Uploaded by Chantell Von Flotow


Student no: VONF0006CN
1.1 Explain what is meant by ‘The Grammar-Translation Method’.
The Grammar-Translation Method (GTM for short) is a traditional - or classic - way of teaching a foreign
language, often used in teaching EFL/ESL. The targeted language is instructed in the conventional method of
rote learning grammatical rules and conventions, vocabulary – as a spelling test, rather than applying it in
spoken and written form – and explaining by means of translating the intended language into or from the
mother tongue of the learners. By no means is the intention to teach learners to communicate properly and
fluently in the targeted language, using the correct syntax and pronunciation, but the teaching is rather
presented as an intellectual subject – the way Greek and Latin was taught since the 1500s.
1.2 Evaluate Bruner’s term Scaffolding by also describing the common elements of scaffolding with the use of
Bruner’s “Scaffolding” theory denotes that for children (and also adults) to learn new concepts and ideas, they
will need guidance and actions from teachers and parents, whereby they learn to construct knowledge from
adding new ideas to knowledge they already have. They are taught how to learn and for this, they need to
interact with others (be socially active). This social interaction is a very important part of the learning process children learn through instruction and by modeling the actions of those around them.
Bruner further added to Piaget’s theory (of the developmental stages whereby children develop cognition) by
suggesting that there are tree methods to the thinking/knowledge-gaining process that seem to always overlap
each other:
1. Enactive mode: learning takes place by the way objects/material can be manipulated and
actions/activities such as drama, manipulate objects and how children respond to it.
2. Iconic mode: where objects can be understood by the icon or image that represents it – and images
can also be created autonomously to suggest an object by making use of pictures and
colourful words that indicate meaning.
3. Symbolic mode: children develop a need to express what they have learned, understand and think as
they make sense of their surroundings. Language thus become very important as a
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mode of communicating – they need this connection to the world, to express thoughts
and test their reasoning skills through words (symbols for expressing thoughts).
Teachers (and parents) should know how to further learning though implementing these three modes.
Bruner’s “scaffolding” theory is thus used to support learners when performing tasks and build understanding
that would not be possible without a teacher there to guide and instruct them. Since these levels of knowledge
is still beyond their abilities to grasp it, they will not be able to manage by themselves without the teachers
input to guide them through tasks and constructing abstract reasoning.
Although teachers are the primary source of support, scaffolding works well in peer groups as learners can
assist each other in understanding, implementing activities/actions and producing ideas – for some learners
working with peers instead of grown-ups yield better results.
As learners master internalizing the learning process by thinking and effective communication, they become
self-reliant and the “scaffolding” (support) slowly phases out – it has done its job of igniting the mind to do for
itself, so to speak.
Common elements of scaffolding in the classroom environment (across all subject areas), are:
 Defining tasks – giving instructions like projects and group work to reach a conclusion and come to
understand the lesson.
 Direct and indirect instruction – teachers can give instructions, explain words, read aloud whereby the
learners will listen and learn to model what is being taught (direct instruction) or learners can work
together in groups, do research, investigate, etc. to learn more (indirect instruction).
 Specification and sequencing of activities – teacher/learners build on previous knowledge to
understand various stages/steps.
 Modelling and exemplification/simplification – while teaching, the teacher gives examples, relate it in
easier terms to promote understanding or use pictures or models of what is being discussed, so the
learners can visualize what is being said.
 Reinforcing – after explaining what the lesson is about, doing worksheet/exercise to see if what was
taught, is understood by the learners.
 Questioning – asking questions in class to assess whether the subject matter is being understood, or in
the form of a test after the lesson is completed
 Provision of materials, equipment and facilities – supply learners with text books, activities, materials
to construct, cut and paste, put sequence, etc. so they can learn by actively doing
 Other environmental contributions – by bringing various teaching aids like a projector for a short film
on a subject, playing a song or story, a guest speaker, taking a field trip, learners will actively take part
in the learning process.
