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Pengenalan Pengertian Konsep

Keberkesanan Sekolah

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Laporan Coleman (1966)

“Equality of Educational Opportunity Report”

Mendapati:-

Faktor persekitaran dan keluarga lebih berkesan daripada faktor sekolah dalam menentukan kemajuan pendidikan murid

Akibatnya:-

Sistem pendidikan di seluruh dunia menghadapi kritikan dan kecaman serta mencabar kepercayaan awam

Sekolah

Berkesan?

7.

8.

9.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

Kepimpinan Berkesan

Pengajaran Berkesan

Tumpuan ke atas pembelajaran

Budaya sekolah yang positif

Ekspektasi tinggi

Penekanan hak dan tanggungjawab pelajar

Pemantauan kemajuan

Perkembangan staf

Penglibatan ibubapa

Sekolah

Kurang

Berkesan?

Konsep Keberkesanan

Terdapat 2 elemen dalam konsep keberkesanan:-

Efektif

Boleh capai hasil yang diharapkan

(Ken Reid, 1987)

Efisien

Boleh capai hasil yang diharapkan dengan kos yang rendah

( Jaap Scheerens, 1989)

Keberkesanan Sekolah

Dapat dilihat dari 2 segi:-

Keberkesanan Dalaman

(

internal effectiveness

)

Keberkesanan Luaran

(external effectiveness)

Keberkesanan Dalaman Sekolah

Output peringkat sekolah

Misalnya:-

Pengetahuan (

kognitif)

Kemahiran (

kognitif)

Sikap (

afektif)

Tingkahlaku (

psikomotor)

Keberkesanan Luaran Sekolah

Output peringkat masyarakat atau outcome

Misalnya:-

 masyarakat celek huruf

Masyarakat berbudaya membaca

Produktiviti kerja

Mobiliti sosial

Kecekapan Sekolah

Dapat dilihat dari 2 aspek:-

Kecekapan Dalaman

(

internal efficiency)

Kecekapan Luaran

(

external efficiency)

Kecekapan Dalaman Sekolah

Output peringkat sekolah

Misalnya:-

Semua pelajar menguasai 3M dengan kos yang minima

Semua pelajar menguasai ilmu/kemahiran sesuai dengan perbelanjaan

Kecekapan Luaran Sekolah

Output peringkat masyarakat atau outcome

Misalnya:-

Peningkatan prestasi kerja

Peningkatan mutu kerja

Peningkatan pendapatan

Definisi keberkesanan dari perspektif ekonomi

Input

Funding

Proses

Instruction method

Output Outcome

Final primary school test scores

Dispersal on the labor market

Effectiveness can now be described as the extent to which the desired level of output is achieved.

Efficiency –as desired level of output against the lowest cost.

Organization-Theoritical Views on

Effectiveness

Theoretical background Effectiveness criterion Level at which the effectiveness question is asked

organization

Man areas of attention

Output and its determinants (business) economic rationality

Organic system theory

Human relations approach productivity adaptability

Involvement organization

Individual members of organization

Acquiring essential inputs

Motivation

Bureaucratic theory: system members theory…..

continuity Organization + individual

Political theory on how organizations work

Responsiveness to external stakeholders

Subgroups and individuals

Formal structure

Interdependence, power

Characteristics of evaluation models of school effectiveness

Model

Definition of school effectiveness

A school is effective if….

When the model is useful

Goal Model It can achieve its stated goal

System-resource model

Internal process model

Strategic-constituencies model

Legitimacy model

Organizational learning model

It can acquire needed resources and inputs

The schooling process can be smooth and healthy

All of the powerful constituencies are at least minimally satisfied

It can survive as a result of engaging in legitimate activities

It can learn to deal with environmental changes and internal barriers

Ineffectiveness model There is an absence of characteristics of ineffectiveness

Goals are clear, consensual, time-bound and measurable

There is a clear relationship between inputs and outputs

There is a clear relationship between school process and outcomes

The demands of the powerful constituencies are compatible and cannot be ignored

The survival and demise of schools must be assessed

The schools are new and developing, or the environmental change cannot be ignored

There are no consensual criteria of effectiveness, or strategies for school improvement are needed

Pengenalan Pengajian

Keberkesanan Sekolah

3 major strands of SER school effects research effective school research

• Studies of the scientific properties of school effects utilizing multilevel models

• Research concerned with the process of effective schooling etc school improvement research

• Examining the processes whereby schools can be change and maintain after effectiveness

Gelombang Sekolah Berkesan

Gelombang Pertama:

