Title: Chapter 1: Introduction Introduction Business integration is the strategy used by the business organisations to exert complete control of their operations (Rothaermel, 2015). Business integration refers to…………. The strategy of integration is adopted by the business organisations for the purpose of simplifying their business processes and achieve a higher rate of productivity and financial gains. The business organisations consider the implementation of backward integration strategy on their business for the purpose of reducing the cost incurred due to the employees and reducing the dependence of the firm on the staffs for the purpose of achieving better financial outcomes. The topic of the study revolves around the evaluation of the manner in which integration strategies affect the performance of fast food businesses. This study has taken the reference of small and medium-sized fast food outlets based in Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingfom for the purpose of evaluating the manner in which they can use backward integration to their advantage for the purpose of enhancing their performance. This chapter presents the background of the study stating the context for the requirement of integration in business which sets the base for the progress of the study. The rationale of the research has been provided for signifying the importance of conducting this study. This chapter also presents the aims and objectives of the study to provide an understanding of the manner in which integration strategies could benefit the SMEs operating in the fast food industry of the United Kingdom. Background of the research The strategy of integration in business revolves around the concept of cross-training of the management and the employees for the purpose of enhancing their performance and reducing any instance of ineffective communication which affects performance (Chang, 2016). The SMEs operating in the fast-food industry of the UK are required to implement integration into their business for the purpose of streamlining their operations by using technology to align with the organisational culture and achieve the objectives. Backward integration strategy becomes feasible for the small and medium fast food outlets for the purpose of acquiring or merging with their suppliers which could result in lesser dependence (Madsen & Walker, 2015). This strategy enables the businesses to significantly curtail the cost of suppliers in the long term and ease the pressure regarding the suppliers joining the competitors for higher prices. The restaurant industry of the UK is ever expanding with the rise in consumerism in the country and the integration of customer expenditure on food joints and eateries. The approach of casual dining of the consumers of the country has changed as the time period of four years between 2013 and 2017 has witnessed the inaugural of more than 4,000 small and medium-sized restaurants across the nation (Theguardian, 2018). The companies operating in the restaurant business of the generated a revenue of 34.9 billion GBP in 2016, and the customers spent a total of 85 billion GBP in restaurants in 2017 (Statista, 2018). However, the small and medium restaurants of the UK have endured the consequences of the rise in the cost of operations post the implementation of BREXIT. Research Rationale The process of integration in business also provides scope for merging with or acquiring operators in the supply chain of a restaurant, and this could lead to providing greater control over the resources for the company. More control of the resources of the company would mean that the SME resultant is able to have total control over their food preparation activities and serve the customers without any hindrance (Whittle & Myrick, 2016). SMEs are defined as small and medium scale companies which have less number of employees working for them and are independent and non-subsidiary in nature (Darcy, et al., 2014). Backward integration ensures that the restaurant with integrated business strategies is able to serve the customers without being reliant on its suppliers for the supply of raw materials and ingredients. This way, the fast food outlet solely relies upon the sales and distribution of food on delivery agencies like Deliveroo and Uber Eats to reach out to the customers and achieve better financial productivity through increased sales and profits. Having control of the immediate resources required for the production of food streamlines the business as the management of the firm does not have to worry about the steady flow of resources and keep on serving the customers. Importance of the study The topic of the research revolves around the subject of the effect of implementing integration strategies on the performance of a fast food business. The process of integration in business signifies the reduction of overhead expenditure of an organisation and cost of employees (Schaltegger & Wagner, 2017). This is because the business integration strategies curtail the requirement for additional staff in a restaurant or any similar firm and hence also eliminate the additional resources used by the staff. The event of BREXIT has spurred the operating cost of the restaurants across the UK, and the SMEs are operating in the restaurant business have been poorly effected (Theguardian, 2018). The topic of the study is justified as the implementation of business integration strategies would emphasise on the training of the management and staff for improving their efficiency and hence eliminate the requirement for extra staff. The topic of the study is justified as it would evaluate the manner in which the implementation of backward integration strategies could enhance the performance of a fast food business by means of taking control of their production activities. Research Aim The aim of the research is to analyse the impact of integration strategies on firms’ financial