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any sustainable land-use system that maintains or increases
total yields by combining food crops (annuals) with tree crops and/or
livestock on the same unit of land, either alternately or at the same time,
using management practices that suit the social and cultural
characteristics of the local people and the economic and ecological
.\Downloads\Conservation Agriculture with Trees in the Philippines- A Documentary.mp4
AGROFORESTRY focuses on:
1. Fertilizer trees for land regeneration.
2. Soil health and food security.
3. Fruit trees for nutrition.
4. Fodder trees that improve small holder livestock production.
5.Timber and fuel trees for shelter and energy.
6. Medicinal trees to combat disease.
7. Trees that produce gums, resins or latex products.
Nair (1993)
- 1960’s and 1970’s development as a course in graduate and
undergraduate course in many institutions worldwide.
King (1987)
- stated that unti the Middle Ages, degraded forest as a general
custom, slash and burn, cultivate food crops for varying areas on the
cleared area, plant or sow trees before, or after sowing agricultural
Wilken (1977)
- in tropical America many societies have stimulated forest
conditions to obtain the beneficial effects of the forest ecosystem.
Example: A farmer plant coconut with a lower layer of bananas, citrus, a
shrub layer of coffee or cacao, annuals of different stature
such as maize and a spreading ground such as squash.
In Asia, the Hanunoo of the Philipines practiced a complex and
somewhat sophisticated type of shifting cultivation. Trees were an
indispendsable part of Hanunoo farming system and were either planted
or preserved from the original forest to provide food, medicines,
construction wood, and cosmetics. Also common in many other parts of
the world.
In southern Nigeria, yams, maize, pumpkins, and beans were
typically grown together under a cover of scattered trees (Forde, 1937).
The Yoruba of western Nigeria, who have long practiced an intensive
system of mixing herbaceous, shrub, and tree crops, claim that the
system is a means of conserving human energy by making full use of the
limited space from the dense forest. The Yoruba also claim that this
system is an inexpensive means of maintaining the soil's fertility, as well
as combating erosion and nutrient leaching (Ojo, 1966).
Many factors and developments in the 1970s contributed to the
general acceptance of agroforestry as a system of land management
that is applicable to both farm and forest.
• the re-assessment of development policies by the World Bank;
• a re-examination of forestry policies by the Food and Agricultural
Organization (FAO) of the United Nations;
• a re-awakening of scientific interest in both intercropping and farming
• the deteriorating food situation in many areas of the developing world;
• the increasing spread of tropical deforestation and ecological
• the energy crisis of the 1970s and consequent price escalation
and shortage of fertilizers; and
• the establishment by the International Development Research
Centre (IDRC) of Canada of a project for the identification of
tropical forestry research priorities.
Robert McNamara, the President of the World Bank in the 1970’s
confronted that the basic needs of the poorest, especially the rural poor,
were neither being considered nor adequately addressed. McNamara
(1973) state that:
Of the two billion persons living in our developing member
countries, nearly two-thirds, or some 1.3 billion, are members of farm
families, and of these are some 900 million whose annual incomes
average less than $100...for hundreds of millions of these subsistence
farmers life is neither satisfying nor decent. Hunger and malnutrition
menace their families. Illiteracy forecloses their future. Disease and
death visit their villages too often, stay too long, and return too soon.
The miracle of the Green Revolution may have arrived, but, for
the most part, the poor farmer has not been able to participate in it. He
cannot afford to pay for the irrigation, the pesticide, the fertilizer, or
perhaps for the land itself, on which his title may be vulnerable and his
tenancy uncertain.
In 1974, the new Assistant Director-General responsible for
forestry, the FAO made a serious assessment of the forestry projects
which it was helping to implement in developing countries, as well as the
policies which it had advised the Third World to follow.
It redirected its focus and assistance in the direction of the
rural poor. Its new policies, while not abandoning the traditional areas of
forestry development, emphasized the importance of forestry for rural
It is widely agreed that deforestation causes a decline in the
productive capacity of soils, accelerated erosion, siltation of dams and
reservoirs, destruction of wildlife habitats, and loss of plant genetic
diversity (World Bank, 1991).
Faced with these challenges and maladies of deforestation,
several studies and efforts were made to reduce the extent of
deforestation and suggest alternative land-management strategies.
Several sound land management strategies have evolved, due
to the efforts researchers from different disciplines.
For example:
1. Ecologists produced convincing evidence of positive influence
forests and trees on the stability of ecosystems, leading to the call for
measures to protect the remaining forests, introduce more woody
perennials into managed land-use systems, and change farming
2. Studies carried out by anthropologists and social scientists on
attitudes to improved land-use systems showed the importance of
mixed systems in traditional cultures and highlighted the need to build
upon these practices when developing new approaches.
