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Technical writing CHAPTER 1&2

Karl Vincent N. Cantillas
BS Psychology
Title: The effects of the constant night life/gigs to musicians who has day jobs
Musicians who works on the Indie music scene often starts their career as hobbies, and most of
them are either normal working employees or students at day light. The life in the music scene
usually takes place at nights where bars and production houses are openly taking bands where it
becomes platforms where they can express their art. Thus, affecting a large portion of these
artists time to supposedly rest to start the next day. The goal of my study is to learn the various
effects these constant late-night gigs to the artist’s performances on their day jobs and personal
lives. And to find a solution or recommendation as to how they can manage both careers
Background of the Study
A lot of the musicians you see today started at the Indie scene, where gigs take most of there
time, and a lot of those gigs are events held by production houses to promote local music in
every way they can. The focus of my study will be set on these types of events, where the
variable of my study will be evident and can be studied. The importance of this study is to alarm
people of the sacrifices, determination, passion and hard work these musicians pour into there
art, despite having to provide for there families. A lot of people belittle the work of artists, and
often, in the field of employment, most artists are judged and underpaid. These factors add to the
reasons why a big number of artist are depressed.
To determine the effects of the constant late-night gigs to musicians with day jobs.
To give the said musicians recommendations.
To enlighten people about the struggles of being a musician.
Statement of the Problem
The platform for musicians in the indie scene is quite limited, depending on the events
production houses hosts, musicians have fewer options to earn money or expose their music. Due
to the lack of platforms, musicians have no option but to comply with the schedules of these
gigs, which most of the time starts late nights. The statement of the problem is that most
musicians from the Indie scene can’t just focus on there music, most of them must provide for
their families and for their daily needs. This study hopefully will determine the effects of the late
night gigs to musicians with day jobs and how it affects them both in their career and personal
There is no statistical relationship between the effects of the late night gigs to the performance of
musicians with day jobs on there career and personal lives.
Scope and Limitations
The study will cover the different effects of the constant late-night gigs of musicians with day
jobs to there careers and personal lives.
Significance of the Study
The study will focus on recommending a proper or a better alternative as to how the musicians
can manage or take in the stress and the pressure of carrying both their day jobs and their career.
The study also hopefully helps people to realize the harsh truth about the lives of these
“Seattle’s working musicians”
The Economic Impact of the Music Industry, Working Conditions of Club Musicians, and How
Seattle Can Support Independent Musicians. Report prepared for the Fair Trade Music Project of
the Musicians’ Association of Seattle.
Working musicians are the heart and soul of a vibrant and growing Seattle music industry, but
previous attempts to understand the extent of the economic impact of the music industry have not
taken the working conditions and experiences of musicians into account. This report remedies
this and investigates the working conditions and experiences of these musicians. The purpose of
the report is three-fold. First, by updating an earlier economic impact study on Seattle’s music
industry, we demonstrate that the Seattle music industry continues to grow and remains an
important contributor to larger regional economic prosperity. Second, by investigating the
current working conditions of musicians in Seattle, we demonstrate that working musicians are
not sharing in the economic growth produced by the larger industry and face considerable
mistreatment on the job. Third, we suggest three common sense policy reforms that would
improve the working conditions of local musicians and help ensure that the Seattle music
industry remains a regional economic driver in the coming years. In the first section, the report
uses traditional government data sources to define the scope of the music industry and estimate
the number of people employed in music in Seattle. It continues by analyzing the extent of the
economic relationships that are produced as a result of their commitment to their craft, using
economic impact analysis methods to estimate the overall effect of music industry employment
on the regional economy. Overall, we estimate that 16,607 people are directly employed in the
music industry in Seattle, creating a total of $1.8 billion in direct economic output. The
circulation of this economic output throughout the economy is indirectly responsible for another
14,053 jobs. Using established economic impact multipliers, this project estimates that the music
industry in Seattle is responsible for more than $4.3 billion in total economic output and supports
an astonishing 30,660 jobs. Because traditional government data sources are insufficient for
understanding the economic conditions, we augment these findings with interview data from our
survey of working musicians. Our survey of 124 working musicians found that although many
earn a large percentage of their income directly from their work in music, they are subject to
mistreatment in their working lives, uncertainty about the kinds of work agreements they make,
and overall poor compensation. A typical working musician earns more than half of their income
through music, but earns only about $15,000 per year in music-related income. The report
concludes with three policy prescriptions to help protect the working musicians who contribute
so much to the regional economy. We call on policymakers to reform the admissions tax, curtail
the use of blackout day clauses, and encourage the use of written agreements in the music
industry. These common sense reforms would help protect musicians from the abuse that is
common in the industry.
