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PSYC 2230 Lecture 1 Notes

January 7th, 2020
D – Deterministic: Psych is deterministic (causes, influences, mind, feelings)
AS - Associativity: Mind and body are in association, we think associatively (i.e. the alphabet)
A-Adamistic: Take complex stuff and reduce to simplest units, look for the simple within the
RED – Reductionistic: Reduce everything to the simplest units
Mech – Mechanistic: We search for physical and psychological connections
Elem – Elementeristic:
Par – Parsimonious: Try to focus and find the simplest explanation
 Find the stimulus, and the changing response
Motivation (M): Forces acting on or within an organism to initiate an action (pg. 4)
 Motivated behaviour (B) displays intensity and persistence
 Intensity and persistence vary in the pursuit of our goals and our objectives
Internal Stimuli: Needs
External Stimuli: The world
*Both the external and internal determine our action
*When you are motivated to pursue a goal, your persistence is strong
*Any behaviour that is reinforced, is likely to be repeated
Measurement of M: Not measured directly; manipulate stimulus (s) condition and observe
behavioural response (r ) (pg. 5)
Simulus -> Response
S -> R
48 hours of deprivation -> Speed of running through the maze
Stimulus change -> Intervening variable -> Response
48 hours of Food Deprivation -> Hunger Motivation -> Faster Running
January 7th, 2020
^^^This is page 5 of the textbook
A. Activation – As in the production of overt and covert behaviour
B. Persistence – As in ongoing performance of B
C. Vigor - As in forceful – effortful behaviour
D. Direction – As in which choice of goal is made. Measure direction in terms of a
preference test of possible choices (pg. 7)
Arousal Theory:
 Yerkes – Dodson Law (pg. 62)
 Also known as the inverted U function
 You have increasing performance on the y-axis and increasing arousal on the x-axis
 We are trying to link arousal to performance with this law/function
 At the extremes of arousal, performance is low, there is an optimal level of arousal
somewhere in the middle
 On complex tasks, it’s better to be on a slightly lower level of arousal
 On simple tasks, it’s better to be on a slightly higher level of arousal
A. S is deprivation and speed of running in a maze is R
B. Infer motivational processes from change in behaviour
C. Motivation is an intervening variable (IV): it serves to link the S and R as an IV it
provides an explanation for the relationship[ between S & R
D. Motivation is a performance variable (PV): When enough is present B is performed
IV: Categories of Analysis: Study motivation from difference viewpoints
A. Nomothetic: A search for general laws by studying large groups. Results that hold for
one group may apply to other groups
 Study of the sample so we can generalize it to the population
 Idiographic: A search of individual differences; i.e. or how organisms differ from
one another
o Personality psychology fits into this area
B. Innate vs Acquired: McDougall and James saw motivated behaviour as controlled by
innate motives – inborn motives called instincts
Acquired Motives in contrast are learned; e.g.,
Incentive motivation is the value placed on a goal and the goal becomes through experience and
learning to be valued
 An incentive motivation is an acquired motivation
January 7th, 2020
We learn to value certain objects moreso than other goals and objects
*On page 37, James outlined a variety of different feelings that contribute to human instincts
*On page 38, McDougall gives his list of characteristics
Internal vs External: Bio – Needs are sources of motivation and are internal. Deprivation
brings about needs as internal sources of motivated behaviour. Whereas incentives and goals are
external sources of motivation
Mechanistic vs Cognitive: Are motivational processes blind, mechanical, triggered
automatically by internal and external sources without conscious awareness or choice?
Are motivational processes Cognitive in so far as conscious choice operates. This approach
assumes that the manner in which information is interpreted influences motive states
 Attributing failure to ability or to luck; does this influence emotion and subsequent
 Do I succeed because I have good ability, or is it because I have luck? Or did I succeed
because I have effort? Did I succeed because the task is easy?
 The motivation may be determined based on the internal, or the external, the question is
not how much control do we really have?
A. Physiological Analysis: Is concerned with the brain’s control of motivated states
Which brain structures trigger motivational states? Study the brain through
1. Electrical
2. Chemical
3. Surgical
e.g. Olds and Milner’s study of “reward centers” in the brain by (1) implanting electrodes in
selected brain sites. Rats were motivated for hours to receive electrical stimulation in the septal
region of the brain by depressing a lever
The particular activation system: What controls sleep, concentration among other things (on
page 65)
Chemical Manipulation: By inserting a tube (Canula) into brain sites and releasing chemicals
Lesion: Within the brain by removing brain tissue in a given site of the brain and observe
behaviour result
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EEG: Recording of brain wave patterns associated with motivation. PET records of metabolic
activity and MRI to visualize active areas in the brain (pg. 9-10)
Individual Analysis research aimed at understanding motivational changes due to internal and
external conditions
 In studies of achievement, motivation was induced by telling subjects that they had failed
an important task. In aggression studies observe results of modeled presentations of
aggression (pg. 10-11)
Social Analysis: Examines motivational changes in the presence and absence of others. The role
of situational factors such as at work, school, a party
Philosophical Analysis: May view motivation as an aversive state to escape or avoid
 Freud’s philosophy presents motivation as tension that must be released and thus
reduced so as to restore equilibrium