Spirit of laws - Book created by Adam smith, a scottish philosopher and economist. The book described a policy of free trade. Nation - a sizable group of people who believe themselves united by common bonds of face, language, custom, or religion. Wealth of nations - Book by Adam Smith Theocracy - Government ruled by religious leaders Common sense - A book by Thomas Paine which describes independence for the 13 colonies Thomas Hobbes - considered to be one of the founders of modern political philosophy. Communist manifesto - book written by written by Karl Marx and Friedrich which wanted communism in the USA. State - A political community in a precise territory. Constitution - plan that provides the rules for government Government - is the institution through which a state maintains social order, provides public services, and enforces decisions that are binding on its residents. New jersey plan - The New Jersey Plan was a proposal for the structure of the United States Government presented by William Paterson Virginia plan - The Virginia Plan was a proposal by Virginia delegates for a bicameral legislative branch. The plan was drafted by James Madison Second treatises of government - The Second Treatise outlines a theory of civil society from John Locke Great compromise - established bicameral legislature in which the House of representatives's votes rely on population, while the senate have an equal two votes on each state. Civics - the study of the rights and duties of citizenship. Sovereignty - Sovereignty is the full right and power of a governing body over itself, without any interference from outside sources or bodies. Federalism - a type of government in which the power is divided between the national government and other governmental units. Glorious revolution - when William of Orange took the English throne from James II in 1688. Jamestown - first permanent English settlement Politics - a set of activities associated with the governance of a country or an area. Economics - the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services Ben franklin - one of the Founding Fathers of the United States Abraham Lincoln - Abraham Lincoln was an American statesman and lawyer who served as the 16th president of the United States Authoritarian governments - a form of government characterized by strong central power and limited political freedoms. Rhode island - one of the 13 colonies Thomas Hobbs - an English philosopher, considered to be one of the founders of modern political philosophy English Bill of Rights - The Bill of Rights 1689 is a landmark Act in the constitutional law of England that sets out certain basic civil rights and clarifies who would be next to inherit the Crown. Magna Carta - that everyone is subject to the law, even the king, and guarantees the rights of individuals, the right to justice and the right to a fair trial. Petition of Rights - sets out specific liberties of the subject that the king is prohibited from infringing. George Washington - 1st President of the USA Articles of Confederation - the original constitution of the US, ratified in 1781, which was replaced by the US Constitution in 1789. French and Indian War - The French and Indian War pitted the colonies of British America against those of New France, each side supported by military units from the parent country and by American Indian allies. William Harrison - first president to die in office. Dariano v Morgan Hill - The 9th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals ruled that public school officials did not violate the First Amendment when they required several students wearing T-shirts of the American flag to remove their T-shirts on Cinco de Mayo, a Mexican holiday. Articles - main parts of the constitution Articles 1-3 - Executive, legislative, and judiciary branch WTO - The World Trade Organization is an intergovernmental organization that is concerned with the regulation of international trade between nations. NAACP - The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People is a civil rights organization in the United States John Tyler - John Tyler was the tenth President of the United States from 1841 to 1845 after briefly serving as the tenth vice president in 1841; he was elected to the latter office on the 1840 Whig ticket with President William Henry Harrison. Jim Crow - Racist laws that enforced “separate but equal.” James Madison - James Madison Jr. was an American statesman, lawyer, diplomat, philosopher and Founding Father who served as the fourth president of the United States from 1809 to 1817. Civil Liberties - civil rights Slander - lies spoken Libel - lies written down Suffrage - civil rights Muller v. Allen - Court case inflicting civil rights Tinker v. Des Moines - Court case inflicting civil rights Federalism - Bicameral legislature - 1,2,3,4,5,6,8,10,25 amendments - 1st Amendment Freedom of religion, speech, petition and assembly - 2nd Amendment Right to Bear Arms - 3rd Amendment No quartering of soldiers - 4th Amendment Protection against illegal search and seizure - 5th Amendment Protection against self-incrimination, double jeopardy. Protection of due process and right to a grand jury. - 6th Amendment Right to speedy and public trial, impartial jury and right to counsel. - 8th Amendment Protection against cruel and unusual punishment. No excessive bail imposed. - 10th Amendment Reserved powers to the states. - 25th Amendment Established VP as successor if P is unable to serve. P can nominate a VP if there is a VP vacancy. Ratify - To approve Harry Truman - Civil rights leader Emma Lazarus - Famous book on civil rights Lemon v Kurtzman - Court Case on Civil Rights Brown v Board of Education - Court case that defies jim crow laws Bicameral - Two chamber legislature President of the Senate - VP Filibuster Cloture - Ending Veto - President Disapproves House of representatives - 525 Bill of attainder - Explains that in the senate each person can only talk for 1 hour Writ of habeas corpus - Someone cannot speak in the senate when someone else is announcing their piece of law. Riders - Assistant to the Pro Temp Expressed powers - Powers of the Presidents Filibuster - Unexcused Ex post facto - When the president dies the VP takes over Authorization bills - President allows something to take place Census - Poll Seniority - The oldest person in the senate becomes the Senior Senator Pro tempore - the VP Ambassador - Representatives of each country War powers act - Act that supported peace white house - President lives Embargo - trade block foreign policy - Policies all countries have to comply with Electors - Members who elect the president federal bureaucracy - Government owned agencies executive order - Order from the President stare decisis - State declared time of war Jurisdiction - How the judges declare guilty or innocent in a court case Circuit - Time Calender Docket - Used to track the election dates States - Sections of a country appeals courts - Court in which to appeal a crime as innocent concurrent jurisdiction - Jury from both the federal and local courts Opinion - A Senator/HoR’s opinion majority opinion - 75% agreement of an opinion maritime law - sea Remand - To adjust Exclusive jurisdiction - President’s will Democratic-republican party - Combination Party 1828 election - Election in which the 18th amendment was found unconstitutional Republican party - Party created in the 1800 that opposed slavery Senators - Members of the Senate Chief Justice of Supreme Court - Leader of the 9 supreme court members Federalist Party - Party which believed in communism USPS - Government group which oversees trade overseas.