2.1 Mention and describe two (2) types of inductive teaching and learning.
Discovery-based learning:
When presenting ‘parts of speech’ in English grammar class, many children get confused: what does an
adjective do again? Which noun is this? Let them discover which is which by themselves while doing a fun
exercise or activity.
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Give learners a short story, but leave out some of the actual words and replace them with ‘parts of speech’ in
brackets – e.g. It is Summer, so (Proper noun - you) and (proper noun2) decided to (verb) out to the (common
noun). The (noun) is (adjective) and they feel like (verb). Suddenly (proper noun - you) said to (proper noun 2):
“We should (verb) (common noun) and then (verb) some (common noun) to cool down.” …etc. Make a pagelong story of it.
The learners fill in the parts of speech – they can use any noun/verb/adjective, etc. if it is what is asked. They
should not read the story while doing so – just fill in the parts of speech first.
When they are done, each learner will get a chance to read their story aloud to the class. Some stories will turn
out very funny/silly – while the learners will understand how and where to use each part of speech.
Example: We should shout shoes and then watch some ice-cream to cool down.
Project-based learning:
Learners are given an assignment whereby they will need to produce work that they have researched and
designed themselves – either individually or in groups. The teacher will provide the needed background
information, but the focus is really on how learners got to the solution. Learners make the decisions and
determine what the outcome will be – the teacher only give guidance where needed. The end-result can be an
oral presentation or written work.
For literature, the teacher gives the class 5 poems to choose from for their project. Learners are divided into
groups of 4 (to 5) students.
They must write a short story/diary, with images (drawings, pasted pictures, etc.) that takes us into the
mindset of the author and the setting the poem.
The teacher (or audience) wants to understand why the author felt s/he had to write that particular poem,
and “feel” how they felt, what they saw, thought about or wished for… Is there a history to it – a reason that
led them to putting it into words? What inspired them to write that poem.
They should imagine that they are that author in those surroundings. Learners are instructed to set their
imaginations free… let it roam… take it into the outside world… search their own emotions… think of movies
they have seen – places… people…
Take us there!
2.2 List and explain the advantages of using songs in the classroom.
Songs make for a relaxed and enjoyable class atmosphere. Some children anxious when they need to speak
in a foreign language (as English are to most our learners) or they are just not interested in the subject,
but songs bring a welcome change to formal class teaching and will keep the learners’ interest.
By using popular songs that the learners are familiar with, the teacher can connect the learners with the
subject matter. Learners will be motivated and remember the subject matter better when it is connects to
their favourite things, and the novelty of being allowed their kind of music in class – even if dissected and
turned into a language lesson.
Well-chosen songs can also be used to present learning of grammatical structures, pronunciation and
Songs can be used to intensify the learners listening skills. It can even be used as a listening skills lesson if the
song is not too long, and repeated a few times, should stick in the mind like songs usually do.
Some cultural/folk songs “tell” stories which can be used in literature – many are just poetry set to music. Since
verses usually rhyme and are often repeated, it will be useful to teach poetic devices such as rhyming
schemes and words, figurative language like personification, alliteration, metaphors, etc. while enjoying the
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Songs can inspire creativity and be used to encourage learners to write/perform their own songs in class for
literature, or as an oral presentation.
2.3 Explain how you would use cut-up stories in the classroom.
Cut-up stories makes learning fun and encourage creativity and imagination.
“What exactly is a cut-up story”, you may ask. It is just what it sounds like:
a story that is cut into pieces… pictures, put in order of events/procedures
so that it “tells” a story.
The teacher gives 8 to 10 pictures/photographs/drawings in an envelope
that should be put together like pieces of a jigsaw puzzle so that it forms
or “tells” a story, showing the sequence in which the events/steps happen.
Learners then make up stories, putting/pasting the pictures to show how
one event/action follows the next, showing the steps a person needs to
follow from beginning to end, to understand the story/action.
Cut-up stories can be used as creative writing or oral prompts for group
work or given to students individually. This can also be given as a “show
and tell” instructional sequencing – for example, how to make a cup of tea,
or a peanut butter and jam sandwich or a
desert - like this easy “Banana Split Sundae”.
3.1 Define what linking verbs are.
Linking verbs are words that connect the subject and a word that tells us more about the subject, in a
sentence. It doesn’t show any action - it just describes the subject by linking it to the rest of the sentence.
By replacing a verb with an equal sign, one can test if the rest of the sentence tells us more about the
subject (in that case it is a linking verb) or just shows an action being performed (doing/action verb).
The most used linking words are am, is, are, was, were, be and being, but there are other words that can
be viewed as a linking verb too – depending on its function within a sentence.
E.g. That dog is a nuisance.
In this sentence the dog (subject) is being described (a nuisance). To link dog to nuisance, we use ‘is’. The
function of ‘is’ in this sentence is not as a ‘doing’ word (verb), but as a link (linking verb) between the
subject and a characteristic thereof.
3.2 Underline each linking verb in the following sentences.
3.2.1 Water is part of all living things.
(test: Water = part of all living things. Yes!)
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3.2.2 Water molecules are simple in structure.
3.2.3 States which lack water supplies are often desperate for help.
3.2.4 The largest desert is the Sahara.
3.2.5 Nearby rivers are sources of water.
3.3 Write four (4) sentences about the geography of your hometown using linking verbs.
Grootfontein is a small town located between Kombat and Rundu. The town is situated on a hill
overlooking the valley to the East. The large meteorite outside town, is a big tourist attraction. The
meteorite is situated next to a gravel road that connects various farms in the vicinity.
4.1 Define a common and a proper noun with an example of each.
A common noun is general a name given to person, place and thing, e.g. boy, teacher, playground,
hospital, tree and cat. It is never written with a capital letter, unless it is the very first word in a sentence
or forms part of a name (title) of something.
e.g. The boy plays soccer with his friends in the park.
A proper noun is a specific name given to a person, place or thing – it introduces us properly to a person
(Mrs. Jones), place (Windhoek) or thing (Atlantic Ocean). It is always written with a capital letter, no
matter where it is found in a sentence.
e.g. Mrs. Jones, our teacher, was admitted to the St. John’s Hospital after she rolled her Nissan.
4.2 Identify the abstract noun in the following sentences
The whiteness of the paper is remarkable.
Washington’s goodness was known by all.
Wisdom should always be pursued.
Education is the act of gaining knowledge.
Always speak the truth in love.
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4.3 Give the correct plural form of the following singular nouns.
radish - radishes
- kitties
- wolves
goose - geese
- echoes
4.4 Study the following group of words. Write whether the possessive noun is singular or plural.
The boys’ knives
The cat’s tongue
The sheep’s fleeces
The baby’s bib
The woman’s hat
5.1 Define an adjective clause.
An adjective clause modifies a noun, meaning it is a dependent clause in a sentence that gives us more
information about the noun – just like an adjective would. It starts with a relative pronoun or adverb such as
who, whom, whose, which, where, when and that.
Example: The girl, who is crying, dropped her lollypop.
5.2 Identify the adjective clause in the following sentences.
Shane knows the teacher who gave you detention.
The painter tried to match the colour that was used before.
The police officer whose gun fell from his holster was very embarrassed.
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The horse that I liked fell during the race.
A wall that fences south will absorb a lot of solar heat.
5.3 Compare simple and compound sentences with the use of examples.
A simple sentence has a subject (who/what is the sentence about – who/what is doing something?) and a finite
verb (what action is being done?). It contains one complete idea or thought that must have meaning (make
Maddy cries.
(We understand that the sentence is about Maddy [subject] - she… cries [finite verb]. It makes sense.)
A compound sentence has two or more finite verbs (doing words) and are two or more simple sentences
joined together by a suitable conjunction – such as and, but, or, because, etc.
Maddy cries because she lost her doll.
Break up this compound sentence into simple sentences, and you’ll be left with:
Maddy cries.
She lost her doll.
(conjunction: because)
5.4 Mention the four (4) types of sentences and give an example for each.
1. Statement (declarative) sentence:
It is a beautiful day for a picnic.
2. Exclamation (exclamatory) sentence:
What a great idea!
3. Question (interrogative) sentence:
Have you packed the blanket?
4. Command (imperative)sentence:
Get in the car.
Explain how you could use poems in the classroom to teach adverbs.
Adverbs usually tells us more about the verb, but it could also give more information about an adjective, even
other adverbs and influence the tone / nature of the sentence by expressing the speaker’s opinion or mood.
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Since poems are often expressive in nature, very detailed and the lines are short and easy to search through, so
it is worthwhile to use poems to teach adverbs.
Learners can be given a poem and underline adverbs as it describes
 mannerism (asking “how?” - usually it ends in -y, e.g. lovingly, dreamily, angrily, roughly)
 show place (asking “where?” – e.g. far, near, here, there, anywhere)
 specify time (asking “when?” – e.g. now, then, soon, yesterday)
 to what degree (to what extend – e.g. very happy, extremely upset, nearly dark, well in advance
 its occurrence (how often? – always, daily, seldom, usually).
They can draw columns under which to classify the adverb according to what it describes (e.g. mannerism,
place, time, etc.) as they find them – through asking the questions: how, where, when, etc.
They could also colour the adverbs as they find them – again by posing the above questions – maybe give a
colour to the types of adverbs and draw a line under what they are describing, e.g. a verb, adjective,
tone/nature (for the upper grades rather) or other adverbs.
After this type of exercise, the learners – most of them – will understand the function of adverbs in sentences
and hopefully implement them in their own writing to make it more colourful (“spice” it up a little).
Explain and use ‘adjective of quality’ in two sentences.
Adjectives of Quality
- are descriptive adjectives that tell us the nature (kind) or quality of a noun or pronoun (words
referring to a person, thing or place).
e.g. The careless child spilled his drink on the new rug.
(showing the nature of the child)
(the quality of the rug)
The clever student deliberated long over the difficult question.
(showing the nature of the student)
(the quality of the question)
Discuss six (6) rules that one should keep in mind when writing multiple choice questions.
Setting up a test is not as easy as it seems. It is up to the teacher
to ensure that questions assess learners’ understanding of subject
matter and not confuse them. It is preferable to use to the follow=
ing rules as guidelines when setting up a multiple-choice question
1. Test learners’ understanding of the subject matter by asking
questions that will invoke higher thinking, not just word-forword recall. Learners should be able to evaluate situations,
explain causes or meanings, make interpretations, think of
cause and (its) effect and envisage results.
2. Use simple sentences and precise and familiar wording which makes the questions easy to understand.
3. When you use a question stem (prompt phrase that is completed by the answer – see illustration) instead
of the whole question, ensure that most o0f the words are present in it, so the answer and distractors can
be short and less confusing to the learners.
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4. Make all distractors (other answers) seem like a probable answer, but don’t make it too easy/obvious
wrong because then you might not really know whether the learner used knowledge or just logic to get to
the right answer – it takes away from the test’s cogency.
5. Keep all the answers/distractors the same length as a longer answer might seem like the most plausible –
or make half short and the others longer to make it a little more interesting. I usually use 4 answers to a
question, but 3-5 should be fine.
6. Mix up the scheme of your answers as some learners are very observant and will quickly figure out that
answers form a rhythm – a, c, b, a, c, b – shift them around e.g. a, a, d, a, b, d. If you find that it forms a
pattern, just “copy and paste” the correct answer into another line (word processors are a dream to work
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