performance in South Asian Family Businesses in Scotland. Research Objectives The objectives of the research are as followed: To understand the nature of integration strategies applied by SMEs. To understand the business integration strategies among fast-food sector in Scotland. To analyse the impact of integration strategies on a firm’s financial performance. Research Questions The research questions are as follows: Does the presence of a firm in more than one country affect its performance? Does the implantation of business integration strategies contribute to the reduction of employee cost and dependence? What strategies do the SMEs require to implement for business integration? What are the effects implementing integration strategies on the financial performance of fast food business? Two broad questions: 1. What is the extent of business integration strategies among ethnic fast food SMEs in Scotland? 2. How do ethnic fast food SMEs in Scotland implement BI strategies 3. How effective are ethnic fast food SMEs in this implemention? Chapter 2: Literature Review Introduction Integration in business is a strategic management process which aims to reduce the cost of operations by training the employees, improving communication and curtail the cost of suppliers (Hill, et al., 2014).The fast-food companies of the UK have initiated the strategy of integration in their business to have greater control over the operations and integrate processes to save money and time of the firm. The restaurants of the UK, specifically Scotland have been featured in this literature review chapter to signify the integration strategies adopted by them in reference to their financial performance. This chapter presents a conceptual framework which related the variables of the study and establishes the base for the research. The concepts related to the adoption of integration strategies in business has been presented in this chapter along with the background of the fast food industry of the UK. The influence of adopting integration strategies in business has been presented in relation to the financial performance of the company. Lastly, the advantages and disadvantages of integration in business have also been provided. Conceptual framework • Cross training of employees and managers. • Promote effective communication. Financial performance • Reduces the cost of operations. • Cuts supplier costs. • Procurement of raw materials. • Training the staff to enhance efficiency. Integration strategies Fast food busienss Figure 1: Conceptual framework. Source: Author. This study emphasises on the financial performance of the fast food businesses of Scotland as a result of adopting integration strategies. The variables of this study are fast food business, integration strategies and financial performance. The integration strategies are undertaken by the businesses in the fast food sector of the UK are taken by training the management and staff to enhance their performance. This enables them to deliver more quantity of services to the consumers to improve financial performance. The conceptual framework has been further detailed in the subsequent sections of the study. Business integration strategy According to Chang (2016), the businesses houses seek to apply integration strategies into their firm to better manage the operations and control the suppliers, distributors and competitors with ease. The motive behind adopting business integration strategies as a means of strategic management is to widen the scope of the business as well as reduce the cost of operations. The financial performance of the business is enhanced as a result of implementing integration as they are able to enhance their productivity and reduce operating cost at the same time (Schaltegger & Wagner, 2017). The strategy of vertical integration is implemented by the organisations to enhance their competitive advantage and gain full control of their supply chain. This strategy further alleviates the dependence of the business on its suppliers, distributors and not require any extra charges for intermediaries. According to Schaltegger & Wagner (2017), integration streamlines the business operations and reduces the personnel cost and overhead. This is because the requirement for additional staff is eliminated due to integration in the business along with a reduction in the resources used by them. Vertical integration is further divided into forwarding and backward integration. Forward integration in an organisation is the process of expansion of the business activities to initiate control over the direct distribution channels for the products and services. The firms are adopting the strategy of forwarding integration in the business often move down the supply chain. According to Madsen & Walker (2015), backward integration is a type of vertical integration wherein the companies procure the raw materials directly by acquiring the supplier. Such a measure is also taken by setting up one’s own facilities so that they are able to generate supplies in accordance to their needs in a cost-effective manner. Horizontal integration in the business is a means of expansion wherein a firm acquire another firm with similar operations to enhance their competitive advantage. This enables the businesses to gain more market share and increase its size along with an opportunity to diversify the products and services offered to the customers. Horizontal integration in business facilitates the firms to reduce competition and gain wider access to new markets previously held by the acquired company along with achieving economies of scale. Nature of integration strategies used in SMEs According to Whittle & Myrick (2016), the small and medium companies operating across all the sectors are required to assess their organisation and the business operations thoroughly to identify the areas which require improvement. This lays the foundation for implementation of integration