Chapter 9 Cellular Respiration and Fermentation Study Guide Be able to describe and characterize the stages and processes involved in cellular respiration. No specific chemical structures are required but you have to be able to localize the processes of cellular respiration ,describe stages, name the substrates, key compounds involved in the reactions, sequence of events, the connections between electron transport and breakdown of sugar substrates, the energetics of the processes, the elements (the 4 major complexes) of the electron transport chain, characterize the free energy level differences in the redox reactions of the chain, characterize in details the mechanism of ATP synthesis and the structure of ATP synthase, characterize the energy and carbon balance of the processes (Input / Output amounts of ATP, NADH, FADH2, the numeric carbon atom balance). Be able to analyze the differences between substrate level and oxidative phosphorylation and recognize which of these mechanisms are responsible for ATP production in each of the stages of cellular respiration. Be able to generically characterize the redox reactions (what oxidation/reduction means, what oxidizing and reducing agents mean, etc.). Be able to define and describe chemiosmosis in the context of cellular respiration. Be able to define the proton motive force. Be able to describe the mechanism of alcoholic and lactic acid type fermentation and analyze the differences between fermentation and cellular respiration. Be able to describe how glycolysis and the citric acid cycle connect with many other metabolic pathways. Be able to describe the feed-back regulation of cellular respiration.