Name: ID Number: EAS212 Quiz #1 Monday, February 2, 2015 12:00-12:50 Please remember to put your name and ID number on BOTH the multiple choice answer sheet and on the test (first page and page with written solutions). Since your exam is red, please fill in the code 111111 in the Special Codes section of the multiple choice answer sheet Remember to hand in both your multiple choice answer sheet and the test with your answers to the written questions. You may use a non-programmable calculator if you wish. Part A: Answer all 25 multiple-choice questions. Select the BEST answer for each question. 1) You are on a ship making a sounding (using a weighted line) in the western North Atlantic. You know at your present location the surface currents are associated with the Labrador current flowing to the south while at depth there is a deep western boundary current. If the measurement from the sounding reads 2814 m, you know the actual depth must be a) Less than or equal to 2814 m b) 2814 m c) Greater than or equal to 2814 m d) Not enough information is provided to answer this question 2) What would be the wave length of a wave with a wave speed of 10 m/s and a period of 1 minute: a) 6m b) 10 m c) 60 m d) 600 m 3) If a wave in the open ocean above an abyssal plain produces a Stokes drift down to 150 m, the length of the wave would be: a) 75 m b) 150 m c) 300 m d) The bottom 4) Near shore, if the wave troughs are two hundred metres apart, the wave will “feel” bottom when the depth is about a) 20 metres b) 50 metres c) 100 metres d) 200 metres 5) Wave dispersion is caused by a) Variations in wind velocity b) Variations in water depth c) Wave speed being a function of wavelength d) Changes in the steepness of the waves Name: ID Number: 6) The maximum possible height for a wave with a wavelength of 50 metres is: a) 1m b) 2m c) 7m d) 14 m 7) Waves from separate sea areas move away as swell and produce interference patterns when they come together. If Sea A has wave heights of 1.5 meters and Sea B has wave heights of 3.5 meters, what could be the height of a resulting wave produced by destructive interference when the trough of wave A interacts with the crest of wave B? a) 0.0 m b) 2.0 m c) 3.5 m d) 5.0 m 8) A tsunami is considered to be a: a) capillary wave b) deep-water wave c) refracted wave d) shallow water wave 9) The atmospheric component that contributes to the majority of greenhouse warming on Earth is: a) carbon dioxide b) methane c) ozone d) water vapour 10) With respect to the outgoing radiation from the Earth, the incoming solar radiation has: a) a longer wave frequency b) a longer wavelength c) a shorter wavelength d) the same wavelength 11) The solar radiation received per unit area of the Earth’s surface decreases with increasing latitude because a) The poles are farther from the sun than the Equator b) The intensity of the sun’s energy decreases significantly with increasing latitude c) It strikes the surface at a lower angle at higher latitudes d) The amount of ozone in the atmosphere decreases near the poles 12) If there were no currents or winds, what structure would you expect for the ocean surface isotherms a) Purely meridional (i.e. run north-south) b) Purely zonal (i.e. run east-west) c) Zonal with deviations along the equator and western boundaries d) Globally homogeneous 13) Circulation in the oceans and the atmosphere plays a critical role in the heat budget by a) Transferring excess solar radiation at the poles to lower latitudes b) Transferring excess solar radiation at low latitudes to high latitudes c) Increasing the amount of long wavelength radiation at high latitudes d) B and C Name: ID Number: 14) If we dissolve 30 kilograms of salt into 6000 kilograms of fresh water, what is the resulting salinity a) 0.005 b) 2.0 c) 5.0 d) 10.0 15) When moorings of currents meters are deployed in the ocean, they are normally arranged in arrays, with multiple moorings across an oceanic region. The reason for this is? a) So that the time variability of the ocean currents can be properly studied b) We need multiple sets of current meters to properly allow us to calculate current speeds and directions, because of the instrument drift c) To capture the spatial variability of the ocean currents, while allowing gradients of important properties to be calculated d) Since ship time is expensive, it makes sense to deploy a number of instruments 16) An Acoustic Current Meter is mounted, facing east, on a mooring. The instrument sends out a sound pulse, and when the pulse returns, it is noted that the frequency of the sound has decreased. This tells us that a) The current has a velocity