strategies into the business as the enterprises identify their sources of value and evaluate whether they have the resource and capability of integrating their business. The firms contemplating vertical integration are required to assess the advantages of self-production and distribution in comparison to relying on third parties before finalising on the decision to integrate (Hill, et al., 2014). The management of the SMEs is required to execute the strategy of integration and inform the employees in prior along with making them understand the importance of the decision to the firm and themselves to ensure success. In case of horizontal integration, the process of merging with another company operating in the same industry is done by preserving the values of both the enterprises so that the customers are about to relate themselves to the new endeavour. The process of integration in business requires competent leadership and organisation skills so as to ensure that the widened business functions initiated by the business are executed properly from a strategic management point of view. According to Chang (2016), the management of the firms along with the employees are required to be involved in the process prior to finalisation. This ensures effective communication and balances the focus of the strategy on implementation of the measure to gain greater efficiency in performance. This facilitates decision making in a quick an easy manner in the business and enables the SMEs to bar the positive results of integration. Personnel integration in business creates a base for grooming the personnel with an adequate train for skill and performance enhancement along with communication management by providing the staff with dedicated phones for communication amongst themselves. This creates the possibility of providing appraisals to them and encouraging them to perform better. Personnel integration also creates the scope of recruiting more employees with proven and competent skills that enhance the overall performance of the organisation and enabled them to accomplish the organisational goals (Madsen & Walker, 2015). This further reduces the dependency of the business on the employees as they create a good profile for themselves. The redundant positions in the business are also eliminated as a result of integration. Fast food industry of UK/Scotland In the UK, the fast food industry is dominated by a large number of international brands. The convenience that is provided by the international brands in terms of menu and pricing of the product protects the international brand to dominate its sales in the United Kingdom. The United Kingdom is highest in consuming fast food in the world with different cultures and tastes and making it a global success in the fast food industry. According to Janssen, et al., (2018), the cost related to fast food outlets is lesser than that of the restaurants as their major expenses is related to staffing cost. Staffing cost is generally low in case of the fast food industry with less skilled people required in the fast food industry, and with the technology mechanism, the requirement of the staff in the food industry has been decreased. The UK market is on a growth stage, and the major players in the fast food sector of the United Kingdom are Domino’s Pizza, KFC, McDonald's, Subway and Burger King. In the UK, the fast food industry is strictly regulated as in every food product the sellers of the fast-food chain must label its products as genetically modified is GM ingredients are used. The fastfood industry of the UK has been highly affected by the GST which increased the price of the food items. According to Shareck, et al.,( 2018), the fast food industry is growing because to set a fast food the capital cost requirement is less and which make the sellers enter the market easily. Franchising is one of the major factors which operates in the fast food industry of the UK and because of franchising there has been an increasing number of international brands in the fast food industry of United Kingdom. In the times of recession, the fast food industry generally performs better than the other restaurants because at the time of recession people generally don’t have more money in their hands. United Kingdom lifestyle of the people is a busy lifestyle, and the fast food outlets provide fast services to match the busy lifestyle of the United Kingdom. One of the major problems that the fast food industry of the UK is facing is that people now days have become health conscious and fast food sells food of high calories which impacts its sales of fast food items (Hitt & Duane Ireland, 2017). The fast-food industry is also experiencing technological advancement, and the fast food chains have installed electronic transfer of funds in the point of sale and in which customer can use debit and credit card to purchase fast food items. The fast-food industry of United Kingdom is dependent on the animals, and if disease takes place in the animals such as bird flu and swine flu, the fast food industry will be highly affected with the decrease in sales of the fast food. The fast-food industry of the United Kingdom has to follow safety and health measures related to the food they are supplying to the customers. There is an agency known as the Food Standard Agency who is responsible for taking care of the health of the people in relation to the food which is consumed by the people in the United Kingdom. According to Donnenfeld, et al., (2015), the fast food chains of the United Kingdom are bound to follow the regulations of the Food Standard Agency (FSA). The regulations that explained that the food that is to be eaten by the consumer must be safe and it doesn’t be injurious to health and unfit for human consumption. There must be traceability of the food that is being produced with the help of the animals, and the fast food outlet must have a record of the food