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326613095 Lapland UAS thesis template 2709230154003129

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TITLE OF THESIS (R21, centred, 16 pt)
Possible Sub-Title (R 23, centred, 14 pt)
Name of Possible Background Project (R34, centred, 12 pt)
Author (R36, centred, Last name, First name)
Author (R37, centred, Last name, First name)
Thesis (R 39, centred)
Degree Programme (R41, centred)
Degree (R42, centred)
YEAR (R44, centred, 16 pt)
Opinnäytetyön tiivistelmä
Koulutus
Tutkintonimike
Tekijä
Ohjaaja
Toimeksiantaja
Työn nimi
Sivu- ja liitesivumäärä
Etunimi Sukunimi
Etunimi Sukunimi
Toimeksiantajan nimi
Työn nimi
XX + X
Vuosi
XXXX
Tiivistelmän perusteella
lukija
saa kokonaiskuvan
opinnäytetyöstä.
Tiivistelmässä on selostettu opinnäytetyön tavoitteet ja merkitys alalle sekä
mahdolliset tutkimusongelmat, orientaatioperusta, käytetty menetelmä,
tutkimusaineisto, tulokset sekä opinnäytetyön johtopäätökset.
Edellä mainitut asiakokonaisuudet esitetään tiivistelmässä ilman otsikointeja.
Tiivistelmässä ei ole yksityiskohtaisia tietoja, viittauksia työn sivuihin, taulukoita,
lainauksia, tietoa tai väitteitä, joita ei ole itse työssä.
Tiivistelmän lopussa ovat tiedonhakua varten keskeiset asiasanat. Tiivistelmän
on mahduttava yhdelle sivulle. Riviväli tiivistelmässä on 1 ja fonttikoko 12 pt.
Avainsanat
Muita tietoja
avainsanojen luettelo (1–7 kpl)
Esim. Työhön liittyy multimediaesitys.
Abstract of Thesis
Name of Degree Programme
Degree
Author
Supervisor
Commissioned by
Title of Thesis
Number of pages
First name Last name
First name Last name
Name of the Commissioner
Name of the Thesis
XX + X
Year
XXXX
In the abstract you sum up the data presented in your thesis. You bring the main
points without adding anything that has not been mentioned in the thesis including
e.g. the aim, methods, research material, results and conclusion. All the detailed
facts such as charts or page references are excluded.
No references to literature used are made. Neither are any titles or subtitles used.
Use spacing between lines. Do not divide words into syllables. In the abstract,
you most often use the past tense because the work has already been completed.
You should write the abstract only when you have finished your thesis. Use the
Finnish abstract as a basis but do not try to translate directly from the Finnish
abstract into English; it will not work that way.
At the end of the abstract the key words are listed.
Key words
Other information
list of key words (1–7 pcs)
e.g., The thesis includes a multimedia presentation.
CONTENTS
1 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................ 7
2 BODY OF THE THESIS ................................................................................. 8
2.1
Structure of the Body ............................................................................. 8
2.2
Headings and Page Numbers ................................................................ 8
2.3
Images, Figures, Tables and Formulas.................................................. 9
3 DISCUSSION ............................................................................................... 11
4 REFERENCE NOTATION ............................................................................ 12
4.1
Textual References .............................................................................. 12
4.2
Bibliography ......................................................................................... 17
BIBLIOGRAPHY ............................................................................................... 21
APPENDICES ................................................................................................... 24
5
FOREWORD
Include a foreword page if you want to acknowledge people and/or organisations
that have contributed to your thesis project.
6
SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS
Compile a list explaining uncommon symbols, symbols that you have created and
abbreviations. Do not explain standard symbols. Insert a reference after the
explanation if you have used an external source.
ATM
Asynchronous Transfer Mode
SaaS
Software as Service
VoIP
Voice over IP
7
1
INTRODUCTION
The introduction serves two purposes: it should awaken the reader’s interest and
give the reader initial information about the topic of the thesis. In the introduction
you justify your choice of topic, present the objectives and purpose, background,
framework and limits of the thesis project.
