Simple Present Tense The criteria of Simple Present Tense • Daily activities, habit, habitual action (repeated) Example : I eat three times a day. I take a bath twice a day. I Watch television everyday. • General truth Example : The water boils at 100۫C. • General statement Example : It rains in malang. • Permanent action / condition Example : I go to campus on weekday. The pattern (+) S + V1 s/es + O/C (- ) S + Do/Does + Not + O/C (?) Do/Does + S + V1 + O/C (+) S + To be + C (- ) S + To be + Not + C (?) To be + S + C (+) S + Modal + V1 + O/C (-) S + Modal + Not + V1 + O/C (?) Modal + S + V1 + O/C Subject Verb I / you / we / they play Subject Verb He / She plays Example : I play football everyday Example : He plays football everyday Yes or No Question ? Do Does Subject I / you / we / they He / She Verb Speak? Example : Do you speak English? Does she speak English? Positive and Negative Short Answer Answer Yes Subject I / you / we / they He / She Do / Does Do (+) Don’t (-) Does (+) Doesn’t (-) Present Progressive Tense • • • • Happen at the moment of speaking Right now, now, at the moment Example : He is singing right now. Happen near future This day, this semester, this year, This….. next month, next….. Example : I am writing a novel this year. Temporary action Example : I’m living with my brother before I find an apartment. To Complain Example : She is always eating my snack. Pattern (+) S + To be V ing + O/C (-) S + To be + Not + V ing + O/C (? ) To be + S + V ing + O/C Please See Look Example + Progressive : Look. It is beginning to rain. Please be quite. I am trying to concenterate. Simple Past Tense Time Signal • Yesterday • Last…… (Month, year etc.) • …. Ago • Just now • This…(morning, day, etc) • Previously Pattern (+) S + V2 + O/C (- ) S + Did not + V1 