of at least 20 cm/s b) The current has a velocity less than 20 cm/s c) The current flows to the east d) The current flows to the west 17) If you are told Calcium is a major constituent of the world’s oceans and Helium is a trace element in the oceans, then which of the following statements is likely true a) The concentrations of both materials will vary little with location b) Calcium will be distributed inhomogeneously throughout the ocean, while the concentration of Helium will vary little with location c) Helium will be distributed inhomogeneously throughout the ocean, while the concentration of Calcium will vary little with location d) The concentrations of both materials will be distributed inhomogeneously throughout the ocean 18) Regions of vertically ascending air and low atmospheric pressure can be characterized by a) High precipitation b) Cloudy conditions c) Generally clear skies and light winds d) A and B 19) If an air parcel is warmed by 5 degrees C, one can say that a) That air parcel has had its saturation vapour pressure decrease and thus it can hold less moisture b) That air parcel has had its saturation vapour pressure decrease and thus it can hold more moisture c) That air parcel has had its saturation vapour pressure increase and thus it can hold less moisture d) That air parcel has had its saturation vapour pressure increase and thus it can hold more moisture Name: ID Number: 20) Associated with the Hadley cell in the southern hemisphere are the trades that blow from the southeast to the northwest. What direction do the upper atmosphere winds associated with the Hadley cell (in the southern hemisphere) blow? a) Northeast to southwest b) Northwest to southeast c) Southeast to northwest d) Southwest to northeast 21) The Coriolis effect will cause an air parcel traveling to the northwest in the Northern Hemisphere to deflect towards the a) Northeast b) Northwest c) Southeast d) Southwest 22) On a non-rotating Earth uniformly covered by water, prevailing winds at the surface would blow a) From high pressure at the Equator to low pressure at the Pole b) From low pressure at the Equator to high pressure at the Pole c) From high pressure at the Pole to low pressure at the Equator d) From low pressure at the Pole to high pressure at the Equator 23) Associated with the Ferrel cell in the northern hemisphere are the westerlies that blow from the southwest to the northeast. What direction does the upper atmosphere winds associated with the Ferrel cell (in the northern hemisphere) blow? a) Northeast to southwest b) Northwest to southeast c) Southeast to northwest d) Southwest to northeast 24) If an experiment using acoustic thermography suggested that the travel time for sound waves, traveling in the sound channel between the Southern Ocean and the east coast of Canada, increased, one should be able to state that a) The ocean salinity has increased b) The ocean salinity has decreased c) The ocean temperature has increased d) The ocean temperature has decreased 25) If instead of considering the open ocean, one considered coastal water, one would expect that a) The depth of light penetration would decrease, especially with respect to the shorter wavelengths b) The depth of light penetration would decrease, especially with respect to the longer wavelengths c) The depth of light penetration would increase, especially with respect to the shorter wavelengths d) The depth of light penetration would increase, especially with respect to the longer wavelengths Name: ID Number: Part B: Answer all written questions completely in the space provided. Point form answers are acceptable if they are clear and complete. Again, please remember to put your name and ID number on this page (as well as the exam’s first page). 1) Discuss what sets the global large scale surface salinity structure and how it changes meridionally (north-south) in an ocean. Mention at least two additional processes that can locally modify the surface salinity (and how they do so).  Name: ID Number: 2) Explain why waves usually break parallel to a beach? Use this fact to explain why beaches are generally found in sheltered bays while headlines are often rocky and rugged. Link your answer to the basic properties of waves we discussed in class. Use simple sketches to illustrate your key points, if needed.  Name: ID Number: 3) Discuss the difference between indirect and direct (including both active and passive approaches) current measurements? Discuss briefly how they are deployed and how they make measurements? Give an example of each type. Discuss the difference between active and passive current measurements?