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Module 5 Teacher Answers

Module 5: Topic 1
1. Why do you think more crashes occur at intersections?
2. One in every 3 fatal crashes occur at intersections:
a. Drivers fail to search and identify a safe path of travel when approaching an intersection.
b. Drivers don’t identify or understand the risks.
c. Drivers fail to develop good driving habits to effectively manage the risks.
3. What do these intersection-warning signs mean?
a. 4 way Intersection b. T- Intersection
c. Y-Intersection
d. Roundabout e. Railroad Crossing
4. Approaching an intersection:
a. Search all corners; make sure you are in the proper lane.
b. If restriction to line of sight, change position and reduce speed.
c. Check mirrors.
d. Adjust speed.
e. Look to the front, left and right.
f. Check traffic and count to 3 before moving.
g. Continue if traffic light is green or intersection is clear.
h. Do not block intersections.
Stopping at Intersections:
May have to stop if there is a yellow or red light, stop sign, yield sign or something in your path of travel.
Begin braking.
If there is someone following close behind, tap your brake pedal a few times to let them know the front car is
6. Where to stop at intersections:
a. Crosswalk
If there is a crosswalk, the vehicle with a bumper or vehicle with
wheels must stop with the front bumper or front wheels behind
the nearest crosswalk line. Drivers must yield to pedestrians
entering or in a crosswalk.
b. Stop Line
White line found at most intersections. Sometimes there is a
crosswalk and a stop line. Should there be a stop line and a
crosswalk line, the stop line must be obeyed first.
c. Sidewalk
On streets that have sidewalks, but no painted crosswalks,
remember that the crosswalks are still considered to be there even
though there are no pavement markings. Handle these situations the
same way as a painted crosswalk. If a driver is leaving a driveway,
alley, or building area such as a gas station or parking lot, the driver
must stop even if there is not a stop sign before entering the public
d. Curb Line
If there are no identifying pavement markings and the sign or
traffic control device says stop, then the stop must be made with the
front bumper or front wheel behind an imaginary curb line, which
stretches from curb to curb closest to the driver.
7. Controlled Intersections:
a. Intersection flow is regulated by STOP signs, YIELD signs or traffic SIGNALS
8. Right of Way Laws:
a. Right-of-Way is not a right or privilege – it must be given!
b. Right-of-Way is determined by a set of rules
c. Drivers must understand right-of-way rules governing:
• Intersections
• Merges
• Special conditions
9. Uncontrolled Intersections: There are No Signs or Traffic Lights Traffic Light is Malfunctioning:
a. The first vehicle that arrives at the intersection may proceed first if the other yields right of way
b. If two vehicles arrive at the same time, the driver on the left must yield to the driver on the right
10. How do you use SEEiT at an intersection?
SEARCH: When you can see the intersection, begin SEARCHING for the:
a. Type of intersection
b. Intersection controls
c. Risks or problems in your intended path of travel
d. Also monitor the areas to the rear
EVALUATE: How will you handle the potential risks:
a. Traffic Controls
b. No traffic controls
c. Open, closed or changing path of travel
d. Cross traffic
a. If proceeding straight across a 30-feet wide, 2-lane roadway from a stop, you need a 4-second gap.
b. If turning right and blending into the traffic flow, you need a 6-second gap.
c. If turning left and blending into the flow of traffic, you need an 8- second gap.
11. Select the best lane at least a block ahead:
a. Center lane(s) – safest when traveling straight through
b. Right lane is used when turning right. Cross traffic, turning right on red will enter this lane
c. Left lane is used to turn left - yield to oncoming traffic
12. How to turn at an intersection:
a. Check mirrors for presence and actions of following traffic.
b. Signal intent to turn at the intersection 3 to 4 seconds in advance or 100 feet before the turn.
c. Position the vehicle for appropriate turn.
d. Steer into proper lane. (push/pull/slide steering).
e. Tap brake pedal to alert following driver.
f. Adjust speed as necessary, stopping if required.
g. Recheck cross and oncoming traffic. Remember that 90 % of drivers do not stop for stop signs in
residential area
13. Right Turn Risks:
a. Right-of-way rules not followed
b. Failure to signal
c. Failure to search intersections
d. Failure to stop on red before turning right
e. Turning too wide and crossing into adjacent lane
14. In this diagram, a right turn should be made from 2 into lane 3.
15. Why do you think a left turn is more dangerous than a right turn?
a. Crossing multiple lanes
b. Vehicle is in the intersection longer
16. Making a Left Turn:
a. Determine if you have a safe path of travel through the intersection.
b. Be prepared to stop or yield.
