Uploaded by Jeslie Yao

cell and their organelles

Spirit of laws - Book created by Adam smith, a scottish philosopher and economist. The book
described a policy of free trade.
Nation - a sizable group of people who believe themselves united by common bonds of face,
language, custom, or religion.
Wealth of nations - Book by Adam Smith
Theocracy - Government ruled by religious leaders
Common sense - A book by Thomas Paine which describes independence for the 13 colonies
Thomas Hobbes - considered to be one of the founders of modern political philosophy.
Communist manifesto - book written by written by Karl Marx and Friedrich which wanted
communism in the USA.
State - A political community in a precise territory.
Constitution - plan that provides the rules for government
Government - is the institution through which a state maintains social order, provides public
services, and enforces decisions that are binding on its residents.
New jersey plan - The New Jersey Plan was a proposal for the structure of the United States
Government presented by William Paterson
Virginia plan - The Virginia Plan was a proposal by Virginia delegates for a bicameral legislative
branch. The plan was drafted by James Madison
Second treatises of government - The Second Treatise outlines a theory of civil society from
John Locke
Great compromise - established bicameral legislature in which the House of representatives's
votes rely on population, while the senate have an equal two votes on each state.
Civics - the study of the rights and duties of citizenship.
Sovereignty - Sovereignty is the full right and power of a governing body over itself, without any
interference from outside sources or bodies.
Federalism - a type of government in which the power is divided between the national
government and other governmental units.
Glorious revolution - when William of Orange took the English throne from James II in 1688.
Jamestown - first permanent English settlement
Politics - a set of activities associated with the governance of a country or an area.
Economics - the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of
goods and services
Ben franklin - one of the Founding Fathers of the United States
Abraham Lincoln - Abraham Lincoln was an American statesman and lawyer who served as the
16th president of the United States
Authoritarian governments - a form of government characterized by strong central power and
limited political freedoms.
Rhode island - one of the 13 colonies
Thomas Hobbs - an English philosopher, considered to be one of the founders of modern
political philosophy
English Bill of Rights - The Bill of Rights 1689 is a landmark Act in the constitutional law of
England that sets out certain basic civil rights and clarifies who would be next to inherit the
Magna Carta - that everyone is subject to the law, even the king, and guarantees the rights of
individuals, the right to justice and the right to a fair trial.
Petition of Rights - sets out specific liberties of the subject that the king is prohibited from
George Washington - 1st President of the USA
Articles of Confederation - the original constitution of the US, ratified in 1781, which was
replaced by the US Constitution in 1789.
French and Indian War - The French and Indian War pitted the colonies of British America
against those of New France, each side supported by military units from the parent country and
by American Indian allies.
William Harrison - first president to die in office.
Dariano v Morgan Hill - The 9th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals ruled that public school officials did
not violate the First Amendment when they required several students wearing T-shirts of the
American flag to remove their T-shirts on Cinco de Mayo, a Mexican holiday.
Articles - main parts of the constitution
Articles 1-3 - Executive, legislative, and judiciary branch
WTO - The World Trade Organization is an intergovernmental organization that is concerned
with the regulation of international trade between nations.
NAACP - The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People is a civil rights
organization in the United States
John Tyler - John Tyler was the tenth President of the United States from 1841 to 1845 after
briefly serving as the tenth vice president in 1841; he was elected to the latter office on the 1840
Whig ticket with President William Henry Harrison.
Jim Crow - Racist laws that enforced “separate but equal.”
James Madison - James Madison Jr. was an American statesman, lawyer, diplomat,
philosopher and Founding Father who served as the fourth president of the United States from
1809 to 1817.
Civil Liberties - civil rights
Slander - lies spoken
Libel - lies written down
Suffrage - civil rights
Muller v. Allen - Court case inflicting civil rights
Tinker v. Des Moines - Court case inflicting civil rights
Federalism - Bicameral legislature -
1,2,3,4,5,6,8,10,25 amendments
- 1st Amendment Freedom of religion, speech, petition and assembly
- 2nd Amendment Right to Bear Arms
- 3rd Amendment No quartering of soldiers
- 4th Amendment Protection against illegal search and seizure
- 5th Amendment Protection against self-incrimination, double jeopardy. Protection of
due process and right to a grand jury.
- 6th Amendment Right to speedy and public trial, impartial jury and right to counsel.
- 8th Amendment Protection against cruel and unusual punishment. No excessive bail
- 10th Amendment Reserved powers to the states.
- 25th Amendment Established VP as successor if P is unable to serve. P can nominate
a VP if there is a VP vacancy.
Ratify - To approve
Harry Truman - Civil rights leader
Emma Lazarus - Famous book on civil rights
Lemon v Kurtzman - Court Case on Civil Rights
Brown v Board of Education - Court case that defies jim crow laws
Bicameral - Two chamber legislature
President of the Senate - VP
Cloture - Ending
Veto - President Disapproves
House of representatives - 525
Bill of attainder - Explains that in the senate each person can only talk for 1 hour
Writ of habeas corpus - Someone cannot speak in the senate when someone else is
announcing their piece of law.
Riders - Assistant to the Pro Temp
Expressed powers - Powers of the Presidents
Filibuster - Unexcused
Ex post facto - When the president dies the VP takes over
Authorization bills - President allows something to take place
Census - Poll
Seniority - The oldest person in the senate becomes the Senior Senator
Pro tempore - the VP
Ambassador - Representatives of each country
War powers act - Act that supported peace
white house - President lives
Embargo - trade block
foreign policy - Policies all countries have to comply with
Electors - Members who elect the president
federal bureaucracy - Government owned agencies
executive order - Order from the President
stare decisis - State declared time of war
Jurisdiction - How the judges declare guilty or innocent in a court case
Circuit - Time Calender
Docket - Used to track the election dates
States - Sections of a country
appeals courts - Court in which to appeal a crime as innocent
concurrent jurisdiction - Jury from both the federal and local courts
Opinion - A Senator/HoR’s opinion
majority opinion - 75% agreement of an opinion
maritime law - sea
Remand - To adjust
Exclusive jurisdiction - President’s will
Democratic-republican party - Combination Party
1828 election - Election in which the 18th amendment was found unconstitutional
Republican party - Party created in the 1800 that opposed slavery
Senators - Members of the Senate
Chief Justice of Supreme Court - Leader of the 9 supreme court members
Federalist Party - Party which believed in communism
USPS - Government group which oversees trade overseas.