Although Tanzania has shown improvement in reducing of under-five child mortality, but has demonstrated slower progress on reducing preterm deaths(Abubakari S Gwelo, 2019). Tanzania is approximately to have neonatal mortality of 19 deaths per 1000 live births, with prematurity contributing to 25% of neonatal deaths (The United Nations Children’s Fund Tanzania, 2015). It is estimated that about 51,000 newborn are dying and 43,000 are preterm and low birth weight babies occurs every year (Marya Plotkin, 2018). Unpublished data from Dodoma Regional Referral Hospital shows increased numbers of preterm deaths and 5 out of 30 babies have poor weight gain (HMIS, 2018).Most preterm deaths could be potentially prevented with improvements in intrapartum, postpartum and neonatal care, Kangaroo Mother Care inclusive (Marya Plotkin, 2018). Studies indicates that KMC is associated with health benefits to neonates, parents and the health system as it promotes parent- child bonding and breastfeeding, and stabilizes the vital signs of the neonate, particularly body temperature, heart and respiratory rates, leading to increased weight gain and improved growth (Bayo, Alobo, Feyissa, & Belaid, 2019). Since prematurity is associated with increased risk of hypothermia, KMC remains a veritable tool in reducing perinatal mortality rates (Uwaezuoke, 2017)Despite the introduction KMC as an effective intervention alternative to conventional for preterm care to promote growth mainly in developing countries but still there is high number preterm deaths some of babies fail to gain weight (Jm, 2011). However, study done at Mwananyamala hospital, Dar es Salaam on challenges facing mothers who practice kangaroo mother care showed poor knowledge on Kangaroo Mother Care (Kiwanuka, Tarabani, Mbao, & Kisanga, 2017). Little is known on the competence regarding KMC among postnatal mothers after discharge home. Therefore the study aims to assess competence of postnatal mothers regarding KMC and outcomes of the preterm babies during their return visits to hospital after discharge.