17. In this diagram, a left turn should be made from lane 1 into lane 3:
18. Protected Left Turn:
a. Vehicles turning left have a green arrow.
b. All other traffic has a red light.
c. Red Arrow – Stop - no left turns
d. Solid Yellow – Clear the intersection; the signal will turn red.
e. Flashing Yellow Arrow – Left turns allowed but must yield to oncoming traffic – oncoming traffic has a
green light.
f. Green – Go if the way is clear – oncoming traffic has a red light.
19. Shared Turn lanes:
a. Shared lanes help keep traffic moving by giving drivers turning left a
designated shared lane in the center of the roadway.
b. Use shared lanes to start and complete left turns.
c. You cannot travel more than 150 feet.
d. Crossing traffic entering a shared lane from a driveway
 Move all the way into the lane to avoid blocking through traffic lane.
 Stop in the shared lane and wait to merge safely with traffic.
20. Roundabouts:
a. A circular intersection controlled by yield signs
b. Entries and exits into and out of the circle can be at multiple locations
c. By yielding at the entry, rather than stopping and waiting for a green light or stopping at a stop sign,
significantly reduces delays
21. Advantages of Roundabouts:
a. Fewer points of conflict
b. The data shows a 90% reduction in fatal crashes
c. 75% reduction in injury crashes
d. Reduces delays and keeps traffic moving
e. Reduction in pollution and fuel use
Module 5: Topic 2
1. Curves:
a. Curvy roads present a high risk.
b. There are many line-of-sight and/or path-of-travel restrictions (trees, hills, etc.).
2. Blind Curve:
a. Only a portion of the corner is visible; the rest is hidden.
3. S- Curve:
a. A curve in one direction with a second curve in the opposite direction.
4. Crowned Roadways:
a. Most roadways are higher in the middle and slope to the outside for better drainage.
5. Banked Curve:
a. The outside of the curve is higher than the inside.
6. Why do vehicles “slow down” going uphill and “speed up” coming downhill?
a. Uphill: acceleration is needed to maintain speed.
b. Downhill: vehicles will naturally pick up speed.
7. Warning signs for curves:
Sharp Curve
Curve to right followed by curve to left
Winding Road
Road curves right – vehicle’s weight shifts left
Maximum SAFE speed is 25 mph
8. Parts of the Curve:
Always reduce speed prior to entering the curve and slow prior to the apex
Accelerate out of the apex
Gradually accelerate – lane position 1
9. How do you overcome inertia in a curve?
a. Need traction to overcome inertia
b. If a vehicle loses traction in a curve, the vehicle will continue traveling in a straight line and
driver will have no control.
10. How do these statistics below apply to you as a driver?
NHTSA data suggests that over 90% of the vehicles in fatal, single-vehicle rollover crashes were involved
in routine driving maneuvers (going straight or negotiating a curve) at the time of the crash. This further suggests
that driver behavior (distraction, inattentiveness, speeding, and impaired driving) plays a significant role in
rollover crashes.
11. How can you prevent a roll over?
12. Curves
Curve Direction
Curve to the Left
Curve to the Right
Key Points
a. Approach the curve in Lane
Position 3, as far away as
possible from oncoming traffic
b. This position also provides the
best targeting
point for your line of sight
a. Assume outside road position
on the entry to a right curve
(Lane Position 2)
b. Allows for a longer braking
distance on entry and a better
chance of establishing a
sightline to the apex and exit of
the curve
Module 5: Topic 3
Hills and Mountains
1. Applying SEEiT space management process to hills and mountains:
Search for
advisory speed
traffic, road
ace traction
control and
slow moving
Does the hill
have curves?
Determine type
of curve, and
make decision
about safe
speed and lane
Adjust speed
position as
2. Driving Uphill—Speed Control:
a. Extra power may be needed to maintain uphill speed.
b. Slower moving vehicles should travel in the right-hand lane.
3. Cresting the Hill:
a. Limited LOS at a hill crest
b. Be prepared for:
 Stopped vehicles
 Slow moving vehicles
 Oncoming vehicle in your lane
c. Be prepared to adjust speed or position to avoid a hazard.
