Name: Ethan Hernould Teacher: Mr. Toma Class: World Cultures Honors Due Date: 2-26-19 M r. To m a 1. 2. 3. 1. 2. 3. Introduction to the Civil Rights Movement Why did the twentieth-century Civil Rights Movement emerge? The Civil Rights Movement emerged due to the unfulfilled promises of previous acts and the instatement of Jim Crow Segregation. This can be shown by the fact that many African American dddasd war veterans fought in a segregated military while being force fed propaganda about liberty and justice. These same war veterans came home determined to create a society that stood for what dddasd they fought for. Which of the strategies employed by civil rights activists do you think was most effective? Nonviolent protests and civil disobedience were the most effective strategies employed by civil rights activists. This can be proven by a quote coming from the “Introduction to the Civil Rights Movement” section of the Khan Academy document. The quote states, “The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom was the largest civil rights protest in US history and contributed to the successful implementation of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965.” This supports the claim that nonviolent protests and civil disobedience were the most effective strategies employed by civil rights activists because these protests made the voices of the black community heard. They were influential in the United States and lead to one of the most important acts being implemented in the United States. What do you think was most the significant achievement of the Civil Rights Movement? Did civil rights activists achieve all the goals of the movement? The most significant achievement of the Civil Rights Movement was the passage of federal legislation outlawing racial discrimination. This law lead to many other movements and actions that helped the black population and lead to a more inclusive United States today. However, the Civil Rights Movement didn’t achieve all of its goals. Many Black families today still face economic struggles and can’t provide for the families that they want to take care of. This can be supported by a quote which comes from the “Introduction to the Civil Rights Movement” section of the Khan Academy document. The quote itself is, “poverty rates among black children and families are higher than among either whites or Latinos.” This supports the provided answer because it shows that while the Civil Rights Movement has spawned many good acts, there are still underlying problems that black people face today, such as economic power displacement compared to majority races. African American Veterans and the Civil Rights Movement Why do you think the Navy initially refused to identify Dorie Miller? The reason the Navy refused to identify Dorie Miller was most likely because he was black. Racists would rather deny a hero his identification then to acknowledge a useful and heroic soldier that was not white. This can be shown by the way he was addressed when the reports of the day’s heroes emerged. He only called, “an unnamed negro messman.” This can help show the claim because if the reason he wasn’t because he was black, the Navy would have addressed him by his actual name and given him proper recognition. How do you think military service changes the lives of black Americans? Military service changes the lives of Black Americans because they get to see what life is like in other societies were segregation isn’t the ruler of the society. They get to interact with people from all sorts of backgrounds and see what life is like for them. This can be supported by a quote which comes from the “African American Veterans and the Civil Rights Movement” section of the Khan Academy document. The quote is, “The experiences of African American soldiers during World War II inspired many of them to agitate for civil rights when they returned to civilian life. Even though black soldiers faced discrimination from within the American military, they had the opportunity to observe societies where Jim Crow racism was not the law of the land.” This fortifies the answer because it shows what happened to black soldiers when they travelled to other countries. They experienced revelations and learned things they never would have under the segregated rule of the United States at the time. Why do you think white supremacists found black veterans so threatening? White supremacists most likely found black veterans threatening because of the power they held and the experience they had on the field. Unlike most, they were educated in many ways. They knew things that civil activists in the U.S most likely didn’t. 1. 2. 3. 4. 1. 2. 3. Brown v. Board of Education Topeka How would you have reacted to segregation in the 1950s? Most would have found that the disgusting segregation of the 20th Century was awful and unfair. Everybody should have equal opportunities in the country that pledges for that exact idea. Nobody should be treated poorly for something they can’t even control. That’s completely unfair. How do you think segregation made the United States look in the eyes of many in the larger world in the 1950s? Most other nations most likely looked at the United States during these times poorly. The nations one idea that it fought so many others to prove was completely counteracting that goal. No other civilized nation saw that nicely. This was especially true during the times when America was at war to spread these very ideals of democracy and freedom for all. Are there any places in your life where you see de facto segregation present? If so, do you have ideas about what you might do? De facto segregation most likely still exits in Southern White Majority states. The people in these places most likely still hold onto the ideas passed on from their past generations that lived during a time when segregation was encouraged and legal. If a traditional northerner living in a liberal state where to find themselves in these states, they would most likely feel very uncomfortable and try to remove themselves from the situation. How might schools look today if the Supreme Court had not invalidated "separate but equal" in the Brown decision? Schools today would look just as poor and unequal today as they used to. This can be supported by a quote which comes from the “Brown v. Board of Education Topeka” section of the Khan Academy document. The quote is, “Despite the claim that black schools were equal to white schools, schools for black children frequently lacked even basic necessities. In South Carolina, black children attended schools without running water, flush toilets, or electricity. In one county, $149 was spent per year on each white student, but only $43 on each black student. In Delaware, black students attended a poorly-equipped one-room schoolhouse, while a well-equipped white school