No results or conclusions are presented in the introduction. Use paragraphs to
structure the introduction. Use subheadings if necessary.
This template follows the Lapland UAS thesis report guidelines. Mark the first
pages, settings, page numbering, headings, table of contents, spacings,
references and appendices in the same way as in this template.
8
2
BODY OF THE THESIS
2.1 Structure of the Body
The body of the thesis is structured according to the topic, objective and method
used. Explain things coherently and in logical order. Use headings, subheadings,
etc., to structure the content. Mention sources of information clearly according to
the guidelines given below.
Divide the content into chapters, subchapters and paragraphs. Begin each
chapter on a new page. Add a forced page break if necessary. Use subchapters
only if there are more than one. Numbered chapters and subchapters should
contain at least two paragraphs. Plan the text so that three levels of headings
suffice. A subchapter comes immediately after the main chapter.
Divide the text into paragraphs according to the content. As a rule of thumb, begin
a new paragraph whenever you advance to a new matter or a new phase in the
discussion. Overly long paragraphs make for heavy reading and overly short
paragraphs splinter the text.
In paragraphs use normal style (style: Thesis normal style): font Arial 12 pt,
spacing 0 before, 12 after, line spacing 1,5. Align the text to both margins. Do not
use automatic hyphenation. The page margins are top 2 cm, bottom 2 cm, left 4
cm, right 2 cm. The header and footer are 1,25 cm.
2.2 Headings and Page Numbers
Headings should be short, concise and descriptive. They should not contain too
much information. The reader should see in the table of contents what the thesis
handles and how it proceeds. List headings and subheadings in the table of
contents as shown in this template. Use the style Heading 1 for main chapters
and Heading 2 and Heading 3 for subchapters.
Begin page numbering from the cover sheet and show page numbers beginning
with the Foreword page. The page number is centred in the header. If your thesis
does not have a Foreword page or a Symbols and Abbreviations page, show
page numbers beginning with the Introduction page. Also number the pages of
9
appendices. The total number of pages in the thesis and the number of pages of
appendices are marked in the abstract. If the thesis includes other appendices,
they should be mentioned in the abstract and in the list of appendices.
The table of contents is placed after the abstract. Use the header CONTENTS.
The table of contents is created automatically with the word processing
programme. This ensures that the headings in the table of contents and the report
are the same and the page numbers are correct. When using MS Word, the table
of contents is created from template. Use Arial 12 in the table of contents.
2.3 Images, Figures, Tables and Formulas
Images, figures, tables and formulas have to be explained in the text. Tables are
numbered consecutively and given a heading in captions above the table (Table
1), the captions for images or figures are placed below them. If some source has
been used for the table or figure, a textual reference has to be added after the
caption heading. Refer to each table, image and figure at least once in the report
like this (Figure 1).
The titles of images, figures and tables should be informative and provide the
reader with information that is essential from the standpoint of the content. The
format and structure of images, figures and tables should be considered carefully
so that they truly convey detailed, illustrative information that is essential to the
thesis.
Table 1. Number of Days in Each Month (possible reference)
Month
January
February
March
April
May
June
Days
31
28
31
30
31
30
Month
July
August
September
October
November
December
Days
31
31
30
31
30
31
A main or subchapter cannot be begun with a figure or table. There must always
be text first after the chapter heading. Also, there must always be text between
the figures and tables.
10
Figure 1. MOS Transistor (possible reference)
Formulas are numbered in consecutive order.
𝑉̇ = 𝐶 ∗ ∆𝑃𝑛
where
𝑉̇
𝐶
∆𝑃
is
is
is
𝑛
is
the volume flow of air [m3/h]
the flow coefficient [m3/(h*Pa)n ]
the pressure difference between the inside and outside
of the building [Pa]
the exponent, which depends on the type of flow
(laminar 0.5–turbulent 1.0).