substance that the outlet is using in making the fast food. Influence of business integration in the financial position of a company Business integration is done by the company to increase its competitive position with the help of the vertical and horizontal integration (Chang, 2015). In the vertical integration, there is backward and forward integration of the production process and the horizontal integration it takes place with the Mergers and acquisition with the same level of the company. Backward integration is generally done by the company to gain control over the suppliers and for gaining competitive advantage from its competitors. According to Huang,( 2016), the competitive advantage which the organisation will get due to the backward integration will improve the financial position as it will provide the greater value of its products to the customers and with that, the customer base will grow. An increase in customer base will increase the sales and influence the profitability of the South Asian business in Scotland. The financial position will improve as there is always a markup cost which is added when products are sold between the parties. The markup cost is increased because of the intermediaries which are distributors and wholesalers and by directly purchasing from the farmers with the establishment of the full control of farmers. There will less competition and which will lead the fast food to have low efficiency and it will affect the financial performance of the South Asian business in Scotland. The variety of food items will be reduced in case of the vertical integration as everything is done in-house and which will have a negative influence on the financial position of the firm. Huge investments are required in case of the integration and which will influence the financial position of the South Asian business as it will add an extra burden to the organisation’s balance sheet. The flexibility of the company is reduced in case of the vertical integration and which influences the financial position of the South Asian Business. Integration will improve the financial position as there will be no mark-up cost or the transportation cost involved in case vertical integration (Lin & Swaminathan, 2014). With the help of the backward integration, the better efficiency can be expected in case of the food company as they have the control on the production of ingredients that are required in making fast food items (Pronk & Veraar, 2015). As the efficiency is improved, the fast food will waste fewer ingredients and for which the cost will be saved which will improve the financial position of the organisation. In the case of the backward integration, cost will be less required as with the usage of the advanced technology the cost to manufacture the raw material is reduced (Norman, 2014). The organisation with the help of the backward integration can be able to differentiate its food items from the competitors as it will able to make high quality of food items with the integration with the farmers and raw material supplier as now the production is done on the basis of the specification provided by the supplier. With the supply of highquality food items, the financial position of the organisation will be improved as a customer of the UK are very much health conscious and prefer good quality food items. The fast-food industry with the help of the forward integration through franchisee and which will reduce the cost of investment and with that there will be an improvement in the financial position of the company (Doz, 2017). A fast-food chain will deliver its food directly to the customer with its own logistics which will ensure timely arrival of the food products to the customer and reduction in the cost as no third party is involved in delivering the products to the customers. This timely arrival of the products will automatically bring loyalty among the customers and for which sales will increase, and the financial position of the organisation will improve. The organisation to have a competitive advantage will do horizontal integration which will improve its share in the market, and this type of integration is generally done as each firm does not have excel in all the foods products. Merging as a part of horizontal integration will increase the financial position of both the organisation. The influence of integration of the financial performance is explained with the help of the graphs below: Degree of Vertical integration and it effect on net profit Net Profit as a % of sales 14 12 12 10 10 8 6 8 8 Under 40% 40-50% 8 4 2 0 50-60% 60-70% Vertical Integration Figure 2: Vertical Integration and its effect on net profit Over 70% DEGREE OF VERTICAL INTEGRATION Vertical Integration and the effect of net profit as a percentage of ROI Over 70% 24 60-70% 22 50-60% 20 40-50% 22 Under 40% 25 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 NET PROFIT AS A % OF ROI Figure 3: Vertical Integration and the effect of net profit as a percentage of ROI Net profit as a % of ROI is higher in the upper end and lower end of vertical integration. Average ROI Average ROI based on the market share 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% 33% 30% 28% 26% 22% 20% 14% 14% 9% Under 50% 50-65% Over 65% Horizontal Integration 5% Average ROI 5-10% Average ROI Over 10% Average ROI Figure 4: Average ROI based on the market share In the case of the horizontal integration, it is seen that the market share of outlet of 10% market share will have the highest average return on investment Advantages and disadvantages of integration strategies in the fast food industry Fast food industry has advantage and disadvantage in case of the horizontal integration. Horizontal integration generally takes place with the help of merging of the firms. The efficiency of the products is achieved in case of the horizontal integration and for which the cost will also require less in case of the fast food