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Study of Ground Water Quality Analysis in Industrial Zone of Visakhapatnam

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Journal of Advanced Laboratory Research in Biology
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e-ISSN 0976-7614
Volume 3, Issue 3, July 2012
Research Article
Study of Ground Water Quality Analysis in Industrial Zone of Visakhapatnam
N.V. Srikanth Vuppala*
*Basic Science Department, Aditya Engineering College, Kakinada, Andhra Pradesh 533437, India.
Abstract: The Physicochemical characteristics of the groundwater in Visakhapatnam city and its surrounding area are
analysed. There is a wide variation in the quality of water from point, which is reflected by the related parameters.
Hydrogeochemical studies were carried out in industrial area to assess the groundwater quality groundwater samples
from 10 bore wells. Industries consume large quantities to water for their process and then discharge their effluents on
to the adjoining areas without pretreatment. This leads to the deterioration of groundwater quality significantly besides
impoverishing the environment.
Keywords: Groundwater Quality, Physicochemical parameters, bore wells.
1.
Introduction
Visakhapatnam has been home for a number of
large and medium industries such as the Hindustan
Petroleum Corporation, Visakhapatnam Steel plant,
Bharat Heavy Plates and Vessels, Hindustan Polymers
and Coromandel Fertilizers. Relatively more recently,
the Visakhapatnam Export processing zone has come
up and there are indications of the city emerging as a
booming industrial metropolis. Commensurate with the
growth of industrial and allied activities in and around
the city, its area grew from 30 sq km in 1960 to over 80
sq km. presently. The city’s population according to
2001 census is about 1.33 million.
The growing competition for water and declining
freshwater resources, the utilization of marginal quality
water for agriculture has posed a new challenge for
environmental management. In water scarce areas there
are competing demands from different sectors on the
limited available water resources.
Groundwater makes up about twenty percent of the
world's fresh water supply, which is about 0.61% of the
entire world's water, including oceans and permanent
ice. Groundwater is water located beneath the ground
surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of
lithologic formations. Groundwater is recharged from,
*Corresponding author:
E-mail: [email protected]
and eventually flows to, the surface naturally; natural
discharge often occurs at springs and seeps and can
form oases or wetlands.
Over three-fourths of the freshwater drawn by the
domestic and industrial sector, return as domestic
sewage and industrial effluents which inevitably end up
in surface water bodies or in the groundwater, affecting
water quality. The “marginal quality water” could
potentially be used for other uses like irrigation.
Hence, the reuse of wastewater for irrigation using
domestic sewage or treated industrial effluents has been
widely advocated by experts and is practiced in many
parts of the world, particularly in water scarce regions.
However, the environmental impact of reuse is not well
documented, at least for industrial effluents, particularly
in developing countries like India where the irrigation
requirements are large. In this work an attempt has been
made to study groundwater pollution in industrial areas
in Visakhapatnam with the following objectives: To
know the present groundwater quality after studying its
physicochemical parameters; To draw conclusions
based on the water quality analysis; To assess the
potability of available water sources (bore wells, open
wells) in and around the industrial zone of
Visakhapatnam.
Ground Water Quality Analysis in Industrial Zone of Visakhapatnam
2.
Methodology
2.1 The Study Area
Visakhapatnam was Situated in between 170 40’
30” and 170 40’ 45” North latitude and 830 16’ 15” and
830 21’ 30” East longitude. Visakhapatnam is an
industrial area, because of its geographical location
with a natural harbour attached nationwide attention,
which led to the establishment of several industries.
Water facilities are provided by dipping the bore
wells as the groundwater is the main source of drinking
water in this area. Historically groundwater has been
considered to be safe for drinking hence untreated
ground waters supplied to the public. Since most of
heavy industries are located, it leads to polluting the
groundwater. Thus, in this present study industrial belts
and its surrounding area has been selected and analysed
the groundwater quality.