Keberkesanan Sekolah

Laporan Coleman-faktor keluarga lebih pntng dari sekolah

Pelbagai penambahanbaikan dilakukan program compensatory education

Mencari faktor2 lain selain dr faktor keluarga spt kepimpinan pengetua, visi dan mis sekolah, pengajaran berkesan, harapan tinggi terhadap murid etc

Gelombang Kedua: Ciri sekolah berkesan dan cara pelaksanaan

Dapatan Edmonds (1982) dijadikan asas untuk melaksanakannya iaitu kepimpinan pengajaran, misis sekolah, persekitaran sekolah yang selamat, pengaharapan sekolah terhadap murid, penilaian yng kerap, permuafakatan sekolah msayarakat, peluang murid utk belajar

Gelombang Ketiga:

Keberkesanan dan

Penambahbaikan

Teori pengurusan digunakan untuk menambahbaik sekolah

Digabungjalin semua pembolehubah di sekolah untuk memajukan sekolah

Gelombang keempat:

Melestari keberkesanan dan penambahbaikan

Perkembangan SER di USA

Stage 1

Stage 2

Stage 3

Stage 4

1960s – 1970s – focused upon the potential impact of school

Early 70s – saw the beginning of ‘effective schools’ studies

From late 70s through 1980s – focus of SER attempted incorporation of the effective schools correlates with generation of SIP

From late 1980s o the present day… introduction of more complex way of doing SER research

Perkembangan SER di UK

Masalah

Difficult intellectual infancy

The hegemony of traditional British ES-oriented to psychological perspective and emphasis upon individuals and families as determinants

Educational system – centralized system

Absence of reliable and valid measures

> Value added on academic outcomes

> Comparisons of selective school system

> Work into the scientific properties if the school effects

> Small scale studies focused upon outcome terbentuk

Model sekolah

Berkesan Peter

Mortimore

Perkembangan SER di Netherland

Variabel Process

Variabel Kontaks

Cara penilaian murid

Aspek psikologi

Time/Homework

Effective Teaching, Effective Leadership

School Climate, Hubungan Sekolah dan Komuniti

Students evaluation differentiation

IQ, Sikap, kerjasama, kesediaan

Perkembangan SER di Australia

Accountabality issues

Problem of discipline and management behavior

Maximising academic achievement

The role of central administrators

Stage 1

Model Kajian Sekolah Berkesan

Input-output economic studes

Bertumpu kepada input seperti sumber sekolah contoh : perbelanjaan setiap pelajar

Ciri latar belakang pelajar

Hasil pendidikan terhad kepada pencapaian pelajar terhadap ujian piawai

Model Kajian Sekolah Berkesan

Stage 2

Addition of Process, product variabels and output

2A : process- product

1A-1B : IPO studies

Pembolehubah input yang asal dimasukkan ke alam pembolehubah proses

Contoh pembolehubah Input :

 perbelanjaan setiap pelajar

Ciri latar belakang pelajar

Pembolehubah Proses yang dimasukkan adalah seperti sumber perpustakaan, proses pengajaran pembelajaran dsb

Model Kajian Sekolah Berkesan

Stage 3

Introduction of School Improvement Studies

Stage 4

Model Kajian Sekolah Berkesan

Introduction of Context Variables

1C-1A-1B -CIPO

2B-2A -CIPP

2B-2A-3A - CIPPI

Perkembangan Sekolah Berkesan dan Model

Kajian Sekolah Berkesan

Masa Depan ?

1.Awalan thn 2000 Sekolah

Kluster

2.Awal thn 2010 Sekolah

Berprestasi Tinggi

Thn 1995.gerakan sekolah berkesan Model Mortimore

Awal8an lebih tertumpu pada pengajaran berkesan dan pencapaian akademik,,spt SBP, MARA dan sebagainya

Pemimpin yg professional

Proses pengajaran berkesan

Tumpuan kepada pembelajaran

Mewujudkan budaya positif sekolah

Mewujudkan harapan tinggi

Menekankan kepentingan tanggungjawab dan hak

Proses penyeliaan untuk semua peringkat

Perkembangan profesionalisme staf

Pemuafakatan antara sekolah dengan rumah

Cadangan model keberkesanan sekolah malaysia

Rumusan

Keberkesanan sekolah ialah suatu pengajian yang memberi fokus kepada:-

Output

Outcome

– hasil peringkat sekolah

– hasil peringkat masyarakat

Output

dan

outcome

yang efisien iaitu diperoleh dengan kos yang munasabah

Kemampuan

input

/proses merupakan penentu pencapaian

output/outcome

TERIMA KASIH

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