(1)
11
3
DISCUSSION
The thesis ends with a discussion. It includes a summary of the key contents of
the thesis and assesses how the goals had been reached. The discussion may
start with conclusions. It includes general discussion on the topic, researchethical consideration, evaluation of the thesis project, your own learning
experiences and the usability of the thesis. You also assess the reliability of the
research, correlation between theory and practice, ethicalness and new topics for
further research and development. No new matters are presented.
Before the Discussion chapter you can write a separate chapter in which you
draw conclusions about the results. The heading of such a chapter is
Conclusions.
12
4
REFERENCE NOTATION
4.1 Textual References
Mentioning sources of information used in the thesis project adds to the reliability
of the text. Sources are mentioned as references within the text and in a
bibliography at the end of the text. Sources should be as current as possible. It is
preferable to refer to the sources in your own words rather than through direct
quotes. There should be dialogue between the author and the sources.
In principle, references should indicate to the reader whose data or thoughts you
are borrowing, where this information can be verified and how you are connecting
information from various sources to each other and to your own discussion. Avoid
using direct quotes. If a quote is necessary, the text should be indented 1 cm. If
the quote is inside a sentence, use quotation marks. The textual reference is
marked immediately after the quote.
In textual references the reference information is placed in parentheses. Note
that the reference only affects the current paragraph. Therefore, each paragraph
must contain its own reference, even though the same source is used in several
consecutive paragraphs.
A textual reference contains
 the last name(s) of the author(s)
 the year of publication and
 the page(s) referred to.
The reference method is the same regardless of whether you are referring to a
book, an article in a periodical, a thesis, an interview, an Internet page or a
presentation. The last name is followed by the year without any punctuation; a
comma separates the page number(s) from the year. In the following most typical
textual references are presented.
13
Basic textual reference
If there is one author, the reference contains the author’s last name, the date of
publication and the page numbers. For several different pages in the same
publication, give the page numbers as a range or separated by commas: If you
are citing information from more than one page, separate consecutive page
numbers with a hyphen (–). Do not precede or follow the hyphen with any spaces.
(Harrison 2008, 43) or
(Harrison 2008, 34–55, 68), if you refer to several pages.
If you use several sources written by the same author during the same year,
differentiate between them by marking a, b or c, etc. after the year according to
the alphabetical order of the titles of the sources:
(Grönroos 2007b, 63)
If a reference refers to one author’s publications from different years, write them
as follows:
(Getz 2003, 100–105; 2007, 23; 2012, 33–45)
If there are two authors, write them both in the reference, regardless of whether
you are referring to them the first or second time. Separate the last names with
an ampersand (&), preceded and followed by a space:
(Welling & Thomson 2008, 96)
If there are three to five authors, write all the last names the first time you refer
to the source:
(Krause, Wasynczuk & Sudhoff 2002, 267–269)
In subsequent references write only the first author’s last name and the
abbreviation et al. If there are six or more authors, this notation can be used
even the first time you refer to the source.
(Jackson et al. 2008, 56)
14
If the author is not given for a publication used as a source, give the name of
the publication, the year and the page number(s):
(Alcohol Issues in Licensed Premises 2014)
If the text contains references to several sources, as a rule the textual references
can be marked in chronological order. The text should clearly indicate which piece
of information comes from which source. The sources are separated by a
semicolon.
(Vilkka 2006, 224; Hirsjärvi, Remes & Sajavaara 2013, 21)
Laws and statutes
References to laws and statutes mention the name, number, year, chapter, article
and clause. The clause is mentioned if the article contains more than one clause.
The chapter and article are separated by a colon and the article and clause are
separated by a period.
(Structural Fund Act 272/2010 5:12.3 §).
Digital sources
A reference to a WWW page mentions the author of the text and the publication
year. If the author of the electronic publication is unknown, the name of the
publication is mentioned. For example, this applies to pdf publications. If the
author is not known, the reference mentions the organization responsible for the
website. Page numbers are given only if they are visible on the webpage. A
reference to an electronic book, newspaper or magazine is the same as for a
corresponding printed publication.
