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IRJET-Literature Survey on Voice Equalization and Amplification for Effective Audio in the Cellular Conference Call

International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET)
e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 06 Issue: 02 | Feb 2019
p-ISSN: 2395-0072
Literature Survey on Voice Equalization and Amplification for Effective
Audio in the Cellular Conference Call
S. Sushmitha Sree1, G. Sandhiya2, S. Roja3, T. Prabhu4
Scholar, Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, SNS College of Technology,
Tamil Nadu, India
4Assistant Professor, Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, SNS College of
Technology, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract - Throughout the world, phone conferencing
coordinated communication techniques, where coordination
is carried out at both the network side and mobile station
(MS) aspect, and advanced air-interface techniques with the
potential to mitigate ICI such as orthogonal frequency and
code division multiplexing (OFCDM), low-density signature
(LDS) spreading and sparse code multiple access (SCMA).
Moreover, recent advances in interference alignment (IA)
also are mentioned. Mobile networks these days area unit
divided into multiple radio access technologies (RATs)
scattered over a spread of frequencies and practicality
looking on the network region. The scattered networks need
that the digital baseband for mobile user instrumentality
handle multiple RATs, multiple bands, as well as seamlessly
transition between these. In 3GPP release the problem with
scattered frequency bands has been addressed by the
possibility to aggregate spectrum from two separated
carriers to create a wider aggregated total bandwidth. Which
carriers to combine depend on the spectrum available to the
specific operator. In this paper AN experimental
performance analysis of the second, third and fourth
generation of public mobile networks is given. The voice and
data services are tested and quality of service parameters is
considered in the analysis. Measurements are performed in
indoor environment and real microcell of the specific radio
technology is analyzed.
remains as the most mainstream conferencing innovation
today. Sound quality is critical to each telephone and mobile
phones, anyway it's the part of phone calls that seems to cause
main problem as a restriction. A protocol is expected to
guarantee that most of versatile supporters locate an inactive
access channel when wanted and, further, to limit the quantity
of distorted administration demands (crashes) because of
synchronous access-channel. Also, the best approach to the
channel is that, all phone calls should be resolved in different
strategies to gain the voice quality.
Key Words: Inter cell interference (ICI), Code division
multiplexing, Spectrum aggregation, Local delay, Capacity
With the unrelenting demand for high bandwidth and high
spectrum efficiency, inter cell interference (ICI) becomes
more and more serious and ICI management plays an
increasingly important role in mobile cellular networks. This
paper overviews the most ICI management schemes used
within the 2d generation (2G) to the fourth generation (4G)
mobile communication systems, like the essential frequency
reuse-n theme and power control for 2G and 3G, and
enhanced schemes like fractional frequency reuse (FFR),
almost blank sub frame (ABS) and coordinated multipoint
transmission (CoMP) in 4G.
In Lingyu Chen et al.[1], the effect of spectrum aggregation,
client and base station densities, traffic session payload and
primary traffic dynamics on the capacity delay trade off
relationships are investigated.This system demonstrates the
feasibility of providing secondary communication services
over cellular systems. Initially, the queueing procedures of
clients are thought to be autonomous and homogeneous.
This assumption is reasonable because in the macro scale
time-scale, clients are expected to have independent mobility
traces; while in the micro scale time-scale, clients are
permitted to hop randomly between autonomous groups.
The composite impacts of irregular mobility and band
selection renders the queueing procedure of a client to be
autonomous from others in the long term. For this situation,
we can consider a typical user with a typical queueing
process, at a typical location and related with a typical BS. A
normal client can be understood as an arbitrary client or a
Fig -1: Block diagram
These existing ICI management schemes might not be
powerful enough for 5G, which is confront with extremely
serious ICI given its ultra dense network (UDN) topology.
