TITLE OF THESIS (R21, centred, 16 pt) Possible Sub-Title (R 23, centred, 14 pt) Name of Possible Background Project (R34, centred, 12 pt) Author (R36, centred, Last name, First name) Author (R37, centred, Last name, First name) Thesis (R 39, centred) Degree Programme (R41, centred) Degree (R42, centred) YEAR (R44, centred, 16 pt) Opinnäytetyön tiivistelmä Koulutus Tutkintonimike Tekijä Ohjaaja Toimeksiantaja Työn nimi Sivu- ja liitesivumäärä Etunimi Sukunimi Etunimi Sukunimi Toimeksiantajan nimi Työn nimi XX + X Vuosi XXXX Tiivistelmän perusteella lukija saa kokonaiskuvan opinnäytetyöstä. Tiivistelmässä on selostettu opinnäytetyön tavoitteet ja merkitys alalle sekä mahdolliset tutkimusongelmat, orientaatioperusta, käytetty menetelmä, tutkimusaineisto, tulokset sekä opinnäytetyön johtopäätökset. Edellä mainitut asiakokonaisuudet esitetään tiivistelmässä ilman otsikointeja. Tiivistelmässä ei ole yksityiskohtaisia tietoja, viittauksia työn sivuihin, taulukoita, lainauksia, tietoa tai väitteitä, joita ei ole itse työssä. Tiivistelmän lopussa ovat tiedonhakua varten keskeiset asiasanat. Tiivistelmän on mahduttava yhdelle sivulle. Riviväli tiivistelmässä on 1 ja fonttikoko 12 pt. Avainsanat Muita tietoja avainsanojen luettelo (1–7 kpl) Esim. Työhön liittyy multimediaesitys. Abstract of Thesis Name of Degree Programme Degree Author Supervisor Commissioned by Title of Thesis Number of pages First name Last name First name Last name Name of the Commissioner Name of the Thesis XX + X Year XXXX In the abstract you sum up the data presented in your thesis. You bring the main points without adding anything that has not been mentioned in the thesis including e.g. the aim, methods, research material, results and conclusion. All the detailed facts such as charts or page references are excluded. No references to literature used are made. Neither are any titles or subtitles used. Use spacing between lines. Do not divide words into syllables. In the abstract, you most often use the past tense because the work has already been completed. You should write the abstract only when you have finished your thesis. Use the Finnish abstract as a basis but do not try to translate directly from the Finnish abstract into English; it will not work that way. At the end of the abstract the key words are listed. Key words Other information list of key words (1–7 pcs) e.g., The thesis includes a multimedia presentation. CONTENTS 1 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................ 7 2 BODY OF THE THESIS ................................................................................. 8 2.1 Structure of the Body ............................................................................. 8 2.2 Headings and Page Numbers ................................................................ 8 2.3 Images, Figures, Tables and Formulas.................................................. 9 3 DISCUSSION ............................................................................................... 11 4 REFERENCE NOTATION ............................................................................ 12 4.1 Textual References .............................................................................. 12 4.2 Bibliography ......................................................................................... 17 BIBLIOGRAPHY ............................................................................................... 21 APPENDICES ................................................................................................... 24 5 FOREWORD Include a foreword page if you want to acknowledge people and/or organisations that have contributed to your thesis project. 6 SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS Compile a list explaining uncommon symbols, symbols that you have created and abbreviations. Do not explain standard symbols. Insert a reference after the explanation if you have used an external source. ATM Asynchronous Transfer Mode SaaS Software as Service VoIP Voice over IP 7 1 INTRODUCTION The introduction serves two purposes: it should awaken the reader’s interest and give the reader initial information about the topic of the thesis. In the introduction you justify your choice of topic, present the objectives and purpose, background, framework and limits of the thesis project. No results or conclusions are presented in the introduction. Use paragraphs to structure the introduction. Use subheadings if necessary. This template follows the Lapland UAS thesis report guidelines. Mark the first pages, settings, page numbering, headings, table of contents, spacings, references and appendices in the same way as in this template. 