4. List potential hazards that may exist on the other side of the hill crest.
5. Descending Hills & Mountains:
a. Gravity will make the vehicle go faster.
b. Heavier vehicles going downhill will pick up more speed .
c. Check the rear zone for vehicles that may be having trouble controlling speed.
d. Turn off cruise control.
6. Runaway Ramps:
a. Runaway ramps are designed for large trucks that lose braking control on steep hills.
b. They have deep gravel, sand barrels and other materials to help slow down the runaway vehicle.
c. Pull off the road if you see a runaway truck behind you.
Module 5: Topic 4
1. Did you know that?
a. At 55 mph, you traveled 968 feet; you need TWICE as much distance to pass a vehicle ahead.
b. If the oncoming car seems to be getting closer, it’s already too close.
c. When curves or hills keep you from seeing far enough ahead: Assume there’s a car just out of sight
or just about to appear.
d. Don’t start to pass unless there’s room ahead to return.
2. Estimating Passing Gap Needs:
a. Count the seconds it takes for an oncoming vehicle to pass in the opposite lane.
b. Do this until you can accurately estimate the time.
c. If you can see a vehicle approaching it is not safe to pass.
3. Passing Procedures:
 Prepare to pass
a. Position the vehicle 2 to 3 seconds behind the vehicle to be passed
b. Check mirrors and oncoming traffic
c. Check ahead for safe passing distance
d. Signal left
 Overtake the ongoing car
a. Accelerate and move into passing lane
b. Accelerate quickly to the legal speed
c. Concentrate on the path ahead
d. Check mirror for following vehicles
 Return to lane
a. Check inside rear-view mirror for the front of the vehicle being passed
b. Signal right
c. Change lanes, steer to center of lane and maintain speed
d. Cancel turn signal
4. Pass on the Right:
a. When another vehicle is waiting to make a left turn and when multiple lanes are available
5. Illegal to Pass:
6. What do you know about passing?
a. If the oncoming car seems to be getting closer, should you pass?
b. When curbs or hills keep you from seeing far enough ahead, should you pass?
c. Don’t start to pass unless…
7. Passing on Multi-Lane Roads:
a. One of the most dangerous maneuvers a driver can attempt
b. Higher the speed the greater the risk
c. High volume of traffic increases the chance of collisions
d. Passing may occur on the left or right
8. When Being Passed:
a. Check passing vehicle’s position
b. Move away slightly if too close
c. Maintain speed
d. Once passed, create space ahead and behind
Module 5: Topic 5
Characteristics of Urban and Rural Roadways
High volume of traffic with many hazards
Multiple intersections with left and right turn
lanes, stop signs and traffic signal lights
Stores and businesses
Public transportation
a. Stay within the posted speed limit
b. Look at least two blocks or two traffic signals
c. Use the SEEiT system
d. Watch for situations with closed zones and
line-of-sight restrictions
e. Be alert for areas where
sudden stops may occur
f. Keep as much space as
possible from oncoming
g. Take action if driver in
oncoming lane crosses
center line
h. Right lane usually for slower traffic
i. Avoid driving next to other vehicles
j. Drive in correct lane, indicated by arrows on
a. Increase following distance
b. Search ahead, to the sides and rear
c. Move slightly to the right and signal early to
prevent tailgaters
d. Slow down as you approach traffic signals and
do not
block intersection
e. Select lane with fewest
number of hazards
a. Driving on one and
two-way streets
b. Parked vehicles
c. Blocked intersections
d. Unexpected situations on crowded streets
e. Pedestrians and bicyclists
f. Public transportation
Low volume of
traffic and speeds
Road and shoulders
may be narrow and
of varying surfaces
Few signs, signals and pavement markings
Steep hills and curves
Open bridge gratings, uncontrolled railroad
crossings and intersections
Manage speed to increase control
Brake and steer without losing control
Adjust speed when conditions are unsafe
Position vehicle to maintain 20 – 30
second visual lead
Side roads intersect with a main road
Maintain 3-second following distance
Slow down, move to right side of lane
without going on shoulders
a. More dangerous on two-lane roadway
b. Only pass one vehicle at a time
c. If you can see an oncoming vehicle, do not
attempt to pass
a. Slow moving vehicles
 Use caution
 Do not honk your horn
b. Animals
 Do not swerve into oncoming traffic or
off roadway with no shoulder
 Safest alternative may be hitting
c. Railroad crossings
 Look left and right before crossing
 Be alert for multiple tracks
Module 5: Topic 6
Expressway Driving
1. Characteristics of Expressways:
a. High speed
b. Controlled access (entry and exit)
c. Divided by barrier
d. Multiple lanes going in the same direction
e. Only for motorized vehicles
f. Limited access
g. Higher speeds (up to 70 mph)
h. Designed to carry a lot of traffic quickly and efficiently
2. Safety Design Features:
Select three of the safety design features and explain how they help to protect drivers.