A reference to an electronic publication whose authors are known:
(Murdoch 2014)
(Konola & Kähkönen 2015)
A reference to an electronic publication whose authors are not known:
(Alcohol Issues in Licensed Premises 2014, 5)
15
(Official Statistics of Finland (OSF): Accommodation Statistics 2015)
A reference to the organisation responsible for the website when the authors are
not known:
(Lapland UAS 2015)
Refer to an ebook like to a printed book:
(Helman 2011, 33–42)
A reference to an email message mentions the last name of the sender and the
year.
(Stevenson 2014)
Verbal sources
For interviews, discussions and lectures, mention the person’s last name and the
year.
(Viljanen 2011)
Placing the period
If the reference refers to information within just one sentence, mark the
reference within the sentence and place the period of the sentence after the final
parenthesis of the reference:
When using interviews as a method of collecting data, several aspects need
to be considered including the personality of the interviewer, time control,
the location of the interview as well as the techniques of data collection and
analysis (Swetnam 2004, 64–66).
Several separate references may be placed within one sentence. Place the
reference immediately after the information it refers to (Swales & Feak 2004,
199):
The questionnaire was based on the Italian version (Genta et al. 1996) of
the original questionnaire developed by Olweus (1993) for the Scandinavian
population, subsequently translated and validated in English by Smith and
his colleagues (Whitney & Smith 1993; Smith & Sharp 1994).
16
If the reference refers to more than one sentence, the initial parenthesis is
preceded by a period. Also place a period inside the parentheses. The reference
can refer to more than one source. In such a case place all the sources within the
same parentheses and separate them with a semicolon. Such references may be
in chronological order, alphabetical order or order of importance. Remember to
use the same order strategy throughout the thesis when giving several sources
within one reference.
Using active verbs is essential if you want to write with a direct authoritative
style. Instead of using the impersonal passive verbs and third person
viewpoint, you should write with strong, active verbs. (Peräkylä 1997, 177.)
Using active verbs is the first rule of good writing. All authorities on good
writing, including scientific and technical bodies, recommend active verbs
rather than passive verbs. Why? Passive verbs are longwinded, ambiguous
and dull. Active verbs make your writing simpler, less awkward, clearer and
more precise. (Drew & Heritage 1992, 24–28; Komter 1995, 107–126;
Nuolijärvi 1994, 52; Peräkylä 1997, 178–179.)
Secondary source
You should always use primary, original sources. However, it is sometimes
justifiable to use a secondary source. Both the original and the secondary source
are marked in the bibliography. According to Hirsjärvi et al. (2007, 335–340), the
textual reference to the original source in the secondary source may be marked
as follows:
According to Uusikylä (1994, 132) Callahan (1990) defines – –.
(Vuorinen 1991, as cited in Silvonen 1992, 150)
In the following example, Poikelas’ article is a secondary source that discuses
Kolb’s original work:
According to Poikela and Poikela (2010, 25), Kolb (1984) attempts to
integrate work, education and personal growth into a holistic perception of
learning.
17
4.2
Bibliography
The purpose of the bibliography is to guide the reader to the source of original
information. All sources mentioned in the text are listed in alphabetical order in
the list of references. Sources are listed primarily according to the authors’ last
names. If the author is not mentioned, the source is listed according to the name
of the publication. If the name is not known, the source is listed according to the
publisher. Sometimes (rarely) the author is marked as Unknown.
If an author has several publications they are mentioned in chronological order
according to the year of publication. If the author has several publications during
the same year they are separated from each other by adding a, b, c, etc., after
the year.
The increase in digital text material has led to an increase in plagiarising. The
same rules that are applied when using and referring to printed material also
apply to material found on the Internet. It is preferable to refer to both electronic
and printed material in your own words rather than through direct quotes (Hirsjärvi
et al. 2009, 106–107). Plagiarising results in sanctions. Lapland UAS has
software that identifies plagiarised texts.
