Uploaded by Alwi Safuan bin Ahmad Aziz

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Pengenalan Pengertian Konsep
Keberkesanan Sekolah
Latar belakang
• Laporan Coleman (1966)
“Equality of Educational Opportunity Report”
Mendapati:Faktor persekitaran dan keluarga lebih
berkesan daripada faktor sekolah dalam
menentukan kemajuan pendidikan murid
• Akibatnya:Sistem pendidikan di seluruh dunia
menghadapi kritikan dan kecaman serta
mencabar kepercayaan awam
Sekolah
Berkesan?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Kepimpinan Berkesan
Pengajaran Berkesan
Tumpuan ke atas pembelajaran
Budaya sekolah yang positif
Ekspektasi tinggi
Penekanan hak dan tanggungjawab
pelajar
Pemantauan kemajuan
Perkembangan staf
9.
Penglibatan ibubapa
Sekolah
Kurang
Berkesan?
Konsep Keberkesanan
• Terdapat 2 elemen dalam konsep keberkesanan:• Efektif
Boleh capai hasil yang diharapkan
(Ken Reid, 1987)
• Efisien
Boleh capai hasil yang diharapkan dengan kos
yang rendah
( Jaap Scheerens, 1989)
Keberkesanan Sekolah
• Dapat dilihat dari 2 segi:• Keberkesanan Dalaman
( internal effectiveness)
• Keberkesanan Luaran
(external effectiveness)
Keberkesanan Dalaman Sekolah
• Output peringkat sekolah
Misalnya:Pengetahuan (kognitif)
Kemahiran (kognitif)
Sikap (afektif)
Tingkahlaku (psikomotor)
Keberkesanan Luaran Sekolah
• Output peringkat masyarakat atau outcome
Misalnya: masyarakat celek huruf
Masyarakat berbudaya membaca
Produktiviti kerja
Mobiliti sosial
Kecekapan Sekolah
• Dapat dilihat dari 2 aspek:Kecekapan Dalaman
(internal efficiency)
Kecekapan Luaran
(external efficiency)
Kecekapan Dalaman Sekolah
• Output peringkat sekolah
Misalnya:Semua pelajar menguasai 3M dengan kos
yang minima
Semua pelajar menguasai ilmu/kemahiran
sesuai dengan perbelanjaan
Kecekapan Luaran Sekolah
• Output peringkat masyarakat atau outcome
Misalnya:Peningkatan prestasi kerja
Peningkatan mutu kerja
Peningkatan pendapatan
Definisi keberkesanan dari perspektif
ekonomi
Input
Proses
Output
Outcome
Funding
Instruction
method
Final primary
school test
scores
Dispersal on the
labor market
Effectiveness can now be described as the extent to which the
desired level of output is achieved.
Efficiency –as desired level of output against the lowest cost.
Organization-Theoritical Views on
Effectiveness
Theoretical background
Effectiveness criterion
Level at which the
effectiveness question
is asked
Man areas of attention
(business) economic
rationality
productivity
organization
Output and its determinants
Organic system theory
adaptability
organization
Acquiring essential inputs
Human relations approach
Involvement
Individual members of
organization
Motivation
Bureaucratic theory: system
members theory…..
continuity
Organization + individual
Formal structure
Political theory on how
organizations work
Responsiveness to external
stakeholders
Subgroups and individuals
Interdependence, power
Characteristics of evaluation models of school
effectiveness
Model
Definition of school effectiveness
A school is effective if….