2.2 Sample Collection
The water samples were collected at selected
points; great care was taken during collection of the
sample. The samples were brought to the laboratory and
analysed. Whenever delay was unavoidable, the
samples were refrigerated. The clean plastic bottles of
one-litre capacity were rinsed three times with the water
before filling it after the samples was collected, the
stopper was placed tightly.
In the present study, the groundwater quality in the
industrial areas Scindia, Malkapuram, Sriharipuram,
Old Gajuwaka, New Gajuwaka, Gajuwaka, Mindi,
BHPV, Autonagar, Visaka dairy these areas of
Visakhapatnam have been surveyed. The samples have
been collected from digging wells and bore wells for
physical-chemical analysis, which has been carried out,
in the Environmental Monitoring Laboratory, GITAM
Institute of sciences, GITAM University.
The Physicochemical Parameters of the water
samples were analyzed in triplicate by adopting
standard procedures from manual of the American
Public Health Association (APHA, 1998). The water
samples were analyzed for the following
Physicochemical Parameters.
3.
N.V. Srikanth Vuppala
alkaline. These values are maximum permissible limit
prescribes WHO standards. If pH increases the
permissible level it may promote corrosion of plumbing
systems and fixtures.
3.2 Chloride
From study area, it is observed that the chloride
content exceeds than the permissible limit. The site
point exceeds are Hindustan zinc area (290), old
Gajuwaka area (399.9), Malkapuram area (319.9), new
Gajuwaka area (309.9), Srinagar area (319.9).
When the chloride concentration of 250mg/l is
present along with sodium ions, a salty taste can
observe. The salty taste may be absent in waters in the
absence of sodium ions, even concentration of chlorides
is high as 1000mg/l.
Chloride is present in all natural water at greatly
varying concentrations depending on the geochemical
conditions. Chlorides in natural waters can be attributed
to leaching of chloride containing rock and soil,
discharges of effluents from chemical industries, ice
creams plant effluents, edible oil mill operations,
sewage disposal, irrigation drainage, contamination,
from refuge leachates and seawater intrusion in coastal
regions.
Results and Discussion
The population in the area has increased more than
threefold within a span of two decades, because of the
rapid growth in industrial activity. Groundwater is the
prime source of drinking water and its quality is getting
degraded due to increasing industrialization (1). The
present communication is focused on the study of
temporal changes in the groundwater quality to assess
the intensity of pollution activity on it in the different
industrial surrounding areas.
3.1 pH
The observed pH value ranging from 6.4 to 8.5
shows that the present water samples are slightly
J. Adv. Lab. Res. Biol.
3.3 Hardness
As per the analysis report, it is observed that
hardness is exceeding the limits. Such areas are
Hindustan Zinc area (234). Old Gajuwaka area (191),
New Malkapuram (188), Mindi (290), BHPV (193),
Sheela Nagar (292).
232
Ground Water Quality Analysis in Industrial Zone of Visakhapatnam
N.V. Srikanth Vuppala
Hardness is a measure of the ability of water to
cause precipitation of insoluble calcium and magnesium
salts of higher fatty acids from soap solutions, the
principle hardness causing cations are calcium,
magnesium, strontium, ferrous ion, manganese ion
associated with bicarbonates, carbonates, chlorides, and
sulphates.
3.4 Suspended solids
Suspended solids or matter in surface water may
consist of the inorganic or organic matter. These
materials are after natural contaminants resulting from
the erosive action of water flowing over the land
surface. Groundwater contains a negligible quantity of
suspended solids and these being filtered out by soil
start a through mechanical straining action.
The amount of suspended solids in surface water
increases with input of natural and man-made
contamination. As per the analysis report, it is observed
that suspended solids are exceeding the limits. Such
areas are Mindi (1200), Hindustan zinc area (1200), Old
Gajuwaka (800), Malkapuram (1150).
J. Adv. Lab. Res. Biol.
3.5 Nitrates
As per the analysis report, it is observed that
Nitrates is exceeding the limits. Such areas are Scindia
(4.6), Sriharipuram (7.9), Hindustan Zinc area (4.02),
Old Gajuwaka area (3.5), Malkapuram (5.1).