3. Expressway Numbering:
Even Numbers (I-64, I-66)
a. Even numbers go east-west
b. Even numbers begin in the south and get larger
as they move north
Odd numbers (I-77, I-81, I-95)
a. Odd numbers go north-south
b. Odd numbers begin in the west and get
larger as they move east
3-digit numbers designate an alternate route:
1st digit is even (I-664)
If the first digit is even, the alternate route goes
around the city
1st digit is odd (I-164)
If it is odd, it leads into the city.
What route near us goes AROUND the CITY?
4. Expressway Entrance Components
Parts of Ramp
Key Points
As you enter the ramp,
immediately begin
searching for a
gap/open space.
Some entrance ramps
have ramp meters:
 Entrance ramp
traffic lights are
designed to
distribute traffic
onto the
expressway when
traffic is heavy
 Permits one car at
a time to enter the
Accelerate to speed of
Monitor gap, and blend b.
with the speed of
traffic on the
Merge Area
Area used to move
onto the expressway
and is usually marked
with a broken white
Help drivers enter
expressway by
adjusting speed or
changing lanes if it is
safe to do so
Good Habits
Make sure the
entrance ramp is the
correct one
Search for “Do Not
Enter” or “Wrong
Way” signs
Check front and rear
Observe traffic
conditions on the
limited access
Signal, check mirrors
and blind zones
Prepare to adjust
speed for heavy
traffic on the ramp
Avoid stopping or
backing up on a
Maintain speed and
safe following
Accelerate to the
speed of vehicles on
the expressway
Continuously check
front and rear
zones, mirrors and
blind spot
Decide when and
where to merge
Check Front, Rear
and Left Rear Zones
Select Gap
Move into the open
space on
Oh no! You have entered the EXIT
ramp and traffic is coming at you!
a. If you see the ramp area marked
with “DO NOT ENTER” and/or
“WRONG WAY” signs,
immediately pull over to the edge
of the road
b. The possibility of a head on
collision is very high
c. When the way is clear, turn
around and get off the ramp
d. Avoid backing or stopping on
a. Search ahead and to
the side for a gap on
the expressway
b. Prepare to adjust
speed with traffic
c. Prepare to use the shoulder if no
gap is available
a. Heavy traffic
b. No gap to move onto expressway
c. Traffic slowing or stopping ahead
5. Steps for entering an expressway:
a. Identify entrance ¼ mile in advance
b. Check traffic
c. Signal the proper lane
d. Enter ramp and adjust speed
e. Identity gap for merging, signal into the travel lane
f. Adjust to travel speed
6. Weave Lane:
a. A “weave” lane serves as both an entrance and an exit lane
b. Traffic entering and exiting must use the same lane
c. Conflicts can occur
d. The driver entering from the entrance ramp should yield to the driver leaving the expressway
7. Types of Entrance/Exit Ramps:
a. Clover leaf
b. Diamond
c. Trumpet
d. Frontage
8. List 10 signs or markings you would see on an expressway:
9. Wolf Pack:
a. Wolf packs” are groups of drivers traveling together at higher speeds.
b. Driving in a “wolf pack” allows you little or no margin of safety.
c. Avoid “wolf packs”
d. If you see a “wolf pack” approaching from the rear, move over and let them by.
10. It is important to mange space on a highway. How can you manage your time and space on a highway to
reduce your risks?
11. Exiting an Expressway:
Parts of Exit
Key Points
Potential Exiting Problems
a. Deceleration lanes allow a. Short deceleration lane
drivers to reduce their
b. Sharp curve on ramp
speed without blocking
c. Traffic stopped on the exit ramp
traffic on the expressway d. Very slow ramp speed - there may be a STOP sign or
b. Look for the advisory
a traffic light at the end of the exit ramp. The driver
speed sign for the
must adjust from a fast speed to a STOP in a short
deceleration lane
b. Wait until reaching the
e. Weave lane conflicts
deceleration lane before
reducing speed
Exit Ramp
a. The exit ramp allows traffic to enter adjoining roadways
b. Brake to warning sign speed
c. Check behind
d. Search for traffic control signs or signals