In July 1975, IDRC commissioned John Bene to under take the
1. Identify significant gaps in the world of forestry research and training.
2. Assess the interdependence of forestry and agriculture
3. Formulate reseach programs which
4. Recommend institutional arrangements to carry out research effectively
5. Prepare a plan of action to obtain international donor support
John Bene team conclusion:
Prioritization of combined production systems integrating
forestry, agriculture, and/or animal husbandry to optimize tropical
• IDRC project recommended the establishment of an international
organizations which would support, plan and coordinate on a worldwide basis
The International Council for Research in Agroforestry (ICRA) was established
in 1977
ICRAF was renamed as International Centre for Research and
Agroforestry. Played in collecting information, conducting research,
disseminating reseach results, pioneering new approaches and systems
ICRAF was now renamed the World Agroforestry Centre
..\Desktop\videos in Agroforestry\Made in Israel- Agriculture.mp4
Agroforestry in the Philippines
Upland Status and Trends, Devepoment Issues
Status and Trends
Uplands are areas with slopes greater than 18%. They approximately 17.6
million hectares and cover 59% or more than half of the country’s total land
Agroforestry in the Philippines
• 12 million hectares of uplands are considered “forestland” although some
portions no longer obtain forests.
• 5.6 million hectares of the forestlands have been classified by the Government
as Alienable and Disposable (A&D) lands. These lands (A&D) are used for
agriculture, urban centers and distributed to private individuals.
• Most of the uplands have been deforested by the actvities of man.
• Around 22 million or 28% of the country’s population are living in the uplands
Agroforestry in the Philippines
• Of the 14.17 million families, 5.75 millllion belongs to the lowest 40% income
group while 8.62 million in the highest 60% income bracket
• Uplands continue to be destroyed by:
1. Illegal logging
2. Encroachment of landless lowland farmers who migrated to the
uplands due to population pressure.
3. Land-grabbing activities
4. Slash and burn practices
Importance of the Uplands
1. Serve as vital support for downstream lowlands and aquatic areas
-Upland forest watersheds provide water to rivers and other aquatic
systems for irrigation, power and households.
-Water carries organic matter which provide the lowlands with nutrients
through surface run-off and leaching.
-Deforested uplands will disable lowland production
Importance of the Uplands
2. Serve as abode of indigenous populations and displaced lowland people
-Sustainablity of production and food security has encouraged
indigenous people to stay in the uplands.
-Landless migrants displaced from the lowlands turn to the uplands for
Importance of the Uplands
3. Contain a unique tropical forest ecosystems considered the oldest, most
productive and protective and most biologically diverse on earth
-Tropical forests have provided many plants and animals considered as
principal crop and lives stock for human today.
-Large gene pools still undentified which can be potential sources of
genetic materials for varied purposes.
4. Contain vast untapped mineral resources
-Remoteness and inaccessibility have prevented the uplands from being
fully explored and exploited for mineral resources
Importance of the Uplands
5. Decide the future socio-economic progress of the country depending on their
appropriate conservation and development
-Good management of the uplands by both people and the government
can sustain agricultural and industrial development.
-Upland conservation and protection efforts should be done by both
people/occupants and the government agencies or private companies
Development Issues
1. People/Land Ratio
- migration of lowlanders to the uplands due to population pressure will
result to the saturation of the carrying capacity of the land.
- Saturation of the uplands will result to expansion into the forest and
watershed areas
2. Land Inheritance Patterns
- In the Philippines, it is customary to partition the land and distribute
equally among the children.
Development Issues
- Partitioning the farm/land into small lots will reduce the efficiency of the
- Expansion into the forest is also a factor to be considered particularly
when the inheritor feels that the land he inherited is insufficient for
family’s needs.
3. Land Tenure
- Farmers do not usually own the farms they till.
-Farmers have expanded into the forest lands-”forest is public land”
-Land tenants/occupants are reluctant to institute permanent
Development Issues
4. Government Programs and Policies
- Government policies and priorities can affect the implementation of
earlier policies, projects and programs.
- Here are some of the programs of the government intended to help
develop the uplands/forestlands:
a. ISFP-Integrated Social Forestry Program
b. NFP-National Forestry Program
c. FLM-Forest Land Manangement
Development Issues
d. CFP-Community Forestry Program
e. CADC-Certificate of Ancestral Domain Claims
f. CBMFP-Community Based Forest Manangement Program
g. NIPAS-National Integrated Protected Areas
h. NGP-National Greening Program
Development Issues
5. Education
-Need to restructure or refocus existing government educational
program or to develop new ones to make responsive to the uplands.