When the model is useful
Goal Model
It can achieve its stated goal
Goals are clear, consensual, time-bound and
measurable
System-resource model
It can acquire needed resources and
inputs
There is a clear relationship between inputs
and outputs
Internal process model
The schooling process can be smooth
and healthy
There is a clear relationship between school
process and outcomes
Strategic-constituencies model
All of the powerful constituencies are
at least minimally satisfied
The demands of the powerful constituencies
are compatible and cannot be ignored
Legitimacy model
It can survive as a result of engaging in
legitimate activities
The survival and demise of schools must be
assessed
Organizational learning model
It can learn to deal with environmental
changes and internal barriers
The schools are new and developing, or the
environmental change cannot be ignored
Ineffectiveness model
There is an absence of characteristics
of ineffectiveness
There are no consensual criteria of
effectiveness, or strategies for school
improvement are needed
Pengenalan Pengajian
Keberkesanan Sekolah
3 major strands of SER
school effects
research
• Studies of the scientific properties of
school effects utilizing multilevel
models
effective school
research
• Research concerned with the process
of effective schooling etc
school improvement
research
• Examining the processes whereby
schools can be change and maintain
after effectiveness
Gelombang Sekolah Berkesan
Gelombang Pertama:
Keberkesanan Sekolah
Gelombang Kedua: Ciri
sekolah berkesan dan cara
pelaksanaan
Gelombang Ketiga:
Keberkesanan dan
Penambahbaikan
• Laporan Coleman-faktor keluarga lebih pntng dari sekolah
• Pelbagai penambahanbaikan dilakukan program compensatory
education
• Mencari faktor2 lain selain dr faktor keluarga spt kepimpinan
pengetua, visi dan mis sekolah, pengajaran berkesan, harapan
tinggi terhadap murid etc
•Dapatan Edmonds (1982) dijadikan asas untuk melaksanakannya iaitu kepimpinan
pengajaran, misis sekolah, persekitaran sekolah yang selamat, pengaharapan
sekolah terhadap murid, penilaian yng kerap, permuafakatan sekolah msayarakat,
peluang murid utk belajar
• Teori pengurusan digunakan untuk menambahbaik sekolah
• Digabungjalin semua pembolehubah di sekolah untuk
memajukan sekolah
Gelombang keempat:
Melestari keberkesanan
dan penambahbaikan
Perkembangan SER di USA
Stage 1
1960s – 1970s – focused upon the potential impact of school
Stage 2
Early 70s – saw the beginning of ‘effective schools’ studies
Stage 3
From late 70s through 1980s – focus of SER attempted
incorporation of the effective schools correlates with generation
of SIP
Stage 4
From late 1980s o the present day… introduction of more
complex way of doing SER research
Perkembangan SER di UK
Difficult intellectual infancy
Masalah
The hegemony of traditional British ES-oriented to
psychological perspective and emphasis upon individuals and
families as determinants
Educational system – centralized system
Absence of reliable and valid measures
> Value added on academic outcomes
> Comparisons of selective school system
> Work into the scientific properties if the school
effects
> Small scale studies focused upon outcome
terbentuk
Model sekolah
Berkesan Peter
Mortimore
Perkembangan SER di Netherland
Variabel Process Effective Teaching, Effective Leadership
Variabel Kontaks
School Climate, Hubungan Sekolah dan Komuniti
Cara penilaian
murid
Students evaluation differentiation
Aspek psikologi
IQ, Sikap, kerjasama, kesediaan
Time/Homework
Perkembangan SER di Australia
Accountabality issues
Problem of discipline and management behavior
Maximising academic achievement
The role of central administrators
Model Kajian Sekolah Berkesan
Stage 1
Input-output economic studes
•



•
Bertumpu kepada input seperti sumber sekolah
contoh :
perbelanjaan setiap pelajar
Ciri latar belakang pelajar
Hasil pendidikan terhad kepada pencapaian pelajar terhadap ujian
piawai
Model Kajian Sekolah Berkesan
Stage 2
Addition of Process, product variabels and output
2A : process- product
1A-1B : IPO studies
Pembolehubah input yang asal dimasukkan ke alam pembolehubah proses
Contoh pembolehubah Input :
perbelanjaan setiap pelajar
Ciri latar belakang pelajar
Pembolehubah Proses yang dimasukkan adalah seperti sumber perpustakaan, proses
pengajaran pembelajaran dsb
Model Kajian Sekolah Berkesan
Stage 3
Introduction of School Improvement Studies
Model Kajian Sekolah Berkesan
Stage 4
Introduction of Context Variables
1C-1A-1B -CIPO
2B-2A
-CIPP
2B-2A-3A - CIPPI
Perkembangan Sekolah Berkesan dan Model
Kajian Sekolah Berkesan
Masa Depan ?
1.Awalan thn 2000 Sekolah
Kluster
2.Awal thn 2010 Sekolah
Berprestasi Tinggi
Thn 1995.gerakan sekolah
berkesan Model Mortimore
Awal8an lebih tertumpu pada
pengajaran berkesan dan pencapaian
akademik,,spt SBP, MARA dan
sebagainya
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Pemimpin yg professional
Proses pengajaran berkesan
Tumpuan kepada pembelajaran
Mewujudkan budaya positif sekolah
Mewujudkan harapan tinggi
Menekankan kepentingan
tanggungjawab dan hak
Proses penyeliaan untuk semua
peringkat
Perkembangan profesionalisme staf
Pemuafakatan antara sekolah dengan
rumah
Cadangan model keberkesanan sekolah
malaysia
Rumusan
• Keberkesanan sekolah ialah suatu pengajian
yang memberi fokus kepada: Output – hasil peringkat sekolah
Outcome – hasil peringkat masyarakat
Output dan outcome yang efisien iaitu
diperoleh dengan kos yang munasabah
Kemampuan input/proses merupakan
penentu pencapaian output/outcome
TERIMA KASIH
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