References are headed in the text and the table of contents as follows:
BIBLIOGRAPHY. The heading is not numbered.
In the following guidelines, sources are grouped by type to facilitate finding the
right model. In the thesis, sources are listed in alphabetical order without
subheadings.
Books
Greetham, B. 2009. How to Write Your Undergraduate Dissertation.
Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
If a source has several authors, all their names are mentioned. Their names are
separated by commas; the last two names are separated by an & symbol.
Malmfors, B., Garnsworthy, P. & Grossman, M. 2003. Writing and Presenting
Scientific Papers. Nottingham: Nottingham University Press.
18
An article in a compilation as a source
Drew, P. & Heritage, J. 1992. Analyzing Talk at Work: An Introduction. In P.
Drew & J. Heritage (ed.) Talk at Work. Interaction in institutional Settings.
Studies in Interactional Sociolinguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press, 3–65.
Serial publications, reports, committee reports
Health Care in Finland 2004. Brochures of the Ministry of Social Affairs and
Health 2004:11.
Rautiainen, M., Vanhanen-Nuutinen, L. & Virta, A. 2014. Democracy and
Human Rights. Objectives and Content in Teacher Education. Reports of the
Ministry of Education and Culture, Finland 2014:18.
Working Group’s Report on Setting up a Register for Legal Interpreters 2014.
Reports of the Ministry of Education and Culture, Finland 2014:22.
Scientific article (journal article)
Coulter, K. S. & Coulter, R. A. 2002. Determinants of Trust in a Service
Provider: the Moderating Role of Length of Relationship. The Journal of Service
Marketing Vol. 16 No 1, 35–50.
Uusitalo-Malmivaara, L., Kankaanpää, P., Mäkinen, T., Raeluoto, T., Rauttu, K.,
Tarhala, V. & Lehto, J. E. 2012. Are Special Education Students Happy?
Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research 56, 419–437.
Worthington, B. 2003. Change in an Estonian Resort. Contrasting Development
Contexts. Annals of Tourism Research Vol. 30. No 2, 369–385. Accessed 8
April 2015 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0160-7383(02)00105-6.
The example above used the doi.org alphanumeric string which provides a
persistent link to its location on the Internet. (DOI = Digital Object Identifier). The
DOI is typically located on the first page of the electronic journal article, near the
copyright notice. The DOI can also be found on the database landing page for
the article.
Theses
García-Rosell, J. C. 2009. A Multi-stakeholder Perspective on Sustainable
Marketing: Studying Business-Society Relations Through Action Research.
University of Oulu. Faculty of Economics and Business Administration.
Licentiate thesis.
19
Newspaper and magazine articles
Smith, R. 2014. Just Press Print. As Epoch-making as Gutenberg’s Printing
Press, 3-D Printing Is Changing the Shape of the Future. National Geographic.
December 2014.
Jayalath, C., Stephen, J. & Eugster, P. 2014. Universal Cross-Cloud
Communication. IEEE, Volume 2. 103–116.
Delaney, K. J., Karnitschnig, M. & Guth, R. A. Microsoft Ends Pursuit of Yahoo,
Reassesses Its Online Option. The Wall Street Journal 5 May 2008, 12.
Laws and statutes
Structural Fund Act 29.12.2006/1401.
Internet sources
According to the author if the author is known:
Murdoch, S.J. 2014. Online Payment Methods. Accessed 18 October 2014
http://www.cl.cam.ac.uk/~sjm217/talks/ucl14onlinepayment.pdf.
Konola, S. & Kähkönen, P. 2015. Arctic Wears – Perspectives on Arctic
Clothing. Rovaniemi: Lapland University of Applied Sciences. Liiketoiminta ja
yrittäjyys 10/2015. Accessed 3 December 2015
https://publications.theseus.fi/handle/10024/96820.
Helman, K. 2011. Project Management Jumpstart. 3rd edition. Hoboken, N.J.