Therefore, promising advanced ICI management schemes
area unit introduced for 5G to manage IC, such as advanced
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International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET)
e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 06 Issue: 02 | Feb 2019
p-ISSN: 2395-0072
randomly chosen client. A probability space would then be
characterized for the typical client for its status. The second
assumption is that all BSs always transmit with power
Pn.This assumption decouples the interference statistics
with client behaviour and represents the worst case
interfering scenario. It is reasonable because the combined
load of primary and traffic is probably to keep BSs occupied.
generation (5G and beyond) cellular networks has been
exploited and it requires minimal operation from agents (i.e.,
mobile users). This paper provides solution to the following
:1) how many BSs should be ordered and reported by the
agent to achieve desirable localization accuracy? and 2) what
is the localization error probability given that the pilot
signals are subject to shadowing? The solution is obtained by
characterizing the trade-off between the area of location
region and the localization error probability in terms of the
number of BSs ordered by the agent. It considers a single-tier
cellular network with BSs that are spatially distributed. The
localization is based upon the order of the BSs according to
their pilot signal strength. The pilot signals are periodically
broadcast from all BSs via omni directional antennas at an
unified power level of P Watts. If the pilots’ power order
received at the agent does not match the true order of the
BSs, then BoLT will report an LR that does not contain the
agent location. This event can occur if the shadowing is
strong enough to attenuate the pilot power received from a
closer BS below that from a farther BS.
In Siddhartan et al.[2], it utilizes a user centric cooperative
cell network, utilizing a linear minimum mean square error
receiver. For the same number, co-operating antennas, if the
system is constrained by area density of antennas, then the
number of co-operating BSs should be expanded with less
antennas per BS. Accuracy of the outcomes are reached with
the expansion in the number of antennas. Analyzing the
uplink of co-operative BS systems that is complicated by the
way that the signals from a given mobile experience
distinctive path losses to the arrays of the coordinating BS.
In W.Nie et al.[3],we take into account baccalaureate
cooperation within the downlink HetNets wherever BSs
from totally different tiers at intervals the individual
cooperative clusters put together transmit constant
knowledge to a typical user, and in particular specialise in
the improvement of the energy potency performance. A
multi-tier HetNet is significantly more energy-saving
compared to a macro-only network. Energy efficiency
increases as the macro tier mean cooperative radius
decreases. This can be explained as follows: Compared with
the positive impact on energy efficiency that more macro BSs
will improve spectral efficiency, the negative impact on
energy efficiency that more macro BSs will increase power
consumption become more significant.
In Saba Al et al.[6], new handoff schemes are to reduce the
interruption time that occurs during re-connection of an
arriving mobile user moving from macro cell to small cell or
from small cell to macro cell domains. A new call admission
control (CAC) function is developed to adjust thresholds
during the handoff request signalling. To perform the
handoff operation, Markov chain technique is used to
analyse the call blocking probability characteristic and
subsequently to decide handoff approval for various
subscriber requests. The CAC evaluates the resource
availability at the UE original cell and the probability for
interruption while waiting for re-connection at the
destination cell. Typically, we rely on the macro cell as the
main anchor that connects all UEs while small cells are the
supplementary service providers. But this Markov chain
model considers all transition states that predict valid
handoff requests and activate the blocking probability for
others without distinguishing cell type. The call admission
control solutions specified guaranteed a low call blocking
probability for various data traffic considering nonstandalone 5G ultra-dense network overlaid small cells.
In Z. Gong et al.[4], the local delay results to poisson
networks with finite mobility as mobility reduces the local
delay. Fast mobility has been shown to reduce the local delay
in Poisson networks since the mobility of the interferers
decreases the spatio-temporal correlation of the interference
and outage, and mobility from the desired transmitter
induces spatial diversity during transmission. The uniform
and normal mobility models as specific examples lead to
quantitively different local delay, even if the mean speeds of
the nodes under two models are at an identical level. The
range of network parameters under which a finite local delay
can be achieved has also been derived under different
mobility models and transmission schemes. It is critical that
the network parameters are chosen properly to keep the
local delay finite so that the network service can be useful.
Furthermore, the frequency with which the nodes make
significant changes in locations affects the local delay
performance. The more frequently the nodes change their
location, the fewer attempts a transmitter needs for packet
In Yanfeng Wang etal.[7], Generally communication system
encourages high-efficiency transmission of popular or live
video in extensive zone, and keeping in mind that, cell
network tends to provide personalized and limited services
with a unicast/multicast model. The communication like
theme develops in 5G to purpose the intense interest for
data measure. Be that as it may, it needs high planning worth
and forces a great deal of impedance on unicast/multicast
model. It considers a helpful structure of a cell system and
broadcasting system utilizing cloud radio access network(CRAN). So as to enhance the robustness of the hybrid
network, DRC is utilized to give connection among
broadcasters and users. To give greater flexibility to
supporter by expanding the confinement on the time of the
downlink PLP-R, three elective periods are exhibited. The
In Elsawy.H et al.[5], the base station ordering localization
technique (BoLT) for emergency call localization in cellular
networks. The foreseen ultra-densification of the next-
© 2019, IRJET
Impact Factor value: 7.211
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International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET)
e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 06 Issue: 02 | Feb 2019
p-ISSN: 2395-0072
access delay increases gradually with the request arrival rate
on account of low access rate. In any case, the normal access
delay increases slowly with the time of downlink PLP-R.
