built
pollution in
lakes and
in Europe
Nokia can
avoid having to
pay tariffs in
the EU
Improve the
quality of life of
people living in
the region
In 1953 it took 5 days for the news to
reach England that Edmund Hillary
conquered Mt Everest. Now we have
the latest scores from the World Cup in
less than seconds.
Political Geography – Geography of Conflict including Water Conflict
The control and monitoring of resources so that they
Management do not become depleted or exhausted.
The 15 countries of the Middle East –Turkey, Lebanon, Israel, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Syria, Iraq, Oman, Qatar, UAE,
Bahrain, Kuwait, Iran, Jordan, Egypt (Part in Asia and Part in Africa). The geography of the Middle East – mountains
(e.g. Ararat), rivers – the Euphrates and Tigris, Seas – Caspian, Black, Red. Arabian Desert, Natural Hazards. Despite Groundwater Regulation and control of water levels, pollution,
being surrounded by water the Middle East has limited rain water and easy access to drinking water without costly
management ownership and use of groundwater.
desalinisation plants. This creates conflict, especially when groundwater supplies are under areas of conflict, e.g. The
OverWhen water is being used more quickly that it is
West Bank, and rivers run/start in other countries. The Middle East is a major exporter of oil, and many other countries
abstraction being replaced.
are reliant on this. 54% of the world’s oil reserves are in the Middle East, and currently 31% of the world’s oil comes
from here. Students know about the Arab Spring (2010 protests and unrest) and the history of conflict since 1948 set Sustainable Development that meets the needs of the present
up of Israel. Students should know about the current conflicts in Syria and the impact this is having on people –
development without limiting the ability of future generations to
refugees and humanitarian aid. Students should know what water surplus, deficits and water stresses are. Students
meet their own needs.
need to know that conflict exists in the Middle East due to water shortages and countries taking more water from the
Tigris and Euphrates leaving little for those downstream. Iraq lives in fear that due to Dams built in Syria and Turkey Sustainable Meeting the present-day need for safe, reliable, and
mean that no water will reach them. In Israel artificial streams and canals to transfer water have been built at huge
water supply affordable water, which minimises adverse effects
cost, however much of the water is lost to evaporation.
on the environment, whilst enabling future
generations to meet their requirements
Disputes between different regions or countries
Key Facts about access to water and Map of the Middle East
about the distribution and use of freshwater.
As shown below, access to water is a major concern
Conflicts arise from the gap between growing
for many people and communities. Demand, and
demands and diminishing supplies.
supply are not balanced, and therefore there are
Water deficit This exists where water demand is greater than
places where there is a water surplus – too much
water, and places where there is a water deficit – not
When water availability is not enough to ensure the
enough water.
population of an area enjoys good health, livelihood
and earnings. This can be caused by water
insufficiency or poor water quality.
The reliable availability of an acceptable quantity
and quality of water for health, livelihoods and
Water stress Water stress occurs when the demand for water
exceeds the available amount during a certain
period or when poor quality restricts its use.
This exists where water supply is greater than
Water transfer schemes attempt to make up for
water shortages by constructing elaborate systems
of canals, pipes, and dredging over long distances
to transport water from one river basin to another.
Underground water supply. An aquifer is an
underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock,
rock fractures or unconsolidated materials (gravel,
sand, or silt). Groundwater can be extracted using a
water well.
The nature of water supply conflict.
Water is our most basic and precious resource. Here in the UK, where water is abundant, we very much take it for granted and find it difficult to visualise what real shortage means
on a personal level. In some parts of the world, however, water supplies are much more limited and this is for a range of reasons:
• Low and unpredictable rainfall: the semi-desert countries of the Sahel region are in this category.
• Overuse of existing resources causing problems in continuing supply – too many people or too high a standard of living can be to blame here: people living in the rapidly growing
urban areas of the Southwest USA are in this position.
• Competition for limited resources by neighbouring countries – this includes water resources being used as a weapon in a stressed political situation: water supply is being used as
a lever in the political crisis between Israel and the Palestinians of the Gaza Strip
 Impact of polluted water on the population of Gaza:
 Reallocate water resources
People have contracted many different illnesses as a result of the poor water quality.
 Desalination plants are needed to improve the quality of aquifer water. The
Kidney disease has increased; too much salt damages the kidneys, and other
international community has promised aid to construct these, and a few do exist.
toxins contained in Gaza’s water can cause disease and malfunction of this crucial
 New shallow wells have been dug which should supply water without placing too
much pressure on the aquifer. They do not supply as much water as deeper wells,
 Problems with repairs to water infrastructure
but do improve supply to the towns and refugee camps temporarily, allowing other
Whilst the border stays closed and Gaza is blockaded and cannot get the necessary
economic activity and everyday life to function once again.
supplies, people’s health will continue to suffer. It is predicted that in five years’ time
there could be no clean fresh water at all, and this really would bring dire
consequences. There is an urgent need for cement, pipes, pumps, transformers and
electrical spares to allow essential repairs to take place in both water supply and
wastewater systems. 1,250 tonnes of cement are needed for the repair of water
storage tanks alone, but the continuing blockade is preventing the necessary
materials being brought in.