-Emphasis on the importance of the uplands to children’s mind
-Formal and non-formal education should be given appropriate
Development Issues
6. Militarization/Peace and Order
-Major concern in areas particularly where there are armed elements
-Reduced activities of the farmers fear
-Deterioration of peace and order like tribal wars and/or insurgency
reduces such activity
Development Issues
7. People Empowerment
-involving local government units or people in planning, decision
making and project implementation
-Innovativeness is encouraged especially if they are in control of their
land and future.
Development Issues
8. Linkages and interactions with the lowlands
- Balance realtionships and interactions should always be safeguarded
to prevent changes that bring out negative consequences
-People who live in the lowlands should understand that the uplands
have a fragile ecosystem. E.g Catastrophies
Development Issues
9. Role of NGOs/POs
- play important role in the development of the upland particularly on
their livelihood
-Can penetrate communities due to security reasons.
Development Issues
10. Government Decentralization
- giving more control of the LGUs over their jurisdictions for a more
realistic, responsive and responsible governance
-Freedom to decide their future with less interference from the national
-Local legislation and law inforcement should be give priority when
concerning indigenous culture
Investigative Documentaries- Indigenous Communities
1. To produce and maximize positive interaction between trees and agricultural
2. Developing a more sustainable form of land-use that can improve farm
productivity and welfare of rural community
1. Agroforestry normally involves two or more species of plants (or plants or
animals) at least one of which is a woody perennial.
2. An agroforrestry system has always two or more outputs.
3. The cycle of Agroforestry system is always longer than 1 year.
4. Even the simplest agroforestry system is more complex ecology and
economically than a monocropping system.
5. There is significant interaction between woody and non-woody components of
the system, ecological and/or economic.
1. The land management is sustainable.
2. Increases yield and services per unit area.
3. The cropping scheme combines the production of forest and agricultural
crops and/or animals
4. Contributes to the socio-economic and ecological upliftment of the
5. The practices is consistent with sound ecological principles and compatible
with cultural patterns of the communities
1. Increasing demand for food by the increasing population
2. Rapid rate of forest denudation and slow pace of government reforestation
and afforestation efforts
3. Increasing demand for forest based raw materials and services for domestic,
industrial and commercial uses.
4. Pressing needs to uplift the socio-economic levels of living of people in the
ruarl areas
5. Necessity of providing/promoting employment or gainful work opportunity
1. Ecological premise- based on the advantages of trees on soil and micro
a. Soil consevation/soil amelioration-trees prevent erosion, high organic
matter, serves as wind break, litterfall
b. Water conservation-trees increase porosity, increase water retaining
c. Microclimate amelioration-shading effect, lower temperature, less air
turbulence, less intense solar radiation, fovorable for organisms
d. Other benefits: enhance aesthetics, serve as food and shelter for
wildlife, biodiverse structure prevents pest and disease epidemics.
2. Socio-economic premises- farmers are benefited from the system in the
following ways:
a. Source of food
b. Fuelwood
c. Fodder
d. Raw material for housing
e. Farm implements
f. Handicraft/cottage industries
g. Source of employment/income
LAWS RELEVANT TO AGROFORESTRY..\Downloads\Investigative Documentaries- Indigenous Communities.mp4
1. Republic Act no. 8371 dated October 29, 1997 (The Indigenous People Rights
Act of 1997)
This law seeks to put into motion the constitutional provision for the State
to recognize and promote the rights of Indigenous Cultural Communities
(ICC) on their ancestral domains and ancestral lands.
a. Ancestral Domains- all areas belonging to ICCs/IPs comprising lakes,
inland waters, coastal areas and natural resources therein, held under the
calim of ownership, occupied or possessed since time immemorial
b. Ancestral Lands-lands occupied, possessed and utilized by
individuals, families and clans who are members of the ICCs/IPs since time
c. Free and Prior Informed Consent-consensus of all members of the
ICCs/IPs to be determined in accordance with their customary laws and
practices, free from any external manipulation, interference and coersion
d. ICCs/IPs- group of people or homogenous socities identified by selfascription by others who have continously lived as organized community on
communally bounded nd defined territory.
