Intellectual Disability Significantly sub-average general intellectual functioning, existing concurrently with deficits in adaptive behavior and manifested during the developmental period, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance. Is not an inherent trait of any individual, but instead is characterized by a combination of deficits in both cognitive functioning and adaptive behavior. The severity is determined by the discrepancy between the individual’s capabilities and the expectations of the social environment. Characteristics Limitations in Intellectual Functioning • Problem-solving • Attention • Abstract thinking • Remembering information Limitations in Adaptive Behavior • Conceptual skills • Social skills • Practical Skills Characteristics Difficulty remembering new information Difficulty generalizing skills Difficulty with intrinsic (or internal) motivation Intellectual Quotient (IQ) Intellectual functioning is measured using a combination of intelligence (IQ tests) and achievement assessments. Average intelligence is a standard score of 85-115 For years, professionals have sub-divided individuals with intellectual disability by IQ into the following groups: Mild: 70-55 Moderate: 5540 Severe: 40-25 Profound: <25 Limitations Intellectual Functioning SelfDetermination Skills Adaptive Behavior Impact on Learning With the appropriate supports in place, students with intellectual disability can achieve a high quality of life in many different aspects. Curriculum and instruction must be carefully adapted to help these students reach their potential in both academics and other functional areas such as independent living. Independence and self-reliance should always be primary goals of all instructional strategies employed with these students. Teaching Strategies • Academic Skills • Real World Reading Skills • Real World Math Skills • Real World Writing Skills • Functional Skills • Additional skill areas: Activity Example • money concepts, • time concepts • independent living skills • self-care and hygiene • community access • leisure activities • vocational training • Learn skills in applicable environments • Generalize skills to various situations and other environments Teaching Strategies Break down tasks. Teach in smaller components. Teach complex concepts over time one component at a time. Use a variety of instructional supports, from physical and verbal prompting to observational learning. Instructional strategies and materials should be designed with the student’s own interests and strengths in mind. Teaching Strategies • Teach one concept or activity component at a time. • Teach one step at a time to help support memorization and sequencing. • Teach students in small groups, or one-on-one if possible. • Always provide multiple opportunities to practice skills in a number of different settings. • Allow the child to learn through experience – through touching, through seeing, through hearing and through doing. • Use physical and verbal prompting to guide correct responses, and provide specific verbal praise to reinforce these responses. The use of real materials in natural environments is an essential component in the effective instruction of students with intellectual disabilities. Real materials serve to both motivate the student and facilitate generalization to multiple environments. Learning disabilities are neurologicallybased processing problems. These processing problems can interfere with learning basic skills such as reading, writing and/or math. They can also interfere with higher level skills such as organization, time planning, abstract reasoning, long or short term memory and attention. Pupils with specific learning difficulties (SpLD) are: i. Of average or above average intelligence. ii. Have difficulties with at least one of the three – reading, spelling and mathematics iii. Have organisational problems: e.g. problems following directions, being punctual, behaving appropriately in social situations, organising possessions, carrying out a series of tasks Reading difficulties… • · Don’t ask them to read in front of others. • · Don’t expect them to read large amounts of text, especially in short periods of time. • · Find someone else who can sometimes do some of the reading for the pupil with SpLD – for instance, another pupil… • · But make sure pupils with SpLD regularly practise their reading skills. Otherwise these skills will waste away. writing difficulties… • · Don’t expect them to write a lot, especially in short periods of time • · Provide the pupils with ongoing support for writing tasks. Explain the task clearly and check the pupil understands. • · Think of alternatives to written tasks – for instance, can the pupils make oral presentations, drama, drawing…? • · But make sure pupils with SpLD regularly practise their writing skills. Otherwise these skills will waste away maths difficulties... • · Build upon what the pupil already knows. • · Teach new skills systematically, in an organised way. • · Try to relate mathematics to the real world. • · Regularly check for understanding.