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plant glossary 2019

Plant Vocabulary
1. angiosperms - grouping of flower-producing, seed-bearing vascular plants.
The reproductive structures are flowers in which the ovules are enclosed
in an ovary.
2. anther - The part of the stamen where pollen is produced; a male flower
auxin - a plant hormone that promotes root formation and bud growth; also
responsible for plant tropisms such as phototropism and gravitropism
bryophytes - a grouping of land plants that do NOT have true vascular
tissue and are nonvascular plants
cotyledon - seed leaf within the embryo of a seed. Flowering plants whose
embryos have a single cotyledon are grouped as monocots; embryos with
two cotyledons are grouped as dicots
cross-pollination - the pollination of a flower or plant with pollen from
another flower or plant.
cuticle - outermost waxy layer on the top of a leaf which prevents water
dermal tissue - A layer of cells covering the outer parts of a plant, much
like our skin, which protects the plant; these tissue cells secretes a waxy
layer called the cuticle that inhibits water loss.
dicot - a flowering plant (angiosperm) that has a pair of leaves, or
cotyledons, in the embryo of the seed. Most common garden plants,
shrubs and trees, and broad-leafed flowering plants are in this
ethylene gas - plant hormone that stimulates fruits to ripen
fertilization - the fusion of gametes to initiate the development of a new
individual organism; in plants a seed may be formed as a result
fibrous root system - thin, moderately branching roots growing from the
stem; root system found in monocot plants and ferns
filament - the thin part of a stamen that supports the anther; a male flower
Flower/reproductive parts - flowers are the reproductive structures of
Angiosperms; the flower parts are divided into male (stamen and anther)
or female (stigma, style, and ovary).
fruit - the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (angiosperms) formed
from the ovary after flowering
gibberelins - plant hormones that cause the roots, stems, and leaves to
elongate (get longer)
grana or granum (singular) - the stack of thylakoids within the chloroplast
of plant cells; grana contain chlorophyll and are the location of
gravitropism/geotropism - a change in the growth of a plant in response to
gravity; roots grow in the direction of gravitation pull (positive response);
stems grow away from gravitational pull (negative tropism)
ground tissue - The cells within a plant below the dermal tissue and
around the vascular tissue whose function is to conduct photosynthesis
and store water and glucose.
guard cells - specialized cells which control the opening and closing of
stomata on a leaf
gymnosperms - grouping of seed-producing, vascular plants that includes
conifers (pine and spruce trees), cycads, and ginkgos. The term
"gymnosperm" has Greek language roots and means "naked seeds".
leaf - a plant structure whose primary function is to provide food for the
plant through photosynthesis
light dependent reaction - the first part of photosynthesis where solar
(light) energy is converted into chemical energy in the form of NADPH and
ATP, which are used in the second part of photosynthesis; occurs in the
granum and requires water (H2O)
light independent reactions (Calvin Cycle) - the second part of
photosynthesis in which sugars are made from carbon dioxide. Also
known as the Calvin cycle, this part of photosynthesis does not require
light; occurs in the stroma
monocot - a sub-category of the angiosperm (flower plants) grouping; a
flowering plant having one cotyledon or seed-leaf in the embryo. Grass
and corn plants are monocot examples.
mycorrhizae - Mutualistic relationship between a fungus and the roots of
the plant. The relationship mutualistic because the plant gains increased
absorption of water and minerals from the soil and the fungus gets food
(glucose) from the cells in the roots.
ovary - the part of the pistil which holds the ovule(s) and is located at the
base of the flower; a female flower part
ovule - the female reproductive structure that develops into a seed in a
seed-bearing plant
phloem - vascular tissue that moves sugars (glucose) from the leaves to
other parts of the plant.
photosynthesis - the process by which plants and other organisms which
contain chlorophyll use sunlight to synthesize glucose (food) from water
and carbon dioxide. The chemical formula is shown in the picture.
phototropism - tendency of plants to grow toward a source of light through
the elongation of cells located on the opposite side of the stem
pistil - the female reproductive part of a flower. The pistil, centrally located,
typically consists the ovary, a style, arising from the ovary, and a pollenreceptive tip, the stigma, variously shaped and often sticky
pollen - a powdery substance produced at the anther with contains male
plant gametes (sperm cells).
pollination - a process in which pollen is transferred to the female
reproductive organs of seed plants, thereby enabling fertilization and
reproduction to occur
pteridophytes - grouping of primitive vascular plants such as ferns which
do not produce seeds.
reaction - a response to something that happens; plant tropisms are a
reaction to light, water, and gravity
root - the part of a plant which absorbs water and anchors the plant
root hairs - hair-like extensions which grow off of roots and which increase
the surface area for greater water absorption
sepal - a part of the flower that are usually green, and function as
protection for the flower in bud, and as support for the petals when in
sporangia - an enclosure in which spores are formed on the underside of
fern fronds. See image.
stamen - the male fertilizing organ of a flower consisting of a pollencontaining anther and a filament
stem - main body or stalk of a plant that supports the leaves; contains
vascular tissue (xylem and phloem) which transport water and food
(glucose) up and down the stem.
stigma - The pollen-receptive surface of a pistil, usually sticky; it is located
at the top of the style where deposited pollen enters the pistil
stimulus - a change in an organism's surroundings that causes the
organism to react; examples are light, touch, temperature
stoma - a stoma (plural stomata) is a pore, or opening, found on the
underside of leaves that is used to control gas exchange (CO2 in, O2 out)
stoma/stomata - opening on the underside of a leaf which allows for gases
to enter and exit the leaf. Oxygen exits and carbon dioxide enters a leaf
through this opening
style - a long, slender stalk that connects the stigma and the ovary tap
root system - root system containing a central, large root; the main root is
larger in diameter than the secondary roots.
thigmotropism - A directional growth of a plant in response to touch.
transpiration - the process of water movement through a plant and its
evaporation from aerial parts, such as leaves, stems and flowers tropism A (directional) growth response of a plant toward or away from a stimulus;
made possible by plant hormones
vacuole - vesicle (container) within the cytoplasm of a cell, enclosed by a
membrane and typically containing fluids
vascular tissue - the tissues which move water and food (glucose) through
the plant. Made up of phloem which moves glucose food and xylem
moves water and minerals
xylem - the type of vascular tissue that conducts (moves) water and
minerals from the roots upward through the stem to the leaves