8 2 BODY OF THE THESIS 2.1 Structure of the Body The body of the thesis is structured according to the topic, objective and method used. Explain things coherently and in logical order. Use headings, subheadings, etc., to structure the content. Mention sources of information clearly according to the guidelines given below. Divide the content into chapters, subchapters and paragraphs. Begin each chapter on a new page. Add a forced page break if necessary. Use subchapters only if there are more than one. Numbered chapters and subchapters should contain at least two paragraphs. Plan the text so that three levels of headings suffice. A subchapter comes immediately after the main chapter. Divide the text into paragraphs according to the content. As a rule of thumb, begin a new paragraph whenever you advance to a new matter or a new phase in the discussion. Overly long paragraphs make for heavy reading and overly short paragraphs splinter the text. In paragraphs use normal style (style: Thesis normal style): font Arial 12 pt, spacing 0 before, 12 after, line spacing 1,5. Align the text to both margins. Do not use automatic hyphenation. The page margins are top 2 cm, bottom 2 cm, left 4 cm, right 2 cm. The header and footer are 1,25 cm. 2.2 Headings and Page Numbers Headings should be short, concise and descriptive. They should not contain too much information. The reader should see in the table of contents what the thesis handles and how it proceeds. List headings and subheadings in the table of contents as shown in this template. Use the style Heading 1 for main chapters and Heading 2 and Heading 3 for subchapters. Begin page numbering from the cover sheet and show page numbers beginning with the Foreword page. The page number is centred in the header. If your thesis does not have a Foreword page or a Symbols and Abbreviations page, show page numbers beginning with the Introduction page. Also number the pages of 9 appendices. The total number of pages in the thesis and the number of pages of appendices are marked in the abstract. If the thesis includes other appendices, they should be mentioned in the abstract and in the list of appendices. The table of contents is placed after the abstract. Use the header CONTENTS. The table of contents is created automatically with the word processing programme. This ensures that the headings in the table of contents and the report are the same and the page numbers are correct. When using MS Word, the table of contents is created from template. Use Arial 12 in the table of contents. 2.3 Images, Figures, Tables and Formulas Images, figures, tables and formulas have to be explained in the text. Tables are numbered consecutively and given a heading in captions above the table (Table 1), the captions for images or figures are placed below them. If some source has been used for the table or figure, a textual reference has to be added after the caption heading. Refer to each table, image and figure at least once in the report like this (Figure 1). The titles of images, figures and tables should be informative and provide the reader with information that is essential from the standpoint of the content. The format and structure of images, figures and tables should be considered carefully so that they truly convey detailed, illustrative information that is essential to the thesis. Table 1. Number of Days in Each Month (possible reference) Month January February March April May June Days 31 28 31 30 31 30 Month July August September October November December Days 31 31 30 31 30 31 A main or subchapter cannot be begun with a figure or table. There must always be text first after the chapter heading. Also, there must always be text between the figures and tables. 10 Figure 1. MOS Transistor (possible reference) Formulas are numbered in consecutive order. 𝑉̇ = 𝐶 ∗ ∆𝑃𝑛 where 𝑉̇ 𝐶 ∆𝑃 is is is 𝑛 is the volume flow of air [m3/h] the flow coefficient [m3/(h*Pa)n ] the pressure difference between the inside and outside of the building [Pa] the exponent, which depends on the type of flow (laminar 0.5–turbulent 1.0). (1) 11 3 DISCUSSION The thesis ends with a discussion. It includes a summary of the key contents of the thesis and assesses how the goals had been reached. The discussion may start with conclusions. It includes general discussion on the topic, researchethical consideration, evaluation of the thesis project, your own learning experiences and the usability of the thesis. You also assess the reliability of the research, correlation between theory and practice, ethicalness and new topics for further research and development. No new matters are presented. Before the Discussion chapter you can write a separate chapter in which you draw conclusions about the results. The heading of such a chapter is Conclusions. 