If the nitrates increase than the permissible level
water may get poisoned to a pregnant woman or
nursing woman. It has also been known to cause infant
cyanosis (blue-baby) in children under the age of six
months.
233
Ground Water Quality Analysis in Industrial Zone of Visakhapatnam
N.V. Srikanth Vuppala
3.6 Sulphates
As per the analysis report, it is observed that a
sulphate is exceeding the limits. Such areas are Scindia
(3.6), Autonagar (3.5), Sheela Nagar area (3.1), New
Gajuwaka (3.6). High level of sulphates in water can
cause dehydration and diarrhoea and may also cause
corrosion effect on plumbing.
3.8 Sodium
As per the analysis report, it is observed that
Sodium is exceeding the limits. Such areas are
Sriharipuram area (50), Autonagar (40), Malkapuram
(51.5). The High level of sodium in water may affect
possibly increases blood pressure in susceptible
individuals.
3.7 Iron
As per the analysis report, it is observed that Iron is
exceeding the limits. Such areas are Scindia (7.9),
Hindustan zinc area (5.5), Old Gajuwaka area (5.5),
Malkapuram (5.1), Sheela Nagar (7.8).
Iron is mostly a naturally derived metallic pollutant
which areas its origin in waters mainly to the sources
derived from the soil and crocks. The corrosion of
pipes, pumps and other such structures can also raise
the concentration of iron in the distribution systems.
Large quantities of iron can leach out from the soil
by run-off especially in acidic conditions such and
associated with acid mine drainage and degradation of
excessive organic matter accumulated in the soil.
Iron in groundwater remains mostly as a
predominate from due to general lack of oxygen, but
such iron-rich ground waters when brought to the
surface, the ferrous is quickly converted I to ferric
resulting in the formation of ferric in the presence of
iron is substantial quantities render the water unsuitable
for food processing making beverages, dying bleaching,
manufacturing ice and many other items, the limit of
iron in drinking water (0.1mg/l) is not because of the
health consideration but due to its aesthetic and taste
significance.
J. Adv. Lab. Res. Biol.
3.9 Potassium
As per the analysis report, it is observed that
Potassium is exceeding the limits. Such areas are
Scindia (4.6), Autonagar (4.6), BHPV (4.8), Sheela
Nagar (4.9) High level of potassium in water may cause
laxative effect.
234
Ground Water Quality Analysis in Industrial Zone of Visakhapatnam
N.V. Srikanth Vuppala
WATER QUALITY ANALYSIS IN INDUSTRIAL AREAS OF VISAKHAPATNAM
S. No.
Parameter
1
pH
2
Chlorides
3
Total hardness
4
Calcium hardness
5
Magnesium hardness
6
Total solids
7
Total dissolved solids
8
Total suspended solids
9
Nitrates
10
Sulphates
11
Dissolved Oxygen
12
Iron
13
Sodium
14
Potassium
Sample 1 Sample 2 Sample 3 Sample 4 Sample 5 Sample 6 Sample 7 Sample 8 Sample 9 Sample 10
8.5
7.9
7.1
7.71
7.6
7.1
7.1
6.4
7.4
8.4
177
318
99.6
400
115
290
149
110
180
150
155
188
111
191
64
234
290
193
165
292
138
118
102
169
31
141
155
149
98
126
22
71
12
25
35
97
153
45
63
167
2300
1580
1180
1200
1600
2000
2300
1600
2000
1200
900
380
400
380
800
1200
1300
400
1600
800
930
1150
800
800
790
800
1200
1200
400
400
4.6
2.6
7.9
3.5
4.02
2.7
3.3
3.8
3.1
2.7
3.6
2.4
2.5
0.6
3.6
0.9
3.1
2.4
3.5
3.1
6.2
6.4
5.6
6.1
7.1
6.9
6.1
6.1
6.4
6.6
5.6
7.9
5.1
5.1
5.5
7.4
6.9
3.1
8.4
7.8
30
51.5
50
29
25.5
19.5
34
24
40
4.2
4.6
2.9
2.1
3.6
2.1
3.1
6.1
4.8
4.6
4.9
SAMPLE LOCATIONS:- S1 = SCINDIA; S2 = MALKAPURAM; S3 = SRIHARIPURAM; S4 = OLD GAJUWAKA; S5 = NEW GAJUWAKA; S6 =HINDUSTAN ZINC AREA; S7 =
MINDI; S8= BHPV; S9= AUTONAGAR; S10= SHEELA NAGAR.