Low pay, late nights, no holidays: the glamour of a career in music
Mull over the discussions in the music industry in 2016, and a theme begins to emerge. Artists
who left us too soon. The sensitivities around radio support for domestic artists. The difficulties
for women in the business. Talented bands who are left with no choice but to throw in the towel.
Even social media trolling falls into this thread. So what’s the common thread? It’s that the
music business is an unforgiving environment, and those aiming to make a living within its tough
confines need a thick skin.
To anyone working in the music industry this is a given; but it can be more difficult to convince
those outside of the industry, particularly government and funding agencies. That’s why in the
UK, mental health charity Help Musicians is undertaking a study to see what the facts are among
its anecdotal evidence.
“When I first suggested looking at the link between musicians and mental health issues, I was
told it was a non-topic, but I’d seen for myself that it exists,” says Sally Gross. She is a coresearcher on the study, programme director of the music business management MA at the
University of Westminster, and a former manager of Adamski and William Orbit, among others.
“There’s so much talk about the positives of music and how good it can be used to express
yourself, but I wanted to think, what about the other side, when people spend so much time and
effort and self discipline, and are being told all the time they need to believe in themselves, and it
often results in anxiety, stress and depression.”
Why the music industry works late
In the same way that a 3:30 PM time for a meeting is normal for a conventional office job, being
asked to take the stage at 12:30 AM is completely typical in music. The music industry has a
long history of working late because of its close ties with alcohol and the establishments that
serve it. Yes, for most musicians music is a serious artform used sometimes to convey a variety
of serious feelings and emotions, but music––especially live music––is mostly marketed as a tool
to help entertain people.
The music industry works late because it caters to people looking to kick back and relax after
working at their conventional 9-5 jobs. Live music can’t be a dayjob for musicians because aside
from weekend and summer festivals, daytime demand for live music just doesn’t exist. And live
performances aren’t the only way music favors night owls. With most bands practicing, writing,
and recording after work and in their spare time, the culture surrounding music is largely a
nighttime affair.
Challenges for early birds and night owls alike
The music industry’s preference for working late poses challenges for musicians on any sleep
schedule. For early risers, a month-long tour consisting of playing multiple times a week and
getting to bed every night at 2-3 AM is an obvious challenge. Research shows that a few things
can be done to help a person shift their natural sleep schedule, but the unpredictable nature of
touring makes this difficult or even downright impossible for some musicians.
A major hurdle for night owls in the music industry is maintaining solid relationships with
people outside of music. You might be accustomed to a sleep schedule that has you falling asleep
at 4 AM every night, but if your boyfriend has to get up at six, that’s not going to be sustainable
over the long-term. And if you’ve got a job outside of music like the vast majority of musicians
out there, a late-night sleep schedule might negatively impact that source of income. Balancing a
life in music with outside needs and obligations isn’t easy.
There’s no easy solution here for musicians working in a field as dynamic as music. But as a
general rule, musicians who fail to take care of themselves don’t make it very long. Learning to
be realistic about your physical needs will help you to sustain a career in music over the longterm no matter what your sleep schedule is.
Dealing with sickness and retirement as a musician
The lifestyle of a professional musician is often not conducive to a particularly healthy way of
living, and if not kept in check, can lead to both short and long term problems.
While there are obvious negative factors that can affect physical health (lack of sleep, fast food,
lifting of heavy equipment and the prevalence of drug or alcohol use) the stresses put on a
musicians’ mental health are also not to be disregarded. The lifestyle of a musician can
sometimes be surprisingly isolated unlike the image that’s given in the media. It can involve long
periods away from home, family and friends.
Add to that the pressure of entertaining hundreds (or even thousands) of people on a regular basis
and dealing with the complexities of administration, business and organisation that are an
integral part of the entertainment industry and stress- related problems can arise if a reasonable
lifestyle is not maintained.
Don't give up the day job - how artists make a living
How does the average artist make a living? If you're Damien Hirst, of course, you need only flog
a couple of sharks in formaldehyde; if you're Tracey Emin, an unmade bed will do. If you're an
actor, a well-publicised turn as Hamlet and near-omnipresence in the Christmas TV schedules, a
la David Tennant, would keep the accountant happy.
But none of these scenarios will ring true for the average artist – who is more likely to be
stacking supermarket shelves, waiting tables or writing advertising copy by day, and acting,
dancing or sculpting by night.
Right now, the economic climate for artists in this country looks particularly bleak. There's the
innate financial instability of most artistic careers (low earnings, and sometimes none at all; little
job security; no pension or other benefits), together with the recession. Then there's the fact that
– unlike some European and Scandinavian countries – the British government makes no specific
social provision for artists, unless through the publicly funded regional arts councils.
