Lab Station #1: Crystalline Structure of Chemical Salts View each compound under the microscope. Draw what you see and answer the questions. Then use the model kit to build and draw the molecular structure. #1 Sodium + Chloride Chemical Name: ______________ Common Name: ______________ Chemical Formula: ____________ Lewis Dot structure: Draw what you see under the microscope: Draw the molecular structure. Show how the atoms are arranged and label each element. #2 Calcium + Chloride Chemical Name: ______________ Common Name: ______________ Chemical Formula: ____________ Lewis Dot structure: Draw what you see under the microscope: Draw the molecular structure. Show how the atoms are arranged and label each element. Lab Station #2 - Building Ions Simulation Play around with the simulation for a bit to become familiar with the controls and functions. You can add particles to your atom by dragging them into the atom model. The “Element”, “Mass” and “Net Charge” boxes should be expanded. When you are ready to start the exercise, press the “Reset All” button in the bottom left corner to clear any changes. 1. What 2 subatomic particles have charges? List the particle name and its charge. 2. What does the term “neutral” mean? 3. Describe which particles and how many of each you need to make a neutral beryllium atom. (Round the atomic mass from the periodic table to the nearest whole number to get part of your answer.) 4. How many electrons do you need to make a neutral beryllium atom? Draw a Lewis dot diagram for this atom. 5. What is the name of the inner orbital? How many electrons can it hold? 6. What is the name of the outer orbital? How many electrons can it hold? 7. Make 3 more neutral, stable atoms. Remember, you can use the atomic number to find the number of protons needed for each element. Draw the Lewis dot diagram for the three elements you chose: 8. The atomic number will tell you how many protons are in each atom. How can you predict the number of electrons in a neutral atom? 9. Reset the simulation. Make a stable, neutral atom of aluminium. Draw the Lewis dot structure: 10. Will this atom form a cation or an anion? Change the atom on the simulation to make an aluminum ion. Draw the Lewis dot structure and write the ionic formula: 11. Reset the simulation. Make a stable, neutral atom of oxygen. Draw the Lewis dot structure: 12. Will this atom form a cation or an anion? Change the atom on the simulation to make an oxygen ion. Draw the Lewis dot structure and write the ionic formula: Lab Station #3 - Electrolyte Investigation Read the article, then follow the directions below to test electrolyte levels in the sports drinks and answer the questions. 1. Read the ingredients listed for each sports drink. Which ingredients will provide electrolytes? (Don’t worry if you can’t identify all the ingredients, just concentrate on the ones you recognize.) How much of each electrolyte do the drinks claim to provide? Look at the % Daily Values to find this information. Fill in the chart: Brand Electrolyte Sources % Daily Values Calcium:______ Magnesium:______ Potassium:______ Sodium:______ Calcium:______ Magnesium:______ Potassium:______ Sodium:______ Calcium:______ Magnesium:______ Potassium:______ Sodium:______ Calcium:______ Magnesium:______ Potassium:______ Sodium:______ 2. Explain why conductivity can be used as a measure of electrolyte levels in a solution. 3. Based on the information you gathered in step 1, which sports drink do you expect to have the highest level of total electrolytes? Why? 4. Follow the procedure below to test the conductivity of each sample: a. Make sure the meter is set to read conductivity. The units listed under the top number should be μs/cm (microsiemens per centimeter). b. Remove the cover from the bottom of the meter to expose the electrodes. Place the electrode end of the meter in the beaker labeled DI WATER to clean the electrodes. c. Place the end of the meter in the first sample. Make sure to fully immerse both electrodes. Wait for the reading to stabilize and record your data in the chart. d. Repeat the procedure with the remaining samples, making sure to rinse the electrodes in the DI WATER between each reading. Brand Conductivity (μs) 5. Which sports drink had the highest total conductivity? Did this match your hypothesis from question 3? Which electrolyte do you think contributed the most to this drink’s conductivity? 6. Based on all the information you gathered at this lab station, which sports drink would you recommend and why? Consider total electrolyte levels, levels of different electrolytes, and additional ingredients found in each drink. 7. Test the conductivity of the spinach juice. How does the ion concentration compare with the sports drinks? Based on your reading, which electrolyte is this juice supplying? Would you recommend this juice as an after-workout drink? Why or why not? BODY ELECTRIC Rush University Medical Center Chicago, IL https://www.rush.edu/health-wellness/discover-health/essential-electrolytes Most often linked to sports drinks, electrolytes are vital for good health You've probably seen those ads for sports drinks that claim to offer better hydration than water during or after an intense workout. The reason, they say, is that sports drinks replenish electrolytes; water does not. Are these claims valid, or are sports drink companies just trying to sell you their products? What, exactly, are electrolytes? And is it really so important to replace them? It turns out, there is some truth in advertising. According to Lynne Braun, PhD, CNP, a nurse practitioner with the Rush Heart Center for Women, electrolytes are a health essential. The essence of electrolytes You're probably familiar with most or all of the electrolytes, even if you didn't necessarily know they were electrolytes: ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Bicarbonate Calcium Chloride Magnesium Phosphate Potassium Sodium These electrically-charged minerals help regulate everything from hydration (the amount of water in your body), to your nervous system to muscle function — including the most important muscle of all: the heart. Electrolytes enable the electrical impulses to be generated normally within the heart, so your heart can contract and relax at a normal rate. "The heart can't pump without electrolytes. If you think of the heart as a lamp, electrolytes are like the electrical circuit, generating the current that keeps the light burning steady and strong," Braun says. "If the connection is weak or disorganized, the light might flicker rapidly or dim — it won't work properly. If you unplug the lamp, it won't work at all." Out of synch Similarly, your body can't function without electrolytes. And if the level of one or more electrolytes becomes too low or too high, it creates an imbalance that can cause everything from mild, temporary symptoms to serious long-term health problems. For instance, over time, calcium deficiency will weaken bones and, possibly, cause osteoporosis. And although sodium is a vital electrolyte, your body doesn't need a lot — just 1 teaspoon daily. Too much salt can contribute to high blood pressure and other health problems. Eat your electrolytes Make these electrolyte-rich foods part of your daily diet: ● Calcium – Milk and milk products (including plain, nonfat yogurt), meat, fish with bones (e.g., sardines), eggs, fortified breakfast cereals, beans, certain fruits and vegetables (e.g., asparagus, collard greens, dried apricots and figs) ● Chloride – Olives, seaweed, rye, tomatoes, lettuce and celery ● Magnesium – Leafy green vegetables (e.g., spinach, turnip greens, collard greens, kale), whole grains, nuts, peanut butter, dried beans and lentils ● Potassium – Cooked spinach, sweet potato, plain nonfat yogurt, bananas, avocado, peas, beans, tomatoes, oranges, melons, prunes and raisins Replenish electrolytes after exercise If you do a long or heavy workout, it's important to replace the potassium, magnesium and/or sodium that can be depleted. "Even if you don't sweat a lot, you lose electrolytes when you breathe rapidly," she explains. "So sweaty or not, opt for a drink with electrolytes after any vigorous workout."