e. Time immemorial- period of time when as far back as memory can
go, certain ICCs/IPs are known to have occupied, possessed and utilized a
defined territory devolved to them
..\Downloads\The lifestyle of Mountain Tribe in the Philippines.mp4
Rights Recognized by the Law on ICCs/Ips
a. Rights to ancestral domains
These are set of rights of ICCs/IPs. The law enumerated the components
of these rights as follows:
1. Right to ownership
2. Right to develop lands and natural resources
3. Right in case of displacement
4. Right to regulate the entry of migrants
5. Right to safe and clean air and water
6. Right to claim parts of reservation
7. Right to resolve conflicts
Rights Recognized by the Law on ICCs/Ips
b. Rights to ancestral lands
The components are:
1. Right to transfer land
2. Right to redemption
Rights Recognized by the Law on ICCs/Ips
c. Rights to self-governance and empowerment
the IPs:
These are set of rights accept the governance system being applied by
1. Right to self-governance and self-determination
2. Right to use their own commonly accepted justice systems
3. Right to participate in decision-making
4. Right to determine and decide priorities for development
The law provides that ICCs/IPs shall have priority rights in harvesting,
extraction, development, or exploitation of any natural resources
within the ancestral domains
Three Principal Responsibilities of ICCs/IPs
1. Maintain ecological balance
2. To restore denuded areas
3. To observe laws
Republic Act 8435 – the Agriculture and Fisheries Modernization Act of 1997
AFMA- urgent measures to modernize the agricultural and fisheries sectors of the
country in order to
• enhance their profitability,
prepare the sectors for the challenges of globalization through adequate,
rational delivery of necessary support services.
AFMA focuses on the following principles:
a. Food security- assuring the availability, adequacy, accessibility and
affordability of food supplies at all times.
b. Poverty alleviation and social equity- ensuring that the poorer sectors of the
society have equitable access to resources, income opportunities, basic
and support services and infrastructure especially in areas where
productivity is low
c. Rational use of resources- adopting a rational approach in the allocation of
public investments for efficiency and effectiveness in the use of scarce
AFMA focuses on the following principles:
d. Global competitiveness- enhancing the competitiveness of agriculture and
fisheries sectors on both domestic and foreign markets
e. Sustainable development- promoting development that is compatible with the
preservation of the ecosystem in the areas where agriculture and
fisheries area carried out.
f. People empowerment- enabling all citizens to participate in policy formulation
and decision making by appropriate mechanism.
g. Protection from unfair competition- promoting a policy environment that
provides farmers priority access to credit and cooperative-based
marketing services.
Agroforestry Systems and Practices
Words “system” and “practices” are often used in synonymously in agroforestry
1. Agroforestry system- characterized by certain types of practices that,
taken as a whole, form a dominant land-use system in a particular locality and
determine its overall biological composition and management.
2. Agroforestry practice- denotes a specific land management unit, such
as a field, and a specific arrangement, temporary and/or spatially, of
components. In any agroforestry system
there can be more than one
agroforestry practices.
Agroforestry Systems and Practices
3. Agroforestry technology- refers to an innovation or improvement,
usually through scientific intervention, to either modify an
existing system or practice, or develop a new one.
Agroforestry practices under the AGRISILVICULTURAL systems includes:
1. Improve fallow in shifting cultivation
2. Alley cropping (hedgerow intercropping)
3. Multi-species tree garden
4. Taungya (taung-hill; ya-cultivation)-Burmese word involves the
planting of food crops and forest trees on the same piece of land
5. Scattered trees on farmland (parklands)
6. Plantation and other crops
7. Mixture of plantation crops
8. Biomass transfer
Agroforestry practices under the AGRISILVICULTURAL systems includes:
9. Shade tree for commercial plantation crops
10. Trees for fuel wood production
11. Shelterbelt, windbreak, soil conservation hedges etc.
12. Rotational woodlots
13. Boundary markings
Agroforestry practices under the SILVIPASTORAL systems include:
1. Shade tree for commercial plantation crops
2. Trees and shrubs on rangelands or pasture
3. Live fences of fodder trees and shrubs
4. Plantation crops with pastures and animals
5. Integrated production of animals and wood products
Other systems include:
1. Aqua-forestry
2. Apiculture
3. Sericulture
Classification of Agroforestry System
1. Structure – composition of the components, including spatial
arrangement of the woody components, vertical stratification and temporal
arrangement of the different components
2. Function - refers to the major function or role of the system, mainly of
the woody components.
3. Socio-economic nature – refers to the level of inputs of management
or intensity on scale of management and commercial goals
4. ecological spread/basis – refers to the environmental condition and
ecological suitability of the system.