industry as they will be producing a product which requires efficiency (Zhou, et al., 2015). The advantage of the horizontal integration is that the customer base will also increase as both the company will be merging and they will able to cater the larger customer base and which will increase the sales of the organisation who are into horizontal diversification. The production cost will be reduced in case of the horizontal integration as the products are manufactured with the improved technology. There will be synergy in case of the horizontal integration as there is a merger and it is generally done for making a profit (Martín‐Herrán, et al., 2014). Economies of scale can be obtained in case of the horizontal mergers as large no of the same type of food items are cooked and which will reduce the cost of the products. The major disadvantage that the organisation will be facing is they have to comply with the legal laws if the organisations do horizontal integration. Mergers can also take place to narrow down the competitive environment and so the company are required to follow antitrust laws in case of the horizontal mergers (Littler, 2015). As the horizontal integration grows the enterprise the flexibility in the organisation is reduced as there is are large no of personnel in the new organisation and handling such a large number of staffs. Value is always destroyed in case of the horizontal integration as the materialization of synergy usually takes place, and the huge cost is involved in case of horizontal integration (Mattli, 2018). The advantage in the case of the forward integration in case of the fast food industry is that there will be lower of transaction cost as the food products will be directly delivered to the customers. The advantage of the forward integration is that the organisation will have better opportunities for the growth and they will have strategic independence as they will deliver the products directly to the customers (Bárcena-Ruiz & Garzón, 2018). Forward integration will lead to an increase in the cost of the products if the management of the activity is not done properly. As the competition is decreased in case of the forward integration, there will be a rise in the monopoly, and the food quality will be decreased in case of the forward integration (Reisinger & Tarantino, 2015). Due to the forward integration, there will be rigid organisational structure, and the food chain will be unable to provide variation in the products as large no of products will not be available as they have to manage the whole process due to the forward integration and they have less time in focussing for product variation. In case of the backward integration there will be an advantage as there will be increased control on the farmers, a supplier of raw material and for which there will be cost-cutting, and there will increase efficiency in the manufacturing process of the food production (Brahm & Tarziján, 2016). With the backward integration, there will be a competitive advantage, and the organisation can provide the difference in products to the customers (Hunold & Stahl, 2016). Huge investment is involved in case of the backward integration and quality of the product is decreased in case backward integration ass the competition will get reduced in case of the backward integration. There are advantages and disadvantages in case of the food industry of the integration strategies. Research gap The research gap that has been indicated in the food industry of the United Kingdom is that the effect of integration strategy on the performance of the fast food industry has not been clearly indicated as most of the information was received from the secondary analysis. Secondary analysis has been used, and authentic information was difficult to find in the case of the advantages and disadvantages of the integration strategies of the food industry. Secondary research has been conducted of the fast food industry of the UK, and the information is authentic or not is defined as there remains a research gap in the study. Secondary research has been done, and because of the limited scope of viewing of journal and articles, there is a research gap with remains in doing the study of the food industry of the United Kingdom. Summary Integration of business is done by the organisation which aim is to reduce the cost by training, curtailing the supplies and improvement of the communication. The conceptual framework of the integration had explained with the reduction in the cost of the operations and reduced supplier cost. The fast-food industry is also experiencing technological advancement, and the fast food chains have installed electronic transfer of funds for selling of the food items to the consumers. There is forward integration, backward integration and horizontal integration that takes place in case of the food industry. Vertical integration advantage is that it will make the transportation cost lower and timely delivery of the products to the customer. Horizontal integration of the firms are there, and it increases the market share for both the companies. Integration has an effect on the fast food industry of the UK, and it is not that integration is always good for the industry. Chapter 3: Research Methodology Introduction The research focuses on the impacts of integration strategies on fast food businesses in Scotland and the UK in the financial performances. The Fast food industry in the United Kingdom has faced a revolution in the latest years, and according to a research, more than 5.5 million visits were done in the fast-food chain, and around 11 billion meals were consumed outside home- generally in a pub (Telegraph, 2019). This chapter of research methodology contains the details of the purpose, philosophy, design, approach and strategy of the research topic. Data collection methods, sampling technique used, methods of techniques for the research is also