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The improvement on the pedestrian sidewalk towards supporting world class city in Malaysia

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The improvements on the pedestrian
sidewalk towards supporting world class city
in Malaysia
Cite as: AIP Conference Proceedings 2020, 020024 (2018); https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5062650
Published Online: 05 October 2018
M. F. A. Rashid, J. M. Diah, and N. E. Kordi
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© 2018 Author(s).
2020, 020024
The Improvements on the Pedestrian Sidewalk Towards
Supporting World Class City in Malaysia
M. F. A. Rashid1,a), J. M. Diah2 and N. E. Kordi3
1
Malaysia Institute of Transport, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia
2
Institute of Graduate Studies, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia
3
Faculty of Civil Engineering, UiTM Shah Alam, Malaysia
a)
Corresponding author: [email protected]
Abstract. Sidewalk has become an important part of urban transport in many large cities in the world and also became an
important part of road traffic systems which pedestrian have to travel at every corner of an urban city centre to fulfill their
needs. This paper focuses on the improvement of pedestrian sidewalk towards supporting world class city in Malaysia. The
objective of this study is to determine what are the factors and element that need to be improve at study area which is Jalan
Masjid India, Jalan Tuanku Abdul Rahman and Pasar Seni based on the respondents walking experience. The methodology
of this study used quantitative approach involves collecting and converting data into a numerical form so that statistical
calculations can be made and conclusions drawn and being analyzing using mathematical method program called Statistical
Package for Social Science or known as (SPSS). The findings of this study indicated that most or majority of respondents
were agree that element of safety, urban amenities and obstruction on the sidewalk need to be improves in order to support
world class city in Malaysia. Therefore, in order to avoid inefficient efforts to continue and to support “World Class City”
standard by 2020, this paper explain the key findings from the research revealed that several factors have significant
relationship with the improvements on the sidewalk. It is hoped that the findings from this study will guide future
development planning of sidewalk and that repetition of the mistakes from the past can be avoided.
INTRODUCTION
Kuala Lumpur is the capital city of Malaysia with a total area of two hundred and forty two square feet and with
an estimated population of one point seven million in 2016 and also Kuala Lumpur is the Malaysia’s premier location
for business and trade [1]. The development of Malaysia is now guided by the national agenda and vision 2020 that
envisions Malaysia as a fully developed country economically, politically, and socially by the year of 2020. To create
an efficient and equitable city structure, it is important that the financial and commercial goal is achieved and will
benefits to all members of the City’s community. By the year of 2020, forty kilometers of covered pedestrian and
elevated walkways, was planned for completion, which will eventually allow Greater Kuala Lumpur/ Klang Valley
convenient pedestrian access to leisure and commercial sites.
Like most cities in the developing world, Kuala Lumpur City Centre has grown at a phenomenal rate driven
primarily by the need to create wealth. Today, pedestrian have to travel at every corner of urban City Centre to fulfill
their needs. Walking is considered as one of the oldest non-motorized transport mode of transportation, so that every
person who travels from one to another is pedestrian and every pedestrian is an element of road space [2]. A major
deficiency, especially in the City Centre, is lack of the accessibility pedestrian network [3]. An urban City Centre is
not a pedestrian friendly city if its lack of pedestrian network and existence of major deficiencies such as poor
maintenance and accessibility.
Pedestrian are vulnerable road users which is always have high risky during their trips. To overcome of these
problems, a good pedestrian network must be implementing for the City Centre to facilitate pedestrian movement at
activity areas especially on safety. Overall financial requirement are estimated about one hundred and five million to
build pedestrian network the City of Kuala Lumpur with totaling forty kilometres from 2011 until 2020. Therefore, in
Advances in Civil Engineering and Science Technology
AIP Conf. Proc. 2020, 020024-1–020024-7; https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5062650
Published by AIP Publishing. 978-0-7354-1738-0/$30.00
020024-1
order to avoid inefficient efforts to continue and to achieve “World Class City” standard by 2020, this paper explain
the key findings from the research revealed that several factors have significant relationship with the improvements
on the sidewalk.