Classification of Agroforestry Systems Based on the Arrangement of Component
Species in time (Temporal Classification)
1. Simultaneous Agroforestry System – tree and crop components occupy the
same land unit at the same time.
a. alley cropping
b. parklands
c. fodder/protein banks
d. live fences
e. boundary markings
f. Home gardens
Classification of Agroforestry Systems Based on the Arrangement of Component
Species in time (Temporal Classification)
2. Sequential Agroforestry System – trees and crops occupy the same land unit
at different times and interaction between them is indirect.
a. improved fallows – enrich with fast growing trees, shrubs and vines
b. rotational woodlots – small areas of trees that can be used as fuel or
wood for buildings
Spatial Arrangement of Components in Agroforestry Systems
1. Trees along borders
2. Alternate rows
3. Alternate strips or alley cropping
4. Random mixture
Agroforestry System perform a multitude of services to farmers and environment
1. Provision of food security
2. Conservation of soils
3. enhance of soil fertility
4. Improvement of micro-climate
5. Provisions of living fences for crops and fruit trees
6. Demarcation of boundaries
7. Carbon sequestration
Agroforestry System perform a multitude of services to farmers and environment
8. Water stabilization
9. Protection of biodiversity
10. Weed control
Description of Different Types of Agroforestry Practices under the Various
Agroforestry System
I. Description of Agrisilvicultural Practices
a. Biomass transfer - application of leafy biomass from hedges
to crop fields to improve soil fertility.
b. Improved fallows – enrichment of a natural fallow with trees,
shrubs or herbaceous legumes planted at high density to improve soil
c. The Taungya system – Burmese word literary means Hill
(Taung) and cultivation (ya) for shifting cultivation. Wood production is
the ultimate objective of this system.
Description of Different Types of Agroforestry Practices under the Various
Agroforestry System
I. Description of Agrisilvicultural Practices
d. Alley cropping – known as hedgerow intercropping. Crops
grown in between hedgerows of planted shrubs and trees pruned
periodically during crop growth to provide green manure and prevent
shading of growing crops.
Description of Different Types of Agroforestry Practices under the Various
Agroforestry System
Alley cropping
1. deep rooted
2. fast growing
3. able to re-sprout easily after pruning, coppicing or pollarding
4. should be multipurpose
5. should be leguminous
Description of Different Types of Agroforestry Practices under the Various
Agroforestry System
Benefits of Alley cropping
1. green manure or mulch for companion crops
2. suppress weeds as mulch, shade and during pruning's
3. favorable condition for soil macro and microorganisms
4. barriers to control soil erosion
5. feed for livestock, staking materials and firewood
6. biologically fixed nitrogen to companions crops
Other beneficial effects:
Crop performance due to the added nutrients and organic matter to the
soil/plant system
Reduced use of chemical fertilizers
Improvement in the physical nature of soil environment
Reduction in erosion losses due to the tree rows acting as physical barrier to soil
and water movement
Additional products such as forage, firewood orstakes
Improvement of weed control
Description of Different Types of Agroforestry Practices under the Various
Agroforestry System
I. Description of Agrisilvicultural Practices
e. Multispecies Tree Garden-consists of a mixture of tree
plantations of conventional forest species and other commercial perennial tree
crops especially tree species. No organized planting arrangements. Herbaceous
plants are usually absent but some shade-tolerant are sometimes present. This
practice is adaptable to areas with fertile soils, with good availability of labor and
high human population pressure.
Description of Different Types of Agroforestry Practices under the Various
Agroforestry System
I. Description of Agrisilvicultural Practices
f. Scattered trees on cropland or farmland (Parkland
Agroforestry)- trees are scattered haphazardly or according to some systematic
patterns on bunds, terraces or plot/field boundaries, crop lands pastures and
range lands. some trees grows naturally from seed dispersed by birds and other
wildlife. Such trees are retained by farmers during land preparation for
agriculture, and are often randomly dispersed on the land.
Description of Different Types of Agroforestry Practices under the Various
Agroforestry System
Benefits of scattered trees on farmland:
1. not a competitive trees against food crops
2. shades for livestock during intense heat
3. trees diversify farmers products, increases crop
production without fertilizer use
4. controls wind erosion
5. sale of non-timber products (ex. Charcoal, firewood, gum
wine, oil and fruits)
Description of Different Types of Agroforestry Practices under the Various
Agroforestry System
Limitations of scattered trees on farmland:
1. not at the optimum density that confer maximum benefits to the
environment and crop production
2. relies to naturally regenerating tree making it difficult to improve the
3. trees in the parklands are slow growing so benefits take long to accrue
4. trees are often browsed by livestock that are allowed to graze crop
residues during dry seasons