In Denmark, for instance, 275 artists are granted an annual stipend of between 15,000 and
149,000 Danish krone (£1,750 to £17,000) every year for the rest of their lives. In France, public
funds are awarded through regional bodies not unlike our arts councils, except that the range of
awards is much greater: artists in the Ile-de-France region, which includes Paris, can, for
instance, claim up to ¤7,500 (£6,545) specifically to equip their studios.
But in this country, for artists without a lucky early break, rich parents or benefactors, a day job
is often the only way to survive. It needn't mean that fame and fortune aren't just around the
corner: Joy Division's Ian Curtis worked in an unemployment office until 1979, well after the
band had released their debut EP. Van Morrison immortalised his old job as a window cleaner in
the 1982 song Cleaning Windows; composer Philip Glass wasn't able to quit his jobs as a
plumber and a taxi-driver until the age of 41.
What a day job inevitably means, of course, is spending the majority of your waking hours not
doing the thing you love: making art. This is something Lainy Scott, a 28-year-old actor from
London, knows well. At least two-thirds of actors are out of work at any time, according to the
most recent survey by performers' union Equity; hence the old euphemism, "the resting actor".
Scott is getting work; her CV is loaded with parts in fringe theatre and short films, including lead
roles in recent productions of Jane Eyre and Wuthering Heights. But with £11,000 in fees to repay for her postgraduate acting course at Birmingham School of Acting, she has also had to
take on day jobs. She was a waitress at YO! Sushi while she was a student, and quite enjoyed it
("you got to eat there, which definitely helped financially, and with a healthy diet").
A recent waitressing shift at the Houses of Parliament didn't go quite so well: "It was one of the
most horrendous days of my life – everyone treated you as if you were scum. I wanted to cry,
and on my way out I said, 'I'm afraid I can't make tomorrow's shift.' On days like that, you sit
there and go: why don't I want to do something else with my life?"
For the last four years, Scott has been working at RSVP, a call centre in east London that
employs only artists, taking calls for Which? magazine and WeightWatchers. Shifts are available
in the day, evening, or at weekends, allowing artists to plan their work around shows, rehearsals
or auditions (one of the biggest problems for performers is not being able to get to auditions,
which often come up at short notice). The work itself is not, Scott admits, particularly
stimulating. "The calls can get you down, and you know it's not what you want to be doing with
your life, at all." Nor is her pay high – between £7.25 and £7.75 an hour. Based on five eighthour shifts a week, this works out at just less than the Equity minimum weekly pay of £375, the
significant difference being that the RSVP salary is regular.
But Scott remains focused, and is allowed to read scripts or apply for acting jobs online when the
phones are quiet (though those moments, she says, are rare). "There are people who get very
bogged down by having to do non-acting stuff," Scott says. "They tend to eventually just eat
themselves up. Staying positive becomes a personal mentality. I sit there and think: any day now
I could go to an audition that eventually gets me out of here." There is also one unexpected
upside: "You get some of the most bizarre calls in the world. They come in handy when you're
working on a character."
Identity-in-the-work and musicians’ struggles: the production of self-questioning identity
Identity work is widely regarded as a process through which people strive to establish, maintain
or restore a coherent and consistent sense of self. In the face of potential disruptions of, or threats
to, their identities, people seek to salvage their sense of self by resolving tensions and restoring
consistency. In contrast to the current identity work literature, this research indicates that identity
work is not always about seeking resolution and moving on, but sometimes about continuing
struggles which do not achieve a secure sense of self. This article seeks to elaborate the
understanding of unresolved identity work by exploring three contexts of the everyday practice
of indie musicians. An analysis of how they struggle to construct acceptable versions of their
selves as songwriter, bandleader and front(wo)man allows us to develop the conceptualization of
self-questioning (as opposed to self-affirmative, resolution-oriented) identity work.