summarised into this research methodology. Research purpose The purpose of research contains the objective and goals of the study (Mackey & Gass, 2015). It is necessary for the searcher to comprehend the significance of conducting the study as it The impacts of integration strategies on the financial aspects of the fast food industries of the UK is made properly in an effective manner and all the objectives of the study are met. The objectives of this research are as follows: To understand the nature of integration strategies applied by SMEs. To understand the fast-food sector in Scotland/ UK. To analyse the impact of integration strategies on a firm’s financial performance. Research philosophy Research philosophy is very crucial for the ongoing process of research as it contains the ways using which data can be collected and analysed (Edson, et al., 2016). Generally, there are four basic types of research philosophy- positivism, realism, interpretivism and pragmatism (Alvesson & Sköldberg, 2017). In the research philosophy of pragmatism, data collection methods are mixed and multiple, and both qualitative and quantitative techniques of data collection are used (Baker & Schaltegger, 2015). Highly structured and huge samples of data are taken in positivism approach for quantitative analysis. In realism, methods are selected according to the subject of the research, and both qualitative and quantitative approaches are used (Hunt, 2016). Small samples of data are taken, and qualitative methods of data analysis are used in interpretivism research philosophy. For this study, the philosophy of positivism is used which is effective for meeting the objective of the research which is impact of integration in business on the financial status of UK based fast food centres. This philosophy enables the research to be carried on with the factual data regarding the financial aspects of integration strategy in fast food business of the UK. Here, a large sample of data is taken for analysis, so the approach of interpretivism is avoided as it deals with small samples. As in this research work, both qualitative and quantitative techniques of data analysis are used which eliminates the possibility of taking realism approach is avoided as it deals with only one type of data approach-either qualitative or quantitative. Pragmatism philosophy emphasises on the beliefs from personal experience, and the data analytics are sometimes based on absurd data, so it is avoided for completing this research as here only the actual data about effects on financial economy about the impacts of integration in the UK based food centres are taken. Research approach In general, research approach consists of the detailed plan and procedure which helps in deciding the progress of the study and can be guided in the proper direction (Stage & Manning, 2015). Research approach can be divided into two types- inductive and deductive. In deductive approach, hypothesis is developed which are being tested during the process of the research (Singh, 2015). Hypothesis is not formed in case of inductive approach, and it begins with the research questions and objectives which are targeted research period (Daugherty, et al., 2016). Inductive approach is adopted for this research as there is no pre-established relationship between the variables of the study which is integration strategies, financial performances and fast food business. Research questions and objectives are developed based on financial impacts due to integration of business strategies on the fast food shops of the United Kingdom. Inductive approach helps in developing relationship between the variables so the research can be completed in an effective manner. Deductive approach is not valid for this research as no pre-established relationship between the variables is found for this study which is necessary for this approach. Established hypothesis is also required for deductive approach of the research and absence of it eliminates the possibility of taking deductive approach. Research design Research design is referred as the agenda of methods and techniques used in research for the purpose of arranging all the parts of research in an efficient manner so that the objectives of the research gets fulfilled (Kratochwill, 2015). The three types of research design that have been sorted by research onion are descriptive, explanatory and exploratory (Mackey & Gass, 2015). In case of exploratory research design, the features of research areas are highlighted but the final and brief analysis of the solutions to the questions of the research is not provided (Wohlin & Aurum, 2015). Descriptive design is used for getting specific answers to the objective of the study — explanatory research design targets at presenting the gathered data in such a manner so that the researcher can get the concept easily and effectively. In this study, exploratory design is chosen as the aspects of integration strategy and its impacts on the financial status of the fast food business in the United Kingdom can be properly evaluated using this method. Exploratory design helps in exploring the research topic which is the financial impact of integration of business among the fast food industry of United Kingdom in depth. It helps in determining the research methods for evaluation of financial impacts in fast food industry along with the appropriate data collection method. Research strategy Research strategy is defined as the planning of actions for giving direction to the efforts so that the research gets completed in a systematic manner and it generates appropriate results within a limited time (Saleh, et al., 2015). For this study, the research strategy deals with the ways to find the impact of financial aspects on the fast food business of the United Kingdom due to integration strategy based on the purpose, approach, philosophy and design of the study. A mixed strategy is considered in this