existed nearby.” This quote can show how schools would look today because most of the powerful figures were completely fine with this poor educational treatment of black people. Emmett Till Why do you think Bryant and Milam murdered Till? What does their treatment of Till tell us about Mississippi society in this time period? Bryant and Milam most likely murdered Emmet Till because they decided that he would be an easy target for their racially-fueled attack. This can be shown by the quote which states, “Till was unprepared for the rigidly-maintained racial order in the South, where blacks were expected to display constant deference to whites or else face violent reprisal.” This quote supports the answer because it describes how truly racist the South really was, something Emmet Till was not prepared for. How do you think media affected the Till case? How would things have been different had there not been magazine, newspaper, and television coverage of the funeral and trial? The media affected the till case because it brought large amounts of attention to the actual trial and opened people’s eyes about how truly obscene and racist the south really was. This is explained in the quote which states, “Jet magazine published pictures of Bradley with her son's mutilated corpse, which excited outrage and horror from the broader public. Bradley said she felt she had to "let the world see what has happened, because there is no way I could describe this. And I needed somebody to help me tell what it was like." This helps the claim because it shows how the media excited outrage in the case. If it wasn’t for the media, no outrage would spark and the case would’ve gone unnoticed. Why do you think Till's murder was such an important event in the Civil Rights movement? Till’s murder was such an important event in the Civil Rights Movement because it opened peoples eyes about how truly horrible the racist culture of the South was and made people realize that this needed to change, fast. 1. 2. 3. 1. 2. Montgomery Bus Boycotts Why did the boycott succeed? Were the actions of both the citizens of Montgomery as well as those of the US Supreme Court necessary for its success? The Montgomery Bus Boycott succeeded because it had great ideals and gained large amounts of traction very fast. The actions of everybody involved were very necessary for the boycott’s success. Without the citizens of Montgomery, nobody would have boycotted against the racist bus companies & without the US Supreme Court’s decision to deem public transport segregation “Unconstitutional”, the rule was official enforced and spread across the country. The quote, “The leaders of the boycott brought suit, demanding the end of segregation on public buses in Montgomery. The suit took months to make its way through the judicial system, but by midNovember 1956 the US Supreme Court—basing its decision on the 14th Amendment’s guarantee of equal protection under the law—ruled that segregated public buses were unconstitutional. The boycott was a success.” This shows the answer because the US Supreme Court had to make a law or else there would not have been any real reason for public transportation to desegregate their buses. How do you think people around the world who looked to the United States as a beacon of freedom might have felt and thought when they read about the boycott and the laws and practices that led to it? When people around the world looked at the racial segregation taking place in the United States, they most likely felt unnerving at least, threatened at most. This is because the United States, a nation at war around the world with the ideals of freedom and democracy weren’t event practicing them on their own soil. When other nations saw the boycotts taking place, they most likely felt at ease with the fact that times were in fact changing and black people were one step closer to true equality. What do you think led Rosa Parks to decide to take a stand against discrimination and segregation? Rosa parks decided to take a stand against discrimination because she realized that she could help make a difference. This is because there were more people just like her around the nation being unfairly treated by fellow citizens for nothing more than their skin color. This can be proven by the quote in the text which states, “E.D. Nixon, head of the Alabama NAACP, and Jo Ann Robinson, head of the local Women’s Political Council, had been looking for means by which to challenge the treatment of African Americans in Montgomery for some time. As a model citizen and woman of unimpeachable conduct, Parks was an ideal candidate for a public campaign. After Parks’ arrest, they decided to call for a boycott of the city’s buses.” This quote supports the answer because it shows that Rosa Parks was the ideal symbol for why people should be equal. In other words, she was the trump card needed to take a stand that would be noticed. "Massive Resistance" and the Little Rock Nine How do you think the "Southern Manifesto", and Governor Faubus' deployment of the Arkansas National Guard looked in the eyes of people outside the United States who looked to the country as a land dedicated to freedom? The racists act that the state of Arkansas used against the Little Rock Nine was most likely seen in a negative light by other nations for the very reason that the United States was going against the core acts of its founding fathers that created it. When the US Supreme Court interprets the US Constitution is it sometimes, in effect, making new laws? Is such "activism" on the part of the Supreme Court part of its job? When the US Supreme Court interprets the US Constitution it can only be seen as making new laws on certain occasions. The act of interpreting laws can be compared to interpreting excerpts from religious texts to mold them into your own belief. It can be argued that doing this is in fact part of the job of a US Supreme Court member as the most elite and intelligent get to work in this position. It can also be seen as part of their job because people that interpret the law in unfair ways are fired and flamed immediately by the public. 3. 1. 2. 3. 4. 1. 