Name ________________________________________________ Period ___________________ Date _______________ Chapter 12- Genetic Material Study Guide Use your notes and textbook to answer the following questions to prepare for the test. 1. What is the difference between RNA and DNA? Include bases, sugars and structure. 2. Who are the scientists that discovered DNA as genetic material? List them and explain what they did. 3. What are the different typed of RNA? What do they do? 4. What are the steps and enzymes involved in DNA replication? 5. How does DNA fit into the cell? 6. What does the central dogma of biology? 7. What is a codon? Give an example. 8. Use your codon chart to translate the following sequences a. A U G C G U C G A U A G b. U G C C U G G A U C A U 9. Using the following DNA sequence, find the complementary base pairs, mRNA, tRNA and the amino acid sequence a. DNA – AUGCUAGUACUAGUCAUGA b. Base pairs c. mRNA d. tRNA e. A.A. 10. Who are the scientists that helped discovered the structure of DNA? List them and describe what they found. 11. Draw and label a picture of DNA. 12. What is substitution? 13. Why can mutations be harmful? 14. What are the stop and start codons on a codon chart? 15. What is the difference between substitution, insertion and deletion mutations? 16. If there is 14% adenine in a DNA sequence, how much T, G, and C is there? Show your work. 17. What is the difference between transcription and translation?