Chapter 9 An Agrarian Republic, 1790 – 1824 9.1 The Growth of American Communities from Coast to Coast Russian and Spanish Colonies Russian settle Siberia and then conquer Alaska (Vitus Bering) est. Sitka in 1804; fur trading Also est. forts in Northern CA (Spanish territory) Spanish established a chain of missions throughout CA to stop Russia. Biggest was Los Angeles – 1800 had 300 mestizo people First U.S. American exploration of Pacific in 1787 The Spanish also controlled important port of New Orleans, and Florida (Americans allowed to immigrate to FL) i.e. Hutchinson Russian influence in Alaska today Battle of Sitka Trans-Appalachia 1800 – Only 3% of US people live in cities; most in rural agricultural areas The trans-Appalachia West was the most rapidly growing region of the United States. 500,000 people by 1800 Cincinnati = major trading center for the Ohio River Valley. River traffic to and from New Orleans increased annually, though Westerners were concerned over who controlled the city. 9.2 A National Economy Northern and Southern Economies South- Plantations were heavily involved in marketing crops overseas, but demand for tobacco and rice did not grow after Revolution; change to cotton In 1790, American shipping hurt by the end of ties with Great Britain but the outbreak of war between France and England made Europe need goods = expanded trade, fueling the growth of American coastal northern cities. The economic boom included: Shipbuilding, fur trading, insurance companies, banks, and brokers catering to the international market. 1820, the United States was building a strong, diversified national economy. 9.3 The Jefferson Presidency Republican Agrarianism and Jeffersonian Government Jefferson elected 1800 Dem. Rep. Thomas Jefferson ideal was an agrarian republic of roughly equal small family farmers. Jefferson promised to reduce the size of the federal government by: cutting internal taxes reducing the size of army, navy, and government staff. Nation’s capital (Wash. D.C.) was unfinished shows Jefferson’s emphasis on local versus strong national govt Digital rendering of what the Capitol would have looked like in 1814 (unfinished) Marbury vs. Madison Before leaving office in 1801 President Adams and Feder. Congress appoints new federal judges with a Judiciary Act (midnight judges) including William Marbury When Jefferson becomes president Dem.Rep. Congress and Sec. of State James Madison remove judges; repeal Jud. Act Marbury sues Madison; case goes to SCOTUS Marbury v. Madison did not restore William Marbury to his post, but it established that SCOTUS could rule on matters of Constitutionality (whether a decision violates the Constitution or not) Principle of judicial review and an independent judiciary (SCOTUS) Opportunity: The Louisiana Purchase Louisiana/NOLA back to France (Napoleon) in 1803 =threatened American access to the Mississippi River. Jefferson attempted to buy New Orleans, but accepted the French offer to buy the entire territory. The Louisiana Purchase doubled the size of the United States, fulfilling Jefferson's desire for continued expansion. French customs in Louisiana conflicted with the English-derived American traditions = solution was to maintain aspects of French institutions in Louisiana. Lewis and Clark expedition explores Louisiana Territory; mapping of the US Texas and the Struggle for Mexican Independence Spain (owns Mexico) feels threatened by American acquisition of Louisiana territory; some Americans already living in Spanish territory of Texas; rebellion attempts for independence several times in early 1800s Spain’s involvement in the Napoleonic Wars caused its American empire to slip away. 9.4 Renewed Imperial Rivalry in North America Problems with Neutral Rights British ships seized American vessels trading in the Caribbean and impressed sailors into the Royal Navy. (forced them to serve); Jefferson cannot allow US to be neutral with Europe anymore Congress imposes a boycott and then Embargo Act (no US trade to foreign ports), Effect: did not change British policy; caused a deep depression; and led to widespread smuggling. Next President James Madison, the Embargo Act was repealed. Indian Resistance Indian relations still huge problem; Jefferson hopes they will move farther west or assimilate Shawnee resist whites in Ohio River Valley; led by Tecumseh Tecumseh & his brother Tenskwatawa formed a panIndian confederacy & advocated military resistance. American Army defeats Tenskwatawa’s followers at Battle of Tippecanoe; Tecumseh allies with British In response, Tecumseh formally allied with the British. 9.5 The War of 1812 The War Hawks and the War of 1812 Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun were leaders of a new generation of War Hawks from the South and West that supported war with Britain who had been taking US sailors and destroying US ships Dem. Rep. President Madison declares war on Britain and their Shawnee allies; Federalists refuse to support Events of the War of 1812 America attempts to take Canada but fails America wins at Battle of Thames, Canada; kills Tecumseh Andrew Jackson and Indian allies defeated the Creek Indians and invaded Spanish Florida. The British navy established a strong blockade and burned Washington. War Hawks Calhoun and Clay Hero of the War of 1812 Old Hickory A. K.A. Andrew Jackson President Madison’s wife, Dolly helped to save many of the treasures of the White House before the British burned it The Hartford Convention New England majority Federalist and oppose War Federalists meet to demand end to War, and debate taking back the 3/5 compromises Andrew Jacksons victory over Britain at Battle of New Orleans make Federalists look like traitors and begins breakup of their party Treaty of Ghent ends War of 1812 9.6 Defining the Boundaries Migration Routes Northern migrants traveled the Genesee Turnpike. Middle States settlers went west on the Philadelphia-Pittsburgh Turnpike and the National Road. The Wilderness and Federal Roads were southern migration routes. Western Movement Northern migrants traveled the Genesee Turnpike. Middle States travel - Philadelphia-Pittsburgh Turnpike and the National Road. The Wilderness and Federal Roads were southern migration routes. Overpopulated farmland in the East pushed Americans to to West. Culture travels The Old Northwest shared New England values. The Old Southwest was based on plantation slavery. Era of Good Feelings - The American System Madison and Monroe broke with Jefferson’s agrarianism and embraced the Federalist idea of economic development; bot The American System embraced ideas of Congressman Henry Clay included: The establishment of a national bank A tax on imported goods to protect American manufacturers A national system of roads and canals The Diplomacy of John Quincy Adams Secretary of State John Quincy Adams laid the foundation for continued expansion. Two treaties with Britain established a demilitarized Canadian border and provided for the joint occupation of Oregon. The Adams-Onis Treaty turned over Florida to the United States and relinquished claims to Louisiana. Adams defined the response of the United States to emerging nations in the Western Hemisphere by designing the Monroe Doctrine. The Panic of 1819 New problems emerged as Americans moved westward. A land boom was financed by speculative buying and easy credit. The Panic of 1819 was triggered by the Second Bank of the United States foreclosing on loans that led to six years of depression. The Panic of 1819 hurt urban workers suffering from the decline in trade and manufacturing failures. Manufacturers pressed for higher protective tariffs, angering Southerners. Tariffs meant higher prices for imported goods The Missouri Compromise Effort to admit Missouri into the Union as a slave state created a crisis. Northerners opposed the creation of new slave states because it would tip the balance between slave and free states. Southerners sought to expand slavery and were concerned that Congress would even consider the matter. Henry Clay forged a compromise that maintained the balance between free and slave states. Maine was admitted as a free slave state and slavery was barred north of Missouri’s southern boundary.