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Introduction to Philosophy SNA
Reality as Matter
contains the organ of (hydro) life germs.
Greek Mythology: Myth is a
fiction or traditional tale
about gods and heroes. It
arouse when human think
semiotic and in metaphor.
Philosophy begins with the
elimination of this myth by
doing logical arguments. The
age of mythology was
critiqued by philosophers
and turned into intellectual
Anaximander (610-546 B.C), student of Thales believe that all
things arise out of boundless, ageless and undefined(aperion)
Pre-Socrates: They believed
nothing comes from nothing.
Everything was made up of
some fundamental
substances. Idea of Monism
begins from Miletus school
close to turkey that
everything is one substance.
They seek one universal
principle to explain the
whole of nature for that they
are called Natural
Philosopher. Later, critique is
developed as movement of
pluralism and materialism.
Thales (624-546 B.C) the first
philosopher said that all
things are made up of water.
Most of living creatures
survive from the use of its.
All life originated from the
water (hydro) and life
returns to water. For
instance water turn into ice,
vapor, gas and cloud. All
things are full of lives, which
Anaximenes (585-525 B.C), said that source of all thing must be air
vapor. Water comes from the condensation of air. When it rains,
water is pressed from the air. Air was the origin of the earth and
source of life to survive. Here, in this regards, the idea of inherent
characteristic and change of quantity into quality arouse.
Heraclitus 535-475 B.C said that everything is flux or change, a fact
of nature. We cannot step twice into the same river when step
into the river for the second time, neither I nor the river are the
same. Our sense perceptions are reliable all thing changes in the
world. The world is characterized by two opposite’s forces like ill –
well, day n night, hot and cold. Without opposites the world
ceases to exist.
Empedocles (490-430 BC), said both Parmenides and Heraclitus
were right .Nothing changes means water cannot turn into the fish
or into butterfly .Nature changes means, we must believe what we
see. All in all, nature is consisted of air, water, fire and earth.
When living thing dies all things separates again and dissolves. A
piece of wood is burning is water; smoke is air, remains ashes is
the earth. All natural philosopher is the interaction of some natural
forces .He claims that there are two forces in nature love and
strife. Love binds things together and strife separates them
Democritus (460-371) nothing exist except atoms and empty
space in the universe. Cosmos is made up of matter in which
invisible tiny particles (atoms) are presents. Nature change means
we must believe what we see. Nature consists of four basic
elements: air, fire, water and earth. Nature transform from two
opposite forces love and strife. Man is a microorganism of the
universe consists of matter.
Syed Noman Ali, Master in philosophy;(UOK), snathought@gmail.com ; 092345-2313521