research as both primary and secondary sources are used for the purpose of accomplishing this study. Face to face interview is done between the managers of fast food stores of the United Kingdom and Scotland to get correct details about the financial impacts due to integration of business. This can be considered as the primary method of collection of data, and in case of secondary way of gathering data literature review is consulted, and information from journals and authentic websites are also taken (Palinkas, et al., 2015). Data collection method For the purpose of collection of data, there are two methods, one is primary, and another one is secondary (Blumenberg & Barros, 2018). Both the primary and secondary data are considered for carrying out this study so that the aims and objectives get fulfilled in an effective manner. In order to get primary data, the managers of the fast food centres of Glasgow are interviewed, and the questions consist of the hypothesis such as impacts they have faced due to integration, change in the financial capability due to integration of business and etc. The questions are also sent to the personal emails of the managers and their reviews about the integration are also collected. The questions that were asked to the managers did not include confidential parts, and the dignity of the personals are maintained (Quinlan, et al., 2019). For gathering secondary data, journals, articles and books were taken which contains actual information about the topics such as integration of business, fast food market of Glasgow and etc. (Silverman, 2016). Knowledge from the websites are also effective in completion of the study, and the websites were chosen carefully, and only the sources of data from authentic websites are used. Sampling In research methodology, sampling refers to the selection of pre-determined observations from a large population data so that the characteristics of whole population can be determined (Wildemuth, 2016). Random sampling method is used in this study where the selection of members is made in a random way from the large population, and each member has the equal chance of getting included in (Efthymiou & Hayes, 2018). From total 260 fast food take away from the area of Glasgow, a sample of 70 fast food outlets is selected. The sampling is done on a criterion that are only the managers of the firm chosen for the interview who are having less than 19 employees. The managers selected are now put in the interview panel where they express their views about the impacts of integration of business in their food outlets in Glasgow. The method of random sampling is selected in order to ensure that each participant have an equal probability for being selected in the sample and it also eliminates the chance of biasing. Data analysis With the help of the collected qualitative primary data from the mangers of fast food takeaways based in Glasgow, the analysis was conducted on the primary data. Analysis of the primary data refers to the method of using the data in such a way so that the solutions to the research objectives can be evaluated (Tramontana & Ichii, 2015). In this study, the primary data is analysed through interpretation where the determination of conclusions and significance of the data are found through the information collected (Cox, 2018). The secondary data of the research which are collected from the research journals and academic books and they are evaluated using analytical and logical reasoning. Reliability, validity The data which has been collected and analysed in this research are considered to be reliable as the method of random sampling is chosen for it. Random sampling ensures that the analysis done on the sample is valid enough as also it is free from any kind of bias. The managers of the fast food shops have provided with valid information which proved to be very helpful in completion of the study. The secondary sources of data are journals and websites which are selected carefully, and only the information’s from journals having a date of issue and the authentic websites are included in the study. Ethical Standards The objectives of the research were accomplished following proper ethical considerations. The managers in the interview were not asked any confidential and personal questions thus maintaining the dignity and respect of the individuals. The participants were informed much before the face-to-face interview procedure so that they can arrange a time for without hampering their important tasks. Freedom is also offered to the participants, and they have the right to leave the interview at any time on their wish. Limitation of the research As only a lesser sample of data are taken for the analysis of the impacts on financial aspects of the fast food business in the parts of Glasgow due to integration, information can be found less in conducting the research on a large scale. Another limitation is only the fast food industry is chosen for evaluation of the impact on their financial aspects due to integration of business, and the significance of this impact on other industry is remaining unknown. Summary This chapter of research methodology consists of the methods for finding the impacts of integration of business on the financial aspect of fast food industry based in Glasgow. The research philosophy of positivism is selected for this study is done on the actual data about the integration strategies and its impacts on the financial prospect of the fast food centres. Inductive approach is used as no pre-established relationship is found between the variables such as integration and etc. Exploratory designs helped in featuring the key areas of study like the financial aspects. Interviews are done between the managers for gathering information and act as the primary source whereas the facts are taken from journals and books which is the secondary source. 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