SEPSIS Prepared by: KENNEDY ABUGA LADISLAUS JOHN LUCIA JACKSON ADENIKE BADMUS MELANIA MADAFU SABINA WILLIAM GROUP G – NURSE INTERNS * * *31.5 million cases worldwide and 5.3 million deaths are caused by sepsis. * *Between 2013 and 2016 *Sepsis had 1754 – 1789 (95%, per 100,000 person) *Severe sepsis had 295 - 310 (95% per 100,000 person) * *Sepsis incidence is higher in Blantyre, Malawi, than in highincome settings, from where the majority of sepsis incidence data are derived. *older adults, *pregnant women, *weak immune systems, *children aged 1 and below, and persons with chronic conditions (i.e., such as diabetes, kidney or lung disease, or cancer) * *Infections such as pneumonia, abdominal infection, kidney infection, blood stream infection, appendicitis meningitis. * *In hospital, infections may be caused by intravenous lines, surgical incision, urinary catheter, and bed sores. * *In Community: people who have severe compromised immunity like HIV, drugs that suppress immune system like steroids and those used to prevent rejection of transplant organs. * Sepsis; *Change in mental status *Systolic pressure of less than or equal to 100 mmHg and *Respiratory rate higher than or equal to 22 breaths per minute. * Septic shock; *Need for medication to maintain blood pressure greater than or equal to 65 mmHg. *High levels of lactic acid in blood. * *w *Urine tests *Blood tests *Imaging tests such as chest Xray, CT scan. * Community; *Hand washing. *Safe preparation of food *Improving sanitation and water quality and availability. *Providing access to vaccines, appropriate nutrition, including breastfeeding for newborns. * Hospitals; *Infection prevention and control programmes and teams. *Effective hygiene practices and precautions, including hand hygiene, along with a clean, well-functioning environment and equipment. * *Appropriate antibiotic treatment of infection, including reassessment for optimization. *Prompt seeking of medical care. *Early detection of sepsis signs and symptoms. * *Antibiotics (ceftriaxone, azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, vancomycin, and piperacillin stops the growth of bacteria) * *Antiviral or antifungal medications. *Intravenous fluids. *Oxygen therapy. *Surgery. * *Kidney failure *Gangrene *Osteomyelitis *Permanent lung damage *Permanent brain damage *Weak immunity *Endocarditis * *To avoid sepsis, people should be educated and not neglect the preventive measures of infection. * *Airway maintenance, early administration of broad spectrum antibiotics, fluid resuscitation and blood pressure maintenance are the components of early goaldirected therapy that should be carried out for better survival chance of patients. * *Acute interventions; Thorough clinical investigation for infectious source identification, fluid or tissue sampling and microbiological workup. Additionally, removal, drainage or debridement of the infectious source. * *Post-acute interventions; Observe regular re-assessment of antimicrobial therapy, administration of antimicrobials for an adequate but not prolonged duration. * *w Thank You!