Wiley Publishing Inc. Ebook. Accessed 8 January 2016
https://luc.finna.fi/lapinamk/, Ebrary.
According to the name of the publication if no author is mentioned:
Alcohol Issues in Licensed Premises 2014. Guidelines 6/2014. Valvira. National
Supervisory Authority for Welfare and Health. Accessed 20 December 2015
http://www.valvira.fi/documents/18508/84401/Alcohol_Issues_in_Licensed_Pre
mises.pdf.
Official Statistics of Finland (OSF): Accommodation Statistics 2015. Helsinki:
Statistics Finland. Accessed 3 December 2015
http://www.stat.fi/til/matk/index_en.html.
According to the organisation responsible for the website:
Lapland UAS 2015. Arctic Power. Accessed 3 December 2015
http://www.lapinamk.fi/en/Employers/Development-enviroments/Arctic-Power.
20
Email messages
For email messages, mention the sender’s last name and first initial as well as
the year, subject, recipient and date of the email and the date it was printed out.
Stevenson, A. 2014. About Thesis Presentation. Email
[email protected] 11 April 2014. Printed out 15 April 2014.
Verbal sources
For interviews, discussions and lectures, mention the person’s last name and first
initial
as
well
as
the
year,
organisation,
title/rank/position,
interview/discussion/lecture, title of lecture and the date.
Viljanen, S. 2011. Digital Equipment Corporation Oy. Production Manager’s
interview 12 April 2011.
DVD or video recordings
Frozen Planet: The Complete Series. 2012. DVD. BBC Home Entertainment.
Ruudun hurma 1996. Video recording. Ed. Ritva Leino. Yle’s Open University.
TV1. Educational programmes.
Films
Christmas Story 2007. Film. Director: Juha Wuolijoki. Producer: Snapper Films
Oy.
Own works
Munapään tarina 2005. Animation. Director: Tero Mäkelä. Producer: KemiTornio University of Applied Sciences, Tornio.
21
BIBLIOGRAPHY
This is a model bibliography. It also includes useful literature for thesis writing.
The model bibliography uses spacing (before 0 pt, after 12 pt, line spacing 1),
which comes automatically when pressing Enter/Return at the end of the
reference. No extra empty line is needed between the references.
Christmas Story 2007. Film. Director: Juha Wuolijoki. Producer: Snapper Films
Oy.
Coulter, K. S. & Coulter, R. A. 2002. Determinants of Trust in a Service
Provider: the Moderating Role of Length of Relationship. The Journal of Service
Marketing Vol. 16 No 1, 35–50.
Creedy, J. 2008. Research Without Tears: From the First Ideas to Published
Output. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publications.
Delaney, K. J., Karnitschnig, M. & Guth, R. A. Microsoft Ends Pursuit of Yahoo,
Reassesses Its Online Option. The Wall Street Journal 5 May 2008, 12.
Drew, P. & Heritage, J. 1992. Analyzing Talk at Work: An Introduction. In P.
Drew & J. Heritage (ed.) Talk at Work. Interaction in Institutional Settings.
Studies in Interactional Sociolinguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press, 3–65.
García-Rosell, J. C. 2009. A Multi-stakeholder Perspective on Sustainable
Marketing: Studying Business-society Relations Through Action Research.
University of Oulu: Faculty of Economics and Business Administration.
Licentiate thesis.
Greetham, B. 2009. How to Write Your Undergraduate Dissertation.
Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Grönroos, C. 2007a. Service Management and Marketing: Customer
Management in Service Competition. 3rd edition. Chichester: Wiley.
– 2007b. In Search of a New Logic for Marketing: The Foundation of
Contemporary Marketing Theory. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons Inc.
Hakala, J. T. 2000. Creative Thesis Writing: A Guide to Development and
Research Work. Helsinki: Gaudeamus.
Health Care in Finland 2004. Brochures of the Ministry of Social Affairs and
Health 2004:11.
Helman, K. 2011. Project Management Jumpstart. 3rd edition. Hoboken, N.J.