Hence, DRC can be exploited to give complementary
interactive service, which cuts the high cost for deploying
small coverage cellular towers in remote zone.
activities (i.e., the entry time and the length of PUs' activities
in a period slot).5G is imagined to address the constraints of
conventional cell systems (i.e., low system limit, high flagging
overhead, inefficient information sending, and low
adaptability) and to understand the characteristics of next
generation network scenarios(i.e., heterogeneity and high
In Hong Liang Zhang et al.[8], the heap adjusting approach
is utilized to address the spatial-temporal fluctuation issue of
mobile data traffic for cell networks. It considers an
orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA)
ultra-dense small cell network, where Device to-Device
(D2D) communication, pushed to encourage stack adjusting
without additional range. Specifically, the information traffic
are often effectively offloaded from an engorged small cell to
various underutilized minor cells by D2D communication.
Though the number of active users increases, the total sum
rate remains the same. It very well may be additionally seen
that the system sum rate is obtained by the I-RA-DR
calculation, is constantly higher than that using the greedy
algorithm. This is because the greedy algorithm only
considers the interference and the target data rate is not
boosted. The D2D load balancing issue was explained by an
iterative technique, where resource allocation and D2D
routing sub problems were optimized iteratively.
By the perception, produced using the papers examined, it is
made distinctive that the successful transmission of signals
from the client to the recipient is hindered by numerous
phenomena, yet additionally different plans and systems
been embraced to convey better outcomes at the receiver.
This study on correspondence between the source and the
receiver helped to understand the signal transmission in a
better manner paving the way for the discovery of various
other techniques to lower the signal lost and signal
degradation in the channel while communicating. By the
perception, produced using the papers examined, it is made
distinctive that the successful transmission of signals from
the client to the recipient is hindered by numerous
phenomena, yet additionally different plans and systems
been embraced to convey better outcomes at the receiver.
In Felipe Gomez-Cuba et al.[9], It decides the capacity
scaling of extensive cell networks as a component of
bandwidth, territory, number of antennas, and base station
density. It is discovered that the system ability fuses a
fundamental data measure scaling limit, on the far side that
the system becomes power limited. Different protocols can
encounter protocol specific suboptimal variations into
power-restricted conduct sooner than (for example:
bandwidth scaling exponent lower than) the change
experienced by the capacity scaling. Current cell frameworks
operate in the network bandwidth limited type –I regime,
where it predicts that including RNs that brings little
addition standpoint and may even diminish rate scaling.
The future work would promote efficient communication
between the users whether on voice or video accompanied
with two or many users. The enormous improvement in the
information transaction between the primary users would
take the lead to the secondary and tertiary users and so on
In Kok-Lim Alvin et al.[10],Fifth generation (5G) cell
organizing, alongside its striking operational qualities—
including the cognitive and co-operative capabilities,
network virtualization, and traffic offload—can deliver these
constraints to take into account for future situations
portrayed by incredibly heterogeneous, ultra-thick and
highly variable conditions. In addition to the conventional
direct message transfer between a hub and the base station
of a large scale cell or a little cell, device to- device (D2D)
correspondence, it empowers coordinate message transfer
between a couple of neighbouring hubs in an adhoc manner
without experiencing through a base station. Channel quality
is clearly explained using hidden Markov model that
depends on channel measurable data, including the
identification likelihood, false alert probability and channel
idle duration. The fundamental target is to evaluate the
probability of a direct switch in a schedule vacancy
dependent on the estimation on the nearness of PUs'
© 2019, IRJET
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Volume: 06 Issue: 02 | Feb 2019
p-ISSN: 2395-0072
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