Where questions, not answers, are the driving force in thinking. What does Socratic mean? Socratic comes from the name Socrates, a classical Greek philosopher who developed a Theory of Knowledge: the surest way to attain reliable knowledge was through the practice of disciplined conversation…dialectic. Dialectic means… the art or practice of examining opinions or ideas logically, often by the method of Question and Answer so as to determine their validity. How did Socrates use the dialectic? He would begin with a discussion of the obvious aspects of any problem, feign ignorance about a subject, and try to draw out from the other person his fullest possible knowledge about it. What is a Socratic Seminar? *a method used to understand information by creating dialectic in class regarding a specific text. Participants seek deeper understanding of complex ideas in text through rigorous thoughtful dialogue, rather than by memorizing bits of information. The Text: *richness in ideas, issues, values and their ability to stimulate dialogue. A good text raises important questions. There are no right or wrong answers. At the end of successful Socratic Seminars, participants often leave with more questions than they brought with them. The Question: The Socratic Seminar opens with a question posed. Responses to the opening question generate new Questions and lead to new responses. The Participants: *carry the burden of responsibility for the quality of the seminar. There are four ways to do this: •preparing • participating •sharing •supporting SET UP: • Desks arranged in a circle. • Text given in advance. • Rules posted. • Allow 45 minutes. • Students are ready with an opening question. • Participants respond with textual evidence for support. • Participants respond with questions to information they hear. • Students do not raise hands. • Reflect and Debrief. • Accountability through final written piece. Expectations of Participants: Did I….. Speak loudly and clearly? Cite reasons and evidence for my statements? Use the text to find support? Listen to others respectfully? Stick with the subject? Talk to others, not just to the leader? Paraphrase accurately? Avoid inappropriate language? Ask questions to clear up confusion? Support others? Avoid hostile exchanges? Question others in a civil manner? Seem prepared? REMEMBER: • Seminars usually last approximately 45 minutes. • Questions: open-ended, lead to further questions, open-core-closing, no right or wrong answer (unless it’s a text-based question/answer) • Text Support • Discussion not Debate! Benefits include: • Time to engage in in-depth discussions, problem solving, and clarification of ideas • Building a strong, collaborative work culture • Enhanced knowledge and research base • Increased success for all students • Teaching respect for diverse ideas, people, and practices •Creating a positive learning environment for all students Dialogue is "an interchange of ideas especially when open and frank and seeking mutual understanding." It is a collective inquiry in which we suspend opinions, share openly, and think creatively about difficult issues. Effective groups need to use both dialogue and discussion Debate • Is oppositional • One listens to counter arguments. • Affirms participant's points of view. • Defends assumptions as truth • Creates a closeminded attitude Dialogue Is collaborative One listens to find common ground Enlarges points of view Reveals assumptions for re-evaluation Creates an openminded attitude Debate • Defends thinking to show that it is right. • Calls for investing in one's beliefs. • One searches for weaknesses • Rebuts contrary positions and may belittle others • Debate assumes a single right answer • Demands a conclusion Dialogue Expects other’s reflections will improve their own thinking Temporarily suspending one's beliefs Searches for strengths Respects others and seeks not to alienate Assumes that cooperation can lead to greater understanding Remains open-ended There are three levels of questions. You should come up with a minimum of 2 questions per level. Knowledge means being able to show understanding by talking, writing, signing, drawing. Please use the following stems in creating your Knowledge Questions: Can you state, in your own words? Can you describe? Can you defend your position? Can you summarize the information? 1. Whom does Romeo kill? 2. When is the story set? Application means supporting your ideas with evidence. Please use the following stems in creating your Application Questions: Explain how … Explain why … Interpret the reasons … Compare and contrast … Connect and explain … 1. Why does George continue to care for Lennie? 2. How does O’Brien convey his attitude toward the war? Synthesis means combining or connecting two different elements. In terms of the Socratic Seminar you will be connecting two texts with each other OR connecting a text to the outside world. 1. How is Frankenstein similar to modern problems? 2. In what ways are the Plague and Blindness similar? Please use the following stems in creating your Synthesis Questions: Imagine … What would happen if …? Hypothesize … Theorize … Speculate… How is Text similar to Outside World? The classroom will be arranged in a two concentric circles. You will be assigned to either seminar A or seminar B. You will be assigned a partner in the opposite seminar. FOR EXAMPLE: If I am in seminar A my partner will be in seminar B Ms. Earhart will be facilitating, but NOT participating in the seminar. If I am in Seminar B, I will be sitting in the outside circle taking notes for my partner who is in the inner circle participating in the Seminar A. Then we will switch. I will participate in the seminar and my partner will take notes for me. We will be switching notes at the end of each seminar to be used for Step 5 of the Socratic Seminar Prep Sheet. The seminar is to serve as a discussion, not a lecture. Just like in a casual conversation, no one begins the conversation, a conversation begins naturally. Please listen and look at each other when you speak. One person speaks at a time. Each person will have a chance to ask a question. Respond to the person who asks the question. Use evidence from the text to support yourself. Always treat each other with mutual respect. Socratic Seminar 1 By completing the seminar prep sheet. (30 pts). By contributing to the conversation following these guidelines: - Ask a question. Respond to a question. Cite evidence from the text. All three requirements: Two requirements: 1 requirement: No requirements: 30 points. 20 points. 10 points. 0 points. The last 5 - 10 minutes of class on the day of a seminar: Please complete step 5 of the prep sheet using your notes from your partner as a reference. Please put your and your partner’s sheets together. Write 3 questions & answers based on the poem for each type of question: Factual (Knowledge)- answers are verifiable – who, what, when, where, how? (write p. # & importance) Inductive (Application)– why, how, so what? (provide ex’s & importance) Synthesis (Analytical) – connects to other texts, ideas, or situations; how is X similar to Y? What does X tell us about Z? (provide ex’s & importance) We will now practice a Socratic Seminar. We will stop at times so I can explain, redirect, encourage, or provide guidance. We will have a Q and A session after the fishbowl. I need 6 volunteers, 3 for the inner circle, 3 for the outer. Everyone else needs to pay attention, take notes if you’d like, and be a good, active audience member. I will elucidate my expectations for the seminar so you know what to do and how to get a good grade.