12 4 REFERENCE NOTATION 4.1 Textual References Mentioning sources of information used in the thesis project adds to the reliability of the text. Sources are mentioned as references within the text and in a bibliography at the end of the text. Sources should be as current as possible. It is preferable to refer to the sources in your own words rather than through direct quotes. There should be dialogue between the author and the sources. In principle, references should indicate to the reader whose data or thoughts you are borrowing, where this information can be verified and how you are connecting information from various sources to each other and to your own discussion. Avoid using direct quotes. If a quote is necessary, the text should be indented 1 cm. If the quote is inside a sentence, use quotation marks. The textual reference is marked immediately after the quote. In textual references the reference information is placed in parentheses. Note that the reference only affects the current paragraph. Therefore, each paragraph must contain its own reference, even though the same source is used in several consecutive paragraphs. A textual reference contains the last name(s) of the author(s) the year of publication and the page(s) referred to. The reference method is the same regardless of whether you are referring to a book, an article in a periodical, a thesis, an interview, an Internet page or a presentation. The last name is followed by the year without any punctuation; a comma separates the page number(s) from the year. In the following most typical textual references are presented. 13 Basic textual reference If there is one author, the reference contains the author’s last name, the date of publication and the page numbers. For several different pages in the same publication, give the page numbers as a range or separated by commas: If you are citing information from more than one page, separate consecutive page numbers with a hyphen (–). Do not precede or follow the hyphen with any spaces. (Harrison 2008, 43) or (Harrison 2008, 34–55, 68), if you refer to several pages. If you use several sources written by the same author during the same year, differentiate between them by marking a, b or c, etc. after the year according to the alphabetical order of the titles of the sources: (Grönroos 2007b, 63) If a reference refers to one author’s publications from different years, write them as follows: (Getz 2003, 100–105; 2007, 23; 2012, 33–45) If there are two authors, write them both in the reference, regardless of whether you are referring to them the first or second time. Separate the last names with an ampersand (&), preceded and followed by a space: (Welling & Thomson 2008, 96) If there are three to five authors, write all the last names the first time you refer to the source: (Krause, Wasynczuk & Sudhoff 2002, 267–269) In subsequent references write only the first author’s last name and the abbreviation et al. If there are six or more authors, this notation can be used even the first time you refer to the source. (Jackson et al. 2008, 56) 14 If the author is not given for a publication used as a source, give the name of the publication, the year and the page number(s): (Alcohol Issues in Licensed Premises 2014) If the text contains references to several sources, as a rule the textual references can be marked in chronological order. The text should clearly indicate which piece of information comes from which source. The sources are separated by a semicolon. (Vilkka 2006, 224; Hirsjärvi, Remes & Sajavaara 2013, 21) Laws and statutes References to laws and statutes mention the name, number, year, chapter, article and clause. The clause is mentioned if the article contains more than one clause. The chapter and article are separated by a colon and the article and clause are separated by a period. (Structural Fund Act 272/2010 5:12.3 §). Digital sources A reference to a WWW page mentions the author of the text and the publication year. If the author of the electronic publication is unknown, the name of the publication is mentioned. For example, this applies to pdf publications. If the author is not known, the reference mentions the organization responsible for the website. Page numbers are given only if they are visible on the webpage. A reference to an electronic book, newspaper or magazine is the same as for a corresponding printed publication. A reference to an electronic publication whose authors are known: (Murdoch 2014) (Konola & Kähkönen 2015) A reference to an electronic publication whose authors are not known: (Alcohol Issues in Licensed Premises 2014, 5) 15 (Official Statistics of Finland (OSF): Accommodation Statistics 2015) A reference to the organisation responsible for the website when the authors are not known: (Lapland UAS 2015) Refer to an ebook like to a printed book: (Helman 2011, 33–42) A reference to an email message mentions the last name of the sender and the year. (Stevenson 2014) Verbal sources For interviews, discussions and lectures, mention the person’s last name and the year. (Viljanen 2011) Placing the period If the reference refers to information within just one sentence, mark the reference within the sentence and place the period of the sentence after the final parenthesis of the reference: When using interviews as a method of collecting data, several aspects need to be considered including the personality of the interviewer, time control, the location of the interview as well as the techniques of data collection and analysis (Swetnam 2004, 64–66). Several separate references may be placed within one sentence. Place the reference immediately after the information it refers to (Swales & Feak 2004, 199): The questionnaire was based on the Italian version (Genta et al. 1996) of the original questionnaire developed by Olweus (1993) for the Scandinavian population, subsequently translated and validated in English by Smith and his colleagues (Whitney & Smith 1993; Smith & Sharp 1994). 