2. Would Central High School have been successfully desegregated if the federal government had not aided local African American citizens? If the federal government had not intervened and aided African American Citizens, the outcome for desegregation would have been grim. The only thing in between white citizens and violence against black citizens is the fact that the federal government protected them. The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom How did the demands presented at the March on Washington reflect evolving goals of the Civil Rights Movement? The demands presented at the March on Washington reflected the evolving goals of the Civil Rights Movement because they wanted not only the end of Jim Crow Laws, but for equal opportunity with all races. This can be proven by the quote which states, “The sole purpose of the March on Washington was not to eliminate Jim Crow laws, though the protestors certainly desired to bring a swift end to the segregation that had been institutionalized in the South after the Civil War. Though the organizers of the rally demanded the desegregation of all schools, the majority of the demands revolved around issues of economic justice – like equal access to public facilities and accommodations, housing, education, and jobs.” This can help support the answer because it shows that not only did people want segregation to end, but they wanted an economic opportunity to succeed. This can be seen as an evolution in the original goal of dismantling Jim Crow Laws. What arguments did Dr. King make in his "I Have a Dream" speech? Why do you think the speech was so effective? Dr. King made compelling arguments in his, “I Have a Dream” speech. One of these arguments was that people should be judged not by what race they are, but by how they act. This is supported by the quote which states, “The last speaker of the day was Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., who delivered what became the most famous speech of the entire civil rights era, the “I Have a Dream” speech, which envisioned a world in which people were judged not by the color of their skin, but by the content of their character.” This was an effective speech because he made the point that skin color didn’t automatically make a person good or bad, but how they are as an actual person that does. Did the March on Washington reveal a Civil Rights Movement that was united or divided? While different parties prioritized certain goals over others, everybody was there for one thing and one thing only, equality between everybody. Everybody at the March on Washington wanted a better life for minorities, specifically people of color. What was the outcome of the March on Washington? Did the news media play an important role? The outcome of the March on Washington was the success of black people’s goals being acknowledged. Many goals were brought to light thanks to the media which helped spread the word and ideals of the protest. Evident in the quote which states, “One of the most important demands was for a federal Fair Employment Practices Act, which would ban discriminatory hiring practices. This demand would be realized the following year, with the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which created the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.” This shows just how successful the March was seeing as certain goals came to life and were enacted by the Supreme Court. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965 Which provisions of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 do you think were the most important? Why? The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission was the most important provision of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. This can be shown by the quote, “It created the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission to ensure fair hiring practices and established a federal Community Relations Service to assist local communities with civil rights issues.” This quote supports the claim because it shows what the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission was and why it was needed so badly. How do you think the events of Bloody Sunday affected the Voting Rights Act? 1. 2. 3. 1. 2. 3. The events of Bloody Sunday only helped progress the Voting Rights Act and the Civil Rights Movement more. The act of beating black people like they aren’t human just showed how badly action needed to be taken. SNCC and Core College-age students were principal founders of both CORE and SNCC. In what ways did student voices advance the movement for civil rights? In what ways might collegeaged students' perspectives have been limited? Student voices advanced the movement for civil rights because they helped to show just how many people wanted civil rights between people of color and white people in the United States of America, event those that weren’t old enough to experience certain troubles. This very reason is also why college-aged student’s perspectives were limited, they were not old enough to experience certain forms of segregation. What were the successes and challenges of the direct action, nonviolent protest strategy that both CORE and SNCC employed in the early 1960s? Some success of the nonviolent strategies employed by both Core and SNCC were that they helped show the nonviolent nature of black people and that being African American did not make you a bad person. A challenge that both groups faced was that they had no way of fighting back from the brutal violence they faced from mobs of racist white people, as seen by the injuries certain Freedom Riders had after encounters with mobs in the south. Why did both CORE and SNCC increasingly turn away from nonviolence by the late 1960s? Do you think this turn was a good idea? Why or why not? The reason both groups turned away from nonviolence is because they embraced the Black Power movement and black separatism. Both radicalized ideas that gravitated more towards violence and anti-white ideals. This turn was a bad idea because it just helped enforce white peoples ideas of black people being violent and unintelligent, unable to fit in properly with white people. Black Power Was Black Power part of the Civil Rights Movement or was it opposed to the Civil Rights Movement? Black Power wasn’t a part of the Civil Rights Movement because they preached more for Black Self Reliance and borderline racism against white people. The opposite of what the Civil Rights Movement idealized, peaceful coexistence between all races. This can be shown by the quote, ““Black Power” refers to a militant ideology that aimed not at integration and accommodation with white America, but rather preached black self-reliance, self-defense, and racial pride.” These are all ideas that, when black is replaced with the word white, are everything the Civil Rights Movement stood against. How did the goals of the Black Power Movement differ from those of more mainstream civil rights activists? Compare the major demands of the Ten-Point Program with the goals of civil rights campaigns for voting rights and desegregation. Why do you think the ideas of Black Power gained in popularity over the course of the 1960s? Over the course of the 1960s black people became angrier with their situation and hit the breaking point/started to become violent. This can be seen when Dr. King was assassinated, and riots flared up all over the nation. This was perfect for Black Power as violent people had an organized group to turn to where they can lash out with people with similar motives.