The major issues on safety towards pedestrian which is driver’s failure to acknowledge the rights of pedestrians
and also lack of pedestrian signage will increase the potential for accident [4]. According to the police statistics, five
hundred and sixty two pedestrians are killed annually mostly in urban areas in the past two years and it consists of
forty percent of children with at least forty percent of them killed and severely injured [5]. Safety while walking is
one of the important factors that any pedestrian would consider. Therefore, urban amenities must be adequate and
convenient for pedestrian.
A major deficiency, especially in the City Centre, is lack of the urban amenities on pedestrian sidewalk [3].
Furthermore, in Malaysia, until now, the facilities and infrastructure development have not yet attained a satisfactory
level [4]. The findings of [7] indicated that the pedestrian in Kuala Lumpur City Centre claimed to be tired during
walking owing to the lack of appropriate facilities. Therefore, it is essential to determine the elements of urban
amenities on sidewalk in order to achieved world class city standard. Moreover, the over optimization of other
activities was resulted the over-flow to sidewalks which is caused inconveniences of pedestrian movements [4]. The
case study by [8] at the Tuanku Abdul Rahman Street or known as “Jalan TAR” and Central Market, Kuala Lumpur,
it was found that facilities or furniture along the sidewalk can obstruct the pedestrian movements which in turn can
make people use the roadside and increase potential of accident.
CRITERIA OF SUCCESSFUL SIDEWALK
Towards the end of the nineteenth and beginning of the twentieth century, pedestrian network were used for social,
tourism, commercial, and political activities. In the modern day, the pedestrian network is used as a mode of
transportation for pedestrians. The purpose is to serve as the roadway for pedestrians and provide a safe and level
walkway for people. The accessibility of pedestrians using the sidewalks can increase when there are improvements
and repair to pedestrian network conditions [6]. If properly maintained the characteristic and ingredients of sidewalk
accessibility, it will provides clear and effective travel from place to another place for pedestrians.
It is important part of everyday life especially those located in urban city. In areas where accessibility is impaired,
many people feel the need to travel using other forms of transportation, especially cars, rather than walking to their
destination [9]. According to [10] from Columbia University, the following criteria define functioning successful
sidewalk:
x Sidewalks must function as Public Space.
x Pedestrians must feel safe walking along the sidewalk.
x Sidewalks must allow and promote social activity.
x Sidewalk congestion cannot greatly impair circulation.
THE INGREDIENTS OF SUCCESSFUL SIDEWALK
Safety
Safety is one of the determinants of a wakable environment and a safe pedestrian environment allows the
pedestrians to walk with comfort and reduce the sense of fear from crime or accident [11]. In study by [12], claimed
that the quality of the walking environment might influence pedestrian’s intensity and [13] this required to increase
safety because the places become more transparent. By this reasoning, the sidewalk should provide good walking
experience and involve high level of safety to cater for the various sections of the community so that people can walk
in that area and do not worry for their safety while they are walking along the road. A good structure of pedestrian
networks, clearly define pedestrian district can create safer condition and comfortable for people.
Providing visible and transparent environment can increase safety level. The existing literature by [14] told the
urban designs are important to avoid formation of hidden and obscured niches to cater crime activity on the sidewalks.
Hidden and obscured niches can be criminal hideout and expose the pedestrians to crime especially at a place with
low intensity of people [11]. This significant evidence indicates that sidewalk should improve the lighting to allow
pedestrians increased visibility, allowing them to see there are going and mitigating physical hazards associated with
020024-2
tripping and falling. It also allows those in motor vehicles to view pedestrian activity on sidewalks which can reduce
the potential for pedestrian accident.
The results of recent study by [11] on safety from crime and safety from strangers walking in the city centre of
Kuala Lumpur shows twenty one point eight percent respondents were not satisfied. Another study by [15], also told
safety is the main factors that influence walking decision in commercial areas Kuala Lumpur by fifty percent and the
sidewalk is the highest percentage need to be improve by thirty percent. Therefore, it shows safety on the sidewalk
need to be focus in the city centre area to provide safe environment for pedestrian daily life activity and the
transparency of the sidewalk place also can increase protection from crime activity especially for elderly, women,
children, and people with disabilities.
Urban Amenities
The pedestrian probably have their own opinion about idea of walking in the City Centre when use the sidewalk.