16 If the reference refers to more than one sentence, the initial parenthesis is preceded by a period. Also place a period inside the parentheses. The reference can refer to more than one source. In such a case place all the sources within the same parentheses and separate them with a semicolon. Such references may be in chronological order, alphabetical order or order of importance. Remember to use the same order strategy throughout the thesis when giving several sources within one reference. Using active verbs is essential if you want to write with a direct authoritative style. Instead of using the impersonal passive verbs and third person viewpoint, you should write with strong, active verbs. (Peräkylä 1997, 177.) Using active verbs is the first rule of good writing. All authorities on good writing, including scientific and technical bodies, recommend active verbs rather than passive verbs. Why? Passive verbs are longwinded, ambiguous and dull. Active verbs make your writing simpler, less awkward, clearer and more precise. (Drew & Heritage 1992, 24–28; Komter 1995, 107–126; Nuolijärvi 1994, 52; Peräkylä 1997, 178–179.) Secondary source You should always use primary, original sources. However, it is sometimes justifiable to use a secondary source. Both the original and the secondary source are marked in the bibliography. According to Hirsjärvi et al. (2007, 335–340), the textual reference to the original source in the secondary source may be marked as follows: According to Uusikylä (1994, 132) Callahan (1990) defines – –. (Vuorinen 1991, as cited in Silvonen 1992, 150) In the following example, Poikelas’ article is a secondary source that discuses Kolb’s original work: According to Poikela and Poikela (2010, 25), Kolb (1984) attempts to integrate work, education and personal growth into a holistic perception of learning. 17 4.2 Bibliography The purpose of the bibliography is to guide the reader to the source of original information. All sources mentioned in the text are listed in alphabetical order in the list of references. Sources are listed primarily according to the authors’ last names. If the author is not mentioned, the source is listed according to the name of the publication. If the name is not known, the source is listed according to the publisher. Sometimes (rarely) the author is marked as Unknown. If an author has several publications they are mentioned in chronological order according to the year of publication. If the author has several publications during the same year they are separated from each other by adding a, b, c, etc., after the year. The increase in digital text material has led to an increase in plagiarising. The same rules that are applied when using and referring to printed material also apply to material found on the Internet. It is preferable to refer to both electronic and printed material in your own words rather than through direct quotes (Hirsjärvi et al. 2009, 106–107). Plagiarising results in sanctions. Lapland UAS has software that identifies plagiarised texts. References are headed in the text and the table of contents as follows: BIBLIOGRAPHY. The heading is not numbered. In the following guidelines, sources are grouped by type to facilitate finding the right model. In the thesis, sources are listed in alphabetical order without subheadings. Books Greetham, B. 2009. How to Write Your Undergraduate Dissertation. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. If a source has several authors, all their names are mentioned. Their names are separated by commas; the last two names are separated by an & symbol. Malmfors, B., Garnsworthy, P. & Grossman, M. 2003. Writing and Presenting Scientific Papers. Nottingham: Nottingham University Press. 18 An article in a compilation as a source Drew, P. & Heritage, J. 1992. Analyzing Talk at Work: An Introduction. In P. Drew & J. Heritage (ed.) Talk at Work. Interaction in institutional Settings. Studies in Interactional Sociolinguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 3–65. Serial publications, reports, committee reports Health Care in Finland 2004. Brochures of the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health 2004:11. Rautiainen, M., Vanhanen-Nuutinen, L. & Virta, A. 2014. Democracy and Human Rights. Objectives and Content in Teacher Education. Reports of the Ministry of Education and Culture, Finland 2014:18. Working Group’s Report on Setting up a Register for Legal Interpreters 2014. Reports of the Ministry of Education and Culture, Finland 2014:22. Scientific article (journal article) Coulter, K. S. & Coulter, R. A. 2002. Determinants of Trust in a Service Provider: the Moderating Role of Length of Relationship. The Journal of Service Marketing Vol. 16 No 1, 35–50. Uusitalo-Malmivaara, L., Kankaanpää, P., Mäkinen, T., Raeluoto, T., Rauttu, K., Tarhala, V. & Lehto, J. E. 2012. Are Special Education Students Happy? Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research 56, 419–437. Worthington, B. 2003. Change in an Estonian Resort. Contrasting Development Contexts. Annals of Tourism Research Vol. 30. No 2, 369–385. Accessed 8 April 2015 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0160-7383(02)00105-6. The example above used the doi.org alphanumeric string which provides a persistent link to its location on the Internet. (DOI = Digital Object Identifier). The DOI is typically located on the first page of the electronic journal article, near the copyright notice. The DOI can also be found on the database landing page for the article. Theses García-Rosell, J. C. 2009. A Multi-stakeholder Perspective on Sustainable Marketing: Studying Business-Society Relations Through Action Research. University of Oulu. Faculty of Economics and Business Administration. Licentiate thesis. 19 Newspaper and magazine articles Smith, R. 2014. Just Press Print. As Epoch-making as Gutenberg’s Printing Press, 3-D Printing Is Changing the Shape of the Future. National Geographic. December 2014. Jayalath, C., Stephen, J. & Eugster, P. 2014. Universal Cross-Cloud Communication. IEEE, Volume 2. 103–116. Delaney, K. J., Karnitschnig, M. & Guth, R. A. Microsoft Ends Pursuit of Yahoo, Reassesses Its Online Option. The Wall Street Journal 5 May 2008, 12. Laws and statutes Structural Fund Act 29.12.2006/1401. Internet sources According to the author if the author is known: Murdoch, S.J. 2014. Online Payment Methods. Accessed 18 October 2014 http://www.cl.cam.ac.uk/~sjm217/talks/ucl14onlinepayment.pdf. Konola, S. & Kähkönen, P. 2015. Arctic Wears – Perspectives on Arctic Clothing. Rovaniemi: Lapland University of Applied Sciences. Liiketoiminta ja yrittäjyys 10/2015. Accessed 3 December 2015 https://publications.theseus.fi/handle/10024/96820. Helman, K. 2011. Project Management Jumpstart. 3rd edition. Hoboken, N.J. Wiley Publishing Inc. Ebook. Accessed 8 January 2016 https://luc.finna.fi/lapinamk/, Ebrary. According to the name of the publication if no author is mentioned: Alcohol Issues in Licensed Premises 2014. Guidelines 6/2014. Valvira. National Supervisory Authority for Welfare and Health. Accessed 20 December 2015 http://www.valvira.fi/documents/18508/84401/Alcohol_Issues_in_Licensed_Pre mises.pdf. Official Statistics of Finland (OSF): Accommodation Statistics 2015. Helsinki: Statistics Finland. Accessed 3 December 2015 http://www.stat.fi/til/matk/index_en.html. According to the organisation responsible for the website: Lapland UAS 2015. Arctic Power. Accessed 3 December 2015 http://www.lapinamk.fi/en/Employers/Development-enviroments/Arctic-Power. 20 Email messages For email messages, mention the sender’s last name and first initial as well as the year, subject, recipient and date of the email and the date it was printed out. Stevenson, A. 2014. About Thesis Presentation. Email [email protected] 11 April 2014. Printed out 15 April 2014. Verbal sources For interviews, discussions and lectures, mention the person’s last name and first initial as well as the year, organisation, title/rank/position, interview/discussion/lecture, title of lecture and the date. Viljanen, S. 2011. Digital Equipment Corporation Oy. Production Manager’s interview 12 April 2011. DVD or video recordings Frozen Planet: The Complete Series. 2012. DVD. BBC Home Entertainment. Ruudun hurma 1996. Video recording. Ed. Ritva Leino. Yle’s Open University. TV1. Educational programmes. Films Christmas Story 2007. Film. Director: Juha Wuolijoki. Producer: Snapper Films Oy. Own works Munapään tarina 2005. Animation. Director: Tero Mäkelä. Producer: KemiTornio University of Applied Sciences, Tornio. 21 BIBLIOGRAPHY This is a model bibliography. It also includes useful literature for thesis writing. The model bibliography uses spacing (before 0 pt, after 12 pt, line spacing 1), which comes automatically when pressing Enter/Return at the end of the reference. No extra empty line is needed between the references. Christmas Story 2007. Film. Director: Juha Wuolijoki. Producer: Snapper Films Oy. Coulter, K. S. & Coulter, R. A. 2002. Determinants of Trust in a Service Provider: the Moderating Role of Length of Relationship. The Journal of Service Marketing Vol. 16 No 1, 35–50. Creedy, J. 2008. Research Without Tears: From the First Ideas to Published Output. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publications. Delaney, K. J., Karnitschnig, M. & Guth, R. A. Microsoft Ends Pursuit of Yahoo, Reassesses Its Online Option. The Wall Street Journal 5 May 2008, 12. Drew, P. & Heritage, J. 1992. Analyzing Talk at Work: An Introduction. In P. Drew & J. Heritage (ed.) Talk at Work. Interaction in Institutional Settings. Studies in Interactional Sociolinguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 3–65. García-Rosell, J. C. 2009. A Multi-stakeholder Perspective on Sustainable Marketing: Studying Business-society Relations Through Action Research. University of Oulu: Faculty of Economics and Business Administration. Licentiate thesis. Greetham, B. 2009. How to Write Your Undergraduate Dissertation. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. Grönroos, C. 2007a. Service Management and Marketing: Customer Management in Service Competition. 3rd edition. Chichester: Wiley. – 2007b. In Search of a New Logic for Marketing: The Foundation of Contemporary Marketing Theory. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons Inc. Hakala, J. T. 2000. Creative Thesis Writing: A Guide to Development and Research Work. Helsinki: Gaudeamus. Health Care in Finland 2004. Brochures of the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health 2004:11. Helman, K. 2011. Project Management Jumpstart. 3rd edition. Hoboken, N.J. Wiley Publishing Inc. Ebook. Accessed 8 January 2016 https://luc.finna.fi/lapinamk/, Ebrary. 22 Jayalath, C., Stephen, J. & Eugster, P. 2014. Universal Cross-Cloud Communication. IEEE, Volume 2. 103–116. Konola, S. & Kähkönen, P. 2015. Arctic Wears – Perspectives on Arctic Clothing. Rovaniemi: Lapland University of Applied Sciences. Liiketoiminta ja yrittäjyys 10/2015. Accessed 3 December 2015 https://publications.theseus.fi/handle/10024/96820. Lapland UAS 2015. Arctic Power. Accessed 3 December 2015 http://www.lapinamk.fi/en/Employers/Development-enviroments/Arctic-Power. Malmfors, B., Garnsworthy, P. & Grossman, M. 2003. Writing and Presenting Scientific Papers. Nottingham: Nottingham University Press. McCormack, J. & Slaght, J. 2005. English for Academic Study: Skills for Extended Writing and Academic Study. Reading: Garnet Education. Munapään tarina 2005. Animation. Director: Tero Mäkelä. Producer: KemiTornio University of Applied Sciences, Tornio. Rautiainen, M., Vanhanen-Nuutinen, L. & Virta, A. 2014. Democracy and Human Rights. Objectives and Content in Teacher Education. Reports of the Ministry of Education and Culture, Finland 2014:18. Ruudun hurma 1996. Video recording. Ed. Ritva Leino. Yle’s Open University. TV1. Educational programmes. Smith, R. 2014. Just Press Print. As Epoch-making as Gutenberg’s Printing Press, 3-D Printing Is Changing the Shape of the Future. National Geographic. December 2014 Stevenson, A. 2014. About Thesis Presentation. Email [email protected] lapinamk.fi 11 April 2014. Printed out 15 April 2014. Structural Fund Act 29.12.2006/1401. Swales, J. M. & Feak, C. B. 2004. Academic Writing for Graduate Students: Essential Tasks and Skills. 2nd edition. Michigan: The University of Michigan Press. Uusitalo-Malmivaara, L., Kankaanpää, P., Mäkinen, T., Raeluoto, T., Rauttu, K., Tarhala, V. & Lehto, J. E. 2012. Are Special Education Students Happy? Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research 56, 419–437. Viljanen, S. 2011. Digital Equipment Corporation Oy. Production Manager’s interview 12 April 2011. Working Group’s Report on Setting up a Register for Legal Interpreters 2014. Reports of the Ministry of Education and Culture, Finland 2014:22. 23 Worthington, B. 2003. Change in an Estonian Resort. Contrasting Development Contexts. Annals of Tourism Research Vol. 30. No 2, 369–385. Accessed 8 April 2015 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0160-7383(02)00105-6. Wyse, D. 2007. The Good Writing Guide for Education Students. 2nd edition. London: Sage. 24 APPENDICES Compile a list of appendices on a separate page before the actual appendix pages. The heading is not numbered and appears in the table of contents and text as follows: APPENDICES. List the headings of the appendices in the order they appear according to the following model: Appendix 1. Aalto, Internet address Appendix 2. Aalto, Photo Appendix 3. Aalto, Experiment 1 Appendix 4. Aalto, Experiment 2 Appendices present information that you feel is important but does not fit entirely in the text, such as manuscripts, photos, paintings, interview questions, drawings, programme lists, multipage tables and figures and odd-sized graphical presentations. Appendices must always be commented on in the text. Do not use any appendices that are not referred to in the text. The appendices themselves must contain all the information needed to interpret them: a heading and an explanation of the photo or table. It is not necessary to use the thesis layout in the appendices. If an appendix consists of more than one page, mark the page of the appendix and the total number of pages as follows: Appendix 1 1(3); mark the next page: Appendix 1 2(3); etc.