Wiley Publishing Inc. Ebook. Accessed 8 January 2016
https://luc.finna.fi/lapinamk/, Ebrary.
22
Jayalath, C., Stephen, J. & Eugster, P. 2014. Universal Cross-Cloud
Communication. IEEE, Volume 2. 103–116.
Konola, S. & Kähkönen, P. 2015. Arctic Wears – Perspectives on Arctic
Clothing. Rovaniemi: Lapland University of Applied Sciences. Liiketoiminta ja
yrittäjyys 10/2015. Accessed 3 December 2015
https://publications.theseus.fi/handle/10024/96820.
Lapland UAS 2015. Arctic Power. Accessed 3 December 2015
http://www.lapinamk.fi/en/Employers/Development-enviroments/Arctic-Power.
Malmfors, B., Garnsworthy, P. & Grossman, M. 2003. Writing and Presenting
Scientific Papers. Nottingham: Nottingham University Press.
McCormack, J. & Slaght, J. 2005. English for Academic Study: Skills for
Extended Writing and Academic Study. Reading: Garnet Education.
Munapään tarina 2005. Animation. Director: Tero Mäkelä. Producer: KemiTornio University of Applied Sciences, Tornio.
Rautiainen, M., Vanhanen-Nuutinen, L. & Virta, A. 2014. Democracy and
Human Rights. Objectives and Content in Teacher Education. Reports of the
Ministry of Education and Culture, Finland 2014:18.
Ruudun hurma 1996. Video recording. Ed. Ritva Leino. Yle’s Open University.
TV1. Educational programmes.
Smith, R. 2014. Just Press Print. As Epoch-making as Gutenberg’s Printing
Press, 3-D Printing Is Changing the Shape of the Future. National Geographic.
December 2014
Stevenson, A. 2014. About Thesis Presentation. Email [email protected]
lapinamk.fi 11 April 2014. Printed out 15 April 2014.
Structural Fund Act 29.12.2006/1401.
Swales, J. M. & Feak, C. B. 2004. Academic Writing for Graduate Students:
Essential Tasks and Skills. 2nd edition. Michigan: The University of Michigan
Press.
Uusitalo-Malmivaara, L., Kankaanpää, P., Mäkinen, T., Raeluoto, T., Rauttu, K.,
Tarhala, V. & Lehto, J. E. 2012. Are Special Education Students Happy?
Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research 56, 419–437.
Viljanen, S. 2011. Digital Equipment Corporation Oy. Production Manager’s
interview 12 April 2011.
Working Group’s Report on Setting up a Register for Legal Interpreters 2014.
Reports of the Ministry of Education and Culture, Finland 2014:22.
23
Worthington, B. 2003. Change in an Estonian Resort. Contrasting Development
Contexts. Annals of Tourism Research Vol. 30. No 2, 369–385. Accessed 8
April 2015 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0160-7383(02)00105-6.
Wyse, D. 2007. The Good Writing Guide for Education Students. 2nd edition.
London: Sage.
24
APPENDICES
Compile a list of appendices on a separate page before the actual appendix
pages. The heading is not numbered and appears in the table of contents and
text as follows: APPENDICES. List the headings of the appendices in the order
they appear according to the following model:
Appendix 1.
Aalto, Internet address
Appendix 2.
Aalto, Photo
Appendix 3.
Aalto, Experiment 1
Appendix 4.
Aalto, Experiment 2
Appendices present information that you feel is important but does not fit entirely
in the text, such as manuscripts, photos, paintings, interview questions, drawings,
programme lists, multipage tables and figures and odd-sized graphical
presentations. Appendices must always be commented on in the text. Do not use
any appendices that are not referred to in the text. The appendices themselves
must contain all the information needed to interpret them: a heading and an
explanation of the photo or table. It is not necessary to use the thesis layout in
the appendices.
If an appendix consists of more than one page, mark the page of the appendix
and the total number of pages as follows: Appendix 1 1(3); mark the next page:
Appendix 1 2(3); etc.
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