Research has shown that well designed and maintained pedestrian facilities encourage walking and promote higher
levels of pedestrian travel. Good pedestrian mobility in cities will “save even more lives as more people walk and
fewer people drive” [9] and promote walking as a means of transportation The study by [7] based on observation, only
at selected places in Kuala Lumpur are comfortable walking paths can be found that allow them to walk continuously
and the analysis result shows by [11] fifty percent of respondents dissatisfied with disabled facilities and also
pedestrian want facilities those are safe, convenient, attractive and easy to use. Another study by [16], one of the most
needed improvements to respondents is disabled facility.
Sidewalks also require sufficient storage capacity so that the predicted volume of pedestrians can gain access the
facility with efficient manner. A case study from Kermanshah Iran by [17] told most of the sidewalks have not enough
width for pedestrian to walk on and limited width of the sidewalks has been occupied by stairs, small garden or ramps
which give inefficient to walk by pedestrians. The theories by [18], lack of the sidewalk implies pedestrians must
either walk in the roadway which is decreases safety or walk alongside the road is an unfriendly environment. In
researcher view, one of the factors that lead pedestrian walk in the roadway is because of not enough of sidewalk
width.
Amenities provided on the sidewalk are also a critical component in regard to pedestrian convenience. Successful
pedestrian sidewalk should be architecturally designed and properly fitted out. A place to relax is an important element
of a pedestrian when using the sidewalk. For example chairs, benches, and steps. Sitting is favored activity and
engenders other activities such as eating, chatting, and watching other people. In addition, sitting requires attention to
some important issues like protection from the weather.
Obstruction
Many citizens do not use the pedestrian network appropriately. Obstacles in the pedestrian network are defined as
objects that limit the sidewalk width or reduce the clearance width of the sidewalk [19]. For examples, objects that
can make a sidewalk difficult for pedestrians is trash bags, street light poles, telephone booths, cafe tables and chairs,
vehicles, and fire hydrants. The existing literature by [17] some citizens park their vehicles on the sidewalks and some
of the shopkeepers display their goods on the sidewalk. Another study by [20], fifty seven percent of respondents
choose “poor” for obstruction on the sidewalk. In addition to that, the pedestrian including elderly are not are satisfied
to walk on the sidewalks and it is necessary for the authorities to remove these obstacles from the sidewalks.
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
There is a variable whereby it is the interest topic that researcher wants to study and investigate. There are few
factors or can be known as an independent variables that affect the dependent variable in any form of way.
020024-3
Safety
WORLD
CLASS CITY
PEDESTRIAN
SIDEWALK
Urban amenities
Obstruction
(Independent variable)
(Dependent variable)
FIGURE 1. Conceptual Frameworks
DATA COLLECTION
For the purpose of this research, the researcher used quantitative approach (based on the methods used in the
natural sciences). It involves collecting and converting data into a numerical form so that statistical calculations can
be made and conclusions drawn and being analyzing using mathematical method program called Statistical Package
for Social Science or known as (SPSS). The questionnaire was consists of three sections, which is section A, B, and
C. For section A is the demographic background which is the interviewee or respondent profile and it is in a form of
nominal data. For the section B, is the factors or variable involved and it is in a form of likert scale and nominal data,
and the last is section C, which is suggestions or preferences in a form of nominal data and open questions.
The sampling design used in this research is probability sampling by using the simple random sampling method
which is allowed the researcher to be precise about the relationship between sample and the population. The aim of
researcher used simple random sampling method is to reduce the potential of human bias. The number of population
that used in this research is based on the population in Kuala Lumpur with a total area of two hundred and forty two
square feet and with an estimated population of one point seven million in 2017 [21]. The sample size of this research
is according to Raosoft calculator [22], and must distribute a valid number of questionnaires to respondents which is
390 by margin error of 5 percent with the confidence level are 95 percent and have been distributed along the sidewalk
of Jalan Tuanku Abdul Rahman (Jalan TAR), Jalan Masjid India (JMI) and Pasar Seni (PS), which is involved with
local and tourist.
FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION
In order to assess on the pedestrian perception and expectation, the respondent was asked on the most important
factor of pedestrian sidewalk that will influences improvement needed to support world class city as shown in figure
2, 3 and 4. The frequency and percentage distribution of gender of the respondent in this study is one hundred and
sixty six or forty two point six percent (male). On the other hand, the female group consisted of two hundred and
twenty four or fifty seven point four percent of the respondents. The majority of citizenship of respondents is
Malaysians with a total number of three hundred and sixty eight or ninety four point four percent. The number
respondents of Non-Malaysian are twenty two or five point six percent.
020024-4
Remove unsuitable objects
23
Improve security on sidewalk
Improve shopkeeper distance
25
58
20
Re-evaluate speed of vehicles
20
Improve facility design
19
Improve material surface
15
75
17
Improve sidewalk signage
Improve sidewalk width
62
29
24
67
12 2
20
11
24
59
15
23
56
25
8
19
72
10
18
82
strongly agree
agree
4
20
26
28
5
12
moderate
disagree
strongly disagree
10 2
13
7 3
FIGURE 2. Statistics at Pasar Seni (PS)
Remove unsuitable objects
Improve security on sidewalk
Improve shopkeeper distance
24
63
Improve sidewalk signage
Improve facility design
Improve sidewalk width
25
14
strongly agree
11
14
agree
15
12
10
13
13
12
15
64
9
13
21
52
34
26
11
8
69
31
Improve material surface
16
60
27
Re-evaluate speed of vehicles
13
68
24
9
10
17
65
29
18
disagree
strongly disagree
7 3
13
82
moderate
FIGURE 3. Statistics at Jalan Masjid India (JMI)
Remove unsuitable objects
Improve shopkeeper distance
Improve sidewalk signage
27
Improve facility design
26
Improve material surface
21
Improve sidewalk width
23
26
16
48
13
17
15
24
24
31
14
40
9
18
17
14
57
38
17
13
60
23
8
22
62
20
14
8
68
31
Re-evaluate speed of vehicles
26
30
16
40
18
Improve security on sidewalk
23
strongly agree
agree
moderate
disagree
strongly disagree
23
FIGURE 4. Statistics at Jalan Tuanku Abdul Rahman (JTAR)
Based on the statistics figure 2, 3 and 4 above, it can be seen, that the most or majority of respondent at three
different location Pasar Seni, Jalan Masjid India, and Jalan Tuanku Abdul Rahman agree to remove unsuitable objects
on the sidewalk such as street light poles, trash can, or vases with 62 respondents (PS), 65 respondents (JMI) and 40
respondents (JTAR). On the suggestions to improve the safety and security at pedestrian sidewalk, the results from
SPSS registered “agree” the highest was choose by respondent with 75 at (PS), 63 at (JMI) and 68 at (JTAR). Another
important suggestion to improve pedestrian sidewalk based on world class city standard is improve the shopkeeper
distance between the sidewalks. The statistics above indicate the popular choice is agree to improve the distance of
shopkeeper with 58 respondents (PS), 68 respondents (JMI), and 62 respondents (JTAR).
Figure 2, 3 and 4 also demonstrated that majority respondents from the survey choose agree to improve the
pedestrian walkway signage information on the sidewalk with 67 respondents at (PS), 60 respondents at (JMI) and 60
respondents (JTAR). The next fundamental question to gauge respondent’s perception in order to improve pedestrian
sidewalk to support world class city in Kuala Lumpur is to re-evaluate the speeds of drivers around the sidewalk.
Similar to the previous questions researcher used likert scale method and it is clear the highest registered in SPSS is
agree with 59 respondents (PS), 69 respondents (JMI) and 57 respondents at (JTAR). The another three important
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question which is improve facility design according to modernity, improve the material surface of sidewalk and
improve the sidewalk width, the majority of respondents also choose agree.
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
Based on the data that has been analyzed, it shows all the findings indicates that the element from the safety, urban
amenities and obstruction significantly contribute better pedestrian sidewalk in order to support world class city in
Malaysia. In researcher view, by providing a good improvement on the sidewalk, it wills benefits on safety, mobility
and healthier communities. In addition, pedestrian network will become a vital space for the users and need to be
governed effectively and efficiently to promote better environment that is sustainable.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This work is supported by the Malaysia Institute of Transport (MITRANS) and Institute of Graduate Studies
located at the Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia.
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