DRINKING WATER QUALITY STANDARDS
4.
1
2
3
4
Colour
Taste & Odour
Turbidity
PH
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
Total Solids
Total Hardness
Calcium
Magnesium
Copper
Iron
Manganese
Chlorides
Sulphates
Nitrate
Fluoride
Phenolic Substances
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
Arsenic
Cadmium
Cyanide
Lead
Selenium
Zinc
Mercury
Bacteriological
25
26
Alpha emitters
Beta Emitters
Indian Standards
ICMR
P
E
P
E
PHISICAL
10
50
5
25
Unobjectionable
Unobjectionable
10
25
5
25
6.5-8.5
6.5-9.2
7-8.5
6.5-9.2
CHEMICAL (Mg/L or PPM)
300
600
300
600
75
200
75
200
30
100
50
150
0.05
1.5
1.0
3.0
0.3
1.0
0.3
1.0
0.1
0.5
0.1
0.5
250
1000
250
1000
150
400
200
400
45
20
50
0.6-1.2
1.0
2.0
0.001
0.002
0.001
0.002
TOXIC
0.05
0.2
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.01
0.1
0.1
0.01
0.05
5.0
10
0.01
100ml/
100ml/
100ml/
100ml/
Coli form Coli form Coli form Coli form
RADIOACTIVITY
-8
-9
10
10
-7
-8
10
10
Conclusion
This study emphasizes the need for regular
groundwater quality monitoring to assess pollution
activity from time to time for taking appropriate
management measures in time to mitigate the intensity
of pollution activity.
J. Adv. Lab. Res. Biol.
1.
2.
3.
WHO
P
E
5
20
Unobjectionable
5
25
7-8.5
6.5-9.2
500
75
50
1.0
0.3
0.1
200
200
0.5
0.001
1500
200
150
1.5
1.0
0.5
600
400
50-100
1.0-1.5
0.002
0.2
0.05
0.01
0.1
0.01
100ml/
100ml/
Coli form Coli form
-9
10
-8
10
The quantity of water in around the industrial belt
reached already alarming stage causing health
effects as per the analysis report.
Regular monitoring should be done in various
seasons to identify the pollution source.
The major industries nearby sampling point should
supply protected drinking water to the people
235
Ground Water Quality Analysis in Industrial Zone of Visakhapatnam
surrounded by industries or they have to
rehabilitate people from that point since they are
mainly responsible for creation of pollution.
4. Improvement of sanitation facilities would
minimize contamination of septic effluents into
groundwater.
5. The groundwater quality problems are mainly due
to:
i) contamination by geogenic and man-made
sources; and
ii) Seawater intrusion due to over-abstraction of
groundwater along the coasts.
6. The geogenic contamination can be attributed to
over-abstraction causing lowering of the water
table and disturbing the contaminated geological
structures.
7. The man-made contamination is mainly due to
large-scale urbanization, industrialization and
agricultural activities.
8. Groundwater quality is being increasingly
threatened by agricultural, urban & industrial
wastes, which leach or are injected into underlying
aquifers.
9. The fast industrial growth also results in the
generation of large quantity of wastes (solid, liquid
and gaseous). Many times these wastes also do not
get collected, treated and disposed of. They also
have the same fate as domestic wastes in the city.
10. A large number of industrial activities are taking
place in urban areas, especially in congested,
populated areas. The wastes generated by industrial
activities in urban areas get mixed with domestic
wastes and pollute the groundwater.
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236
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