Identity work has usually been associated with people seeking to ‘solve’ a ‘problem’, a process
in which they ‘are continuously engaged in forming, repairing, maintaining, strengthening or
revising the constructions’ of their selves which produce a sense of ‘coherence and
distinctiveness’ (Alvesson and Willmott, 2002: 626). From this viewpoint, people are thus seen
as continuously working towards a sense of self that is clear, coherent and distinctive (Watson,
2009). Working from this assumption, a considerable body of literature on identity work has
been established, expanding our understanding of how organizational actors’ search for the
resolution of tensions to secure their identity claims (Alvesson, 2010; Brown, 2015). There are as
Ybema et al. (2009: 312) point out, ‘few empirical studies that privilege the potential analytical
purchase and subtleties of indecisive, insecure, critical, self-depreciative identity talk’. Some
studies do show, for example, how organizational actors resist an unwanted identity that is
attributed to them or claim an identity over which they have a tenuous grasp, thus exploring
difficulties such as pressures to conform to a corporate self (Costas and Fleming, 2009) and
inbetween or ‘liminal’ identities (Beech, 2011; Ellis and Ybema, 2010). Yet, while bringing into
view tensions and struggles, the focus in these studies remains on organizational actors’
solutions: their ‘tensile positioning’ (Ellis and Ybema, 2010: 279); or their preservation of an
‘authentic’ self (Costas and Fleming, 2009). This article shows instead, not only how
organizational actors encounter identity-provoking situations and ‘forestall closure on their
identity’ (Ellis and Ybema, 2010: 279), but also how they do not always seek to arrive at an
answer or strive for resolution in the face of disturbing tensions, but engage in ‘self-questioning’
rather than ‘self-affirming’ identity work. One area of work which may be particularly fruitful
for such investigation is the
Don't give up the day job - how artists make a living
The weight of having to provide for a family, or for yourself, independently, is very heavy for musicians.
This focus of the article in relation to my study are the reasons why a musician can’t let go of there day
jobs, and its connection to how late-night gigs affects their day jobs.
Why the music industry works late
The article explains the various reasons why the music industry works late at night and supports my
Identity-in-the-work and musicians’ struggles: the production of self-questioning identity
This study focuses on the struggles of a musician on his behavior or identity between his day job and his
music career. This study heavily shows the effects of the constant gigs in the personality of a musician on
his personal daily life and their day jobs.
Chapter 2 will focus on the methodology of the paper. The design of the research and its methods
will be discussed thoroughly by expounding on the research design, respondents of the study,
research instruments, data gathering procedure and the statistical analysis of the data collected.
Research Design
The research design that was used in this study is the descriptive-correlational method, to aid in
the completion of the research. A descriptive-correlational study is a research method that
describes and predicts how variables are naturally related in the real world, without any attempt
by the researcher to alter them or assign causation between them, this method was used in
explaining the relationship between the effects of the constant late night gigs and employment to
day jobs of musicians.
Respondents of the Study
The intended respondents of the study are musicians working on the fields of the local Indie
music scene. The two qualifications needed for the study to be precise are: The musician has to
be working under the local Indie scene, and the musician must be a regular employee from a
corporation, company or any type of business that requires a scheduled work shift.
Research Instruments
Myer-Briggs Personality Indicator (MBTS)
The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) is a widely
used personality inventory, or test, employed in vocational, educational, and psychothera
py settings to evaluate personality types. The MyersBriggs inventory is based on Carl Jung's theory of types, outlined in his 1921 work Psych
ological Types. Jung's theory holds that human beings are either introverts or extraverts, a
nd their behavior follows from these inborn psychological types.
Neo Personality Inventory-Revised (Neo PI-R)
Neo Personality Inventory-Revised is a tool developed by Paul Costa and Robert McCrae
Which uses five dimensions which are interpersonal, emotional, experiential, attitudinal,
and motivational styles to evaluate an adult’s personality.
DiSC Behavior Inventory
DiSC is a behavioral model that is focused exclusively on behaviors at work (rather than
on general personality type) and helps employees become more productive. Employees
find out if they are strongest in dominance, influence, steadiness, or conscientiousness.
They then learn how to emphasize the right trait strengths in each situation and to work
more effectively with other members of their team through a shared understanding of the
DiSC types.
Data Gathering Procedure
Initial and Selection Phase the participants of the study are selected through the use of
inclusion criteria. Those who will qualify for the research are asked to sign a consent
from that states that they are permitting data gathering and that it would only be used for
academic purposes. The respondents for the study will be musicians working under the
local Indie music scene.
Data Collection Phase the respondents selected will be given the three questionnaires:
MBTS, Neo PI-R, DiSC Behavior Inventory
Scoring of Data Gathered the data will be scored after collecting the questionnaires
from the respondents. The researcher will score the answer according to the guidelines in
the questionnaire.
Analysis Phase The data and the score per questionnaire will be analyzed to determine if
there is a significant relationship or difference.
Review and Final Writing Phase the results will be reviewed and further analyzed
through the data gathered from the respondents. This phase will prepare the conducted
study for its final editing.
Statistical Treatment and Analysis of Data
Problem 1: Arithmetic Mean The results of the data gathered from the three tests, MBTS, Neo
PI-R, and DiSC Behavior Inventory, will be statistically computed vie Likert scale through
arithmetic mean to determine the effects of the variables to the respondents.
Problem 2: Pearson-r This will be used to determine the significant relationship between both
Problem 3: T-test and ANOVA will be used to explore the outcomes from several parametric
variables, across one or more independent variables.