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9. NINETH FIVE YEAR PLAN (1998-2003)
9.1 An Overview of Education Development Since Independence
Education development in Pakistan has a checkered history. It however, on
the whole grew substantially both quantitatively and qualitatively. None the less,
there is much to be desired. An overview of education facilities at the time of independence and those at present (1997-98) are as under:
a) Number of instruction
1997-98 estimates
i) Primary Schools
ii) Middle schools
ii)High schools
iv) Vocational institutes
v) Colleges
vi) Professional colleges
vii) Universities
b) Enrollment (000)
i) Primary level (1-V)
ii) Middle level (VI-VIII)
iii)High stage (1X-X)
iv) Vocational
v) College (XI - XIV)
vi)Professional colleges
vii) Universities
c) Literacy Rates
9.2 Main objectives of the Ninth Plan:
The main objectives of the Ninth Five Year Plan in Education and Training
sector are:
Reducing poverty of men and women by improving the literacy rate from
42% at present to 60% by the end of the 9th Plan and 75% by the year 2010.
To achieve this target UPE is the main dependable source. Programmes of
non-formal and informal education through print and electronic media will,
however, supplement the efforts towards this end.
Education will ensure best possible way of life.
Achieve UPE for boys by the end of the 9th Plan and for girls by the year
To achieve universal elementary education (UEE) for boys by the year 2010
enroling 90% of girls of the same age group during the same period,
Improve and expand secondary level education;
Diversifying technical, vocational and commerce education and ensuring
their spread to meet the requirements of each area/region:
Optimal use of inputs of educational institutions through good governance,
Reduce subsidy at hipher education institutions and support education expenses of capable but deserving students to continue their studies to the highest level.
To prepare graduates to face life with confidence through knowledge lead
Tertiury level institutions will adjust their teaching progrummes to produce
highly educated / trained manpower to achieve the vision of an Asian Tiger
for Pakistan.
Create conducive teaching and researdh environment at campuses of higher
education institution.
9.3 Growth Rate and Target of Ninth Plan
Literacy rate will increase from 42% at present to 60% by the end of the 9th
Plan and 75% by the year 2010. Expediting Universal Primary Education (UPE)
is the only dependable and sustainable course to achieve higher target of literacy
rate. However, for out of school youth below 19 years of age, separate programme
of adult education will be launched. To develop feasible literacy programme, performance evaluation of earlier non-formal education programmes will provide
guidance. Performance evaluation of 10,000 non-formal Basic Education
Schools/Centers currently under implementation will also provide food for
thought to develop activn plan to mprove literacy rate in the shortest possible period. Functional literacy and continuing education will be the hallmark of this
9.4 Primary /Elementary Education
The end of the 9th Plan period will achieve UPE for boys while for girls it
will be achieved by the year 2010, This will be the instrument towards increased
literacy rates as envisaged for the 9th Plan and the year 2010. Buildings will be
provided for all existing shelter less primanylelementary school besides provision
of classrooms in the existing overcrowded primary/elementary schools. Reducing
the drop out rate and improving the efficiency of the system through better
supervision, administration and involvement of local communities will minimize
the wastage at this level. To increase utilization of the existing school, especially
those of girls schools in the rural areas, strong motivational campaign will be
Jaunched to persuade parents to send their children to school. This will be rein-
Torced oy legislation for compulsory primary education. Gender and regiona m
601 million additional primary
The ticipation will be taken care o Dalances existing in availabie Dasic coucOn
meet this objective during the "
school children (heuus be enroled ed. om 959% to 100% while for giris 1 tor boys a primnay dle
level it will increase from o7 o
antarv ele form 359% to 48%. At the same time, efforS towald edueation (UEE) will be geared
up through Sa P
hesides heing a corner stone in the development ot eiemen Thie on, will at the same time help in
reducing the menace of child 1abour in une ountry.
Secondary Education Sacondary
ntry point to higher education to others. DIversitication of courses 1or the stl education, on the
one hand, is a terminal stage for many while it 15 n different streams at this stage is a very
sensitive task t 158 stage olays a crucial role in determining the tuture career o1 a raw immaure
Democraic uccess to various career options will be providediat the stage. To accommodate
increasing output of elementary graduates, a concomitant
ncrease in facilities at secondary level of education with focus on girls education,
vill be the thrust of the 9 Plan programmes. The tempo created will be Camied
Dut unto the year 2010. 1he expanded requirement tor secondary education will
be met by upgrading middle schools and establishing new secondary schools. Private sector will be encouraged to share the responsibility. Deeni Madaris will be persuaded to
follow the courses of general stream in
job-oriented subjects. 1o improve the quality o1 secondary education, tolowing
measures will be adopted: ) Integration of secondary education classes IX-XII under one roof
1) Master degree holders in education will be recruited as secondary school teachers. 1) ntensive
in-service training courses at least once. in_five years will be ar ranged 1or secondary school
iv) Existing science teaching facilities in high school will be revamped while teaching of science
will be provided in high schools where it is not availabie.
9.6 Tertiary Level Education The tertiary level education produces leader for all walks of life.
It is the age
of competition and it will be more so in the 21 century. For tertiary level graduates/stale of the art education in marketable disciplines will be required. For this
purposes the propose bare
The intake qualifications of tertiary level teachers will be raised as: M.Phil derree for
postgraduate colleges, and Ph.D. for universities besides intensive
training ill be mandatory Traditional and un-economical disciplines will be dispensed with while
i) Split Ph. D. training in local universities/institutes in collaboration with for- ers will be
introduced CHgn universities will be started. Degree will be awarded by local universities institutes This will help to improve the quality of instruction and research in local universities/institutes raising their level at par with foreign
universities of repute iA substintial allocation to universities will be made to start research pro
)Efforts will be made to raise tertiary level enrolment from 04 million at pre- grammes sent to
1.0 million by the end of the 9 Plan and to 2.5 million by the year 2010. This will raise the
participation rate at tertiary level form 3% at present
to about 8% by the year 201 0. vi) Ratio af those going in science and arts disciplines will be
brought to S0:50
vil The failure rate of 34% at Bachelor level and 55% at Master level will further
vii) National Council of Accreditation and Award will be crested. All degree col
ix) Undisciplined private education system will be governed through Regularity by the year 2010
against 29:71 at present be reduced through effectives teaching and streamlining the external
nation system leges will seek affiliation with this Council. It will conduct examinations of
degree colleges and will award degrees. Authority to be created at provigcial levels. ) Three year
degree Programmes will be introduced.
9.7 Role of Private Sector During Eighth Plan period private sector was encouraged to establish
educa tional institutions at all levels. As a result at school level about 30% students are
going to private sector At tertiary level there are 8 universities/institutes includ ing one
Engineering University Ninth Five Year Plan proposes stillgreater involvement of private sector
in the spread of education. Private sector institutions are of many types. Some are
single while others have inter-city chains. Some are goal-oriented while majority
of them are profit eaning. Some institutions are sponsored by individuals and
others are run by some CommitteelAnjuman/NGO. A large number of private institutions do not have proper infrastructure and qualified teachers. Such institutinns are charging health amounts from students. It is necessary that such institutions including
Dera Madaris be govemed under some reguilaioncn a
these may be given degree awarding status
9.8 Communiry Involvement Nith Five Plan recommended that involvement of non-polisal
tion/local bodies may be ensured to resolve the probhlems of construction, repair
and maintenance of buildings, management of day to day, problemms of the remotest schools. teacher absentecism. purchases out of non-salary recurring grants eic.
Resources position for education sector will be improved through social mobiliza
tion. community participation anid activating the role of NGOs, CBOs and local
bodies. Higher literacy rate will be ensured through conceried efforts of public
sector, NGOs and community participation The role of communities and NGOs
will particulariy be focused for seting up new giris institutions, in runl areas and
urban slums