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Chapter 9 ppt

Chapter 9
An Agrarian
Republic, 1790 – 1824
9.1 The Growth of American
Communities from Coast to
Russian and Spanish Colonies
Russian settle Siberia and then conquer Alaska (Vitus
Bering) est. Sitka in 1804; fur trading
Also est. forts in Northern CA (Spanish territory)
Spanish established a chain of missions throughout CA to
stop Russia. Biggest was Los Angeles – 1800 had 300
mestizo people
First U.S. American exploration of Pacific in 1787
The Spanish also controlled important port of New Orleans,
and Florida (Americans allowed to immigrate to FL) i.e.
Russian influence in
Alaska today
1800 – Only 3% of US people live in cities; most
in rural agricultural areas
The trans-Appalachia West was the most rapidly
growing region of the United States. 500,000
people by 1800
Cincinnati = major trading center for the Ohio
River Valley.
River traffic to and from New Orleans increased
annually, though Westerners were concerned over
who controlled the city.
9.2 A National Economy
Northern and Southern Economies
South- Plantations were heavily involved in marketing
crops overseas, but demand for tobacco and rice did not
grow after Revolution; change to cotton
In 1790, American shipping hurt by the end of ties with
Great Britain but the outbreak of war between France and
England made Europe need goods = expanded trade,
fueling the growth of American coastal northern cities.
The economic boom included:
Shipbuilding, fur trading, insurance companies, banks,
and brokers catering to the international market.
1820, the United States was building a strong, diversified
national economy.
9.3 The Jefferson
Republican Agrarianism and
Jeffersonian Government
Jefferson elected 1800
Dem. Rep. Thomas Jefferson ideal was an
agrarian republic of roughly equal small
family farmers.
Jefferson promised to reduce the size of the federal
government by:
cutting internal taxes
reducing the size of army, navy, and government staff.
Nation’s capital (Wash. D.C.) was unfinished shows Jefferson’s emphasis on local versus strong
national govt
Digital rendering of what
the Capitol would have
looked like in 1814
Marbury vs. Madison
Before leaving office in 1801 President Adams and Feder.
Congress appoints new federal judges with a Judiciary Act
(midnight judges) including William Marbury
When Jefferson becomes president Dem.Rep. Congress
and Sec. of State James Madison remove judges; repeal
Jud. Act
Marbury sues Madison; case goes to SCOTUS Marbury v.
Madison did not restore William Marbury to his post, but it
established that SCOTUS could rule on matters of
Constitutionality (whether a decision violates the
Constitution or not)
Principle of judicial review and an independent judiciary
Opportunity: The Louisiana
Louisiana/NOLA back to France (Napoleon) in 1803
=threatened American access to the Mississippi River.
Jefferson attempted to buy New Orleans, but accepted the
French offer to buy the entire territory.
The Louisiana Purchase doubled the size of the United
States, fulfilling Jefferson's desire for continued expansion.
French customs in Louisiana conflicted with the
English-derived American traditions = solution was to
maintain aspects of French institutions in Louisiana.
Lewis and Clark expedition explores Louisiana
Territory; mapping of the US
Texas and the Struggle for Mexican
Spain (owns Mexico) feels threatened by
American acquisition of Louisiana territory;
some Americans already living in Spanish
territory of Texas; rebellion attempts for
independence several times in early 1800s
Spain’s involvement in the Napoleonic Wars
caused its American empire to slip away.
9.4 Renewed Imperial
Rivalry in North America
Problems with Neutral Rights
British ships seized American vessels trading in the
Caribbean and impressed sailors into the Royal Navy. (forced
them to serve); Jefferson cannot allow US to be neutral with
Europe anymore
Congress imposes a boycott and then Embargo Act (no US
trade to foreign ports), Effect:
did not change British policy;
caused a deep depression; and
led to widespread smuggling.
Next President James Madison, the Embargo Act was
Indian Resistance
Indian relations still huge problem; Jefferson hopes they
will move farther west or assimilate
Shawnee resist whites in Ohio River Valley; led by
Tecumseh & his brother Tenskwatawa formed a panIndian confederacy & advocated military resistance.
American Army defeats Tenskwatawa’s followers at
Battle of Tippecanoe; Tecumseh allies with British
In response, Tecumseh formally allied with the British.
9.5 The War of 1812
The War Hawks and the War of
Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun were leaders of a new generation of
War Hawks from the South and West that supported war with Britain
who had been taking US sailors and destroying US ships
Dem. Rep. President Madison declares war on Britain and their
Shawnee allies; Federalists refuse to support
Events of the War of 1812
America attempts to take Canada but fails
America wins at Battle of Thames, Canada; kills Tecumseh
Andrew Jackson and Indian allies defeated the Creek Indians and
invaded Spanish Florida.
The British navy established a strong blockade and burned
Hero of the
War of 1812
Old Hickory
A. K.A.
President Madison’s wife, Dolly
helped to save many of the
treasures of the White House
before the British burned it
The Hartford Convention
New England majority Federalist and
oppose War
Federalists meet to demand end to War, and
debate taking back the 3/5 compromises
Andrew Jacksons victory over Britain at
Battle of New Orleans make Federalists
look like traitors and begins breakup of their
Treaty of Ghent ends War of 1812
9.6 Defining the Boundaries
Migration Routes
Northern migrants traveled the Genesee
Middle States settlers went west on the
Philadelphia-Pittsburgh Turnpike and the
National Road.
The Wilderness and Federal Roads were
southern migration routes.
Western Movement
Northern migrants traveled the Genesee Turnpike.
Middle States travel - Philadelphia-Pittsburgh Turnpike and
the National Road.
The Wilderness and Federal Roads were southern migration
Overpopulated farmland in the East pushed Americans to to
West. Culture travels
The Old Northwest shared New England values.
The Old Southwest was based on plantation slavery.
Era of Good Feelings - The
American System
Madison and Monroe broke with
Jefferson’s agrarianism and embraced the
Federalist idea of economic development;
The American System embraced ideas of
Congressman Henry Clay included:
The establishment of a national bank
A tax on imported goods to protect American
A national system of roads and canals
The Diplomacy of John Quincy
Secretary of State John Quincy Adams laid the
foundation for continued expansion. Two treaties with
Britain established a demilitarized Canadian border
and provided for the joint occupation of Oregon.
The Adams-Onis Treaty turned over Florida to the
United States and relinquished claims to Louisiana.
Adams defined the response of the United States to
emerging nations in the Western Hemisphere by
designing the Monroe Doctrine.
The Panic of 1819
New problems emerged as Americans moved westward.
A land boom was financed by speculative buying and
easy credit.
The Panic of 1819 was triggered by the Second Bank of
the United States foreclosing on loans that led to six
years of depression.
The Panic of 1819 hurt urban workers suffering from the
decline in trade and manufacturing failures.
Manufacturers pressed for higher protective tariffs,
angering Southerners. Tariffs meant higher prices for
imported goods
The Missouri Compromise
Effort to admit Missouri into the Union as a slave state
created a crisis.
Northerners opposed the creation of new slave states because
it would tip the balance between slave and free states.
Southerners sought to expand slavery and were concerned
that Congress would even consider the matter.
Henry Clay forged a compromise that maintained the balance
between free and slave states.
Maine was admitted as a free slave state and slavery was
barred north of Missouri’s southern boundary.