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Presentation Intellectual Disabilities

Intellectual Disability
Significantly sub-average general intellectual functioning, existing concurrently
with deficits in adaptive behavior and manifested during the developmental
period, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance.
Is not an inherent trait of any individual, but instead is characterized by a
combination of deficits in both cognitive functioning and adaptive behavior.
The severity is determined by the discrepancy between the individual’s
capabilities and the expectations of the social environment.
Limitations in
• Problem-solving
• Attention
• Abstract thinking
• Remembering
Limitations in
Adaptive Behavior
• Conceptual skills
• Social skills
• Practical Skills
Difficulty remembering new
Difficulty generalizing skills
Difficulty with intrinsic (or internal)
Intellectual Quotient (IQ)
functioning is
measured using
a combination
of intelligence
(IQ tests) and
intelligence is a
standard score
of 85-115
For years, professionals have sub-divided individuals with intellectual
disability by IQ into the following groups:
Mild: 70-55
Moderate: 5540
Severe: 40-25
Profound: <25
Impact on Learning
With the appropriate supports
in place, students with
intellectual disability can
achieve a high quality of life in
many different aspects.
Curriculum and instruction must
be carefully adapted to help
these students reach their
potential in both academics and
other functional areas such as
independent living.
Independence and self-reliance
should always be primary goals
of all instructional strategies
employed with these students.
Teaching Strategies
• Academic Skills
• Real World Reading Skills
• Real World Math Skills
• Real World Writing Skills
• Functional Skills
• Additional skill areas:
• money concepts,
• time concepts
• independent living skills
• self-care and hygiene
• community access
• leisure activities
• vocational training
• Learn skills in applicable environments
• Generalize skills to various situations and other environments
Teaching Strategies
Break down tasks. Teach in smaller components.
Teach complex concepts over time one component
at a time.
Use a variety of instructional supports, from
physical and verbal prompting to observational
 Instructional strategies and materials should be
designed with the student’s own interests and
strengths in mind.
Teaching Strategies
• Teach one concept or activity component at a time.
• Teach one step at a time to help support memorization
and sequencing.
• Teach students in small groups, or one-on-one if
• Always provide multiple opportunities to practice skills in
a number of different settings.
• Allow the child to learn through experience – through
touching, through seeing, through hearing and through
• Use physical and verbal prompting to guide correct
responses, and provide specific verbal praise to reinforce
these responses.
The use of real materials in natural
environments is an essential component in
the effective instruction of students with
intellectual disabilities.
Real materials serve to both motivate
the student and facilitate generalization
to multiple environments.
Learning disabilities are neurologicallybased processing problems. These
processing problems can interfere
with learning basic skills such as reading,
writing and/or math. They can also
interfere with higher level skills such as
organization, time planning, abstract
reasoning, long or short term memory
and attention.
Pupils with specific learning difficulties (SpLD) are:
i. Of average or above average intelligence.
ii. Have difficulties with at least one of the three – reading, spelling
and mathematics
iii. Have organisational problems: e.g. problems following
directions, being punctual, behaving appropriately in social
situations, organising possessions, carrying out a series of tasks
• · Don’t ask them to read in front of others.
• · Don’t expect them to read large amounts
of text, especially in short periods of time.
• · Find someone else who can sometimes
do some of the reading for the pupil with
SpLD – for instance, another pupil…
• · But make sure pupils with SpLD regularly
practise their reading skills. Otherwise
these skills will waste away.
• · Don’t expect them to write a lot, especially in short periods of
• · Provide the pupils with ongoing support for writing tasks. Explain
the task clearly and check the pupil understands.
• · Think of alternatives to written tasks – for instance, can the
pupils make oral presentations, drama, drawing…?
• · But make sure pupils with SpLD regularly practise their writing
skills. Otherwise these skills will waste away
• · Build upon what the pupil already knows.
• · Teach new skills systematically, in an organised way.
• · Try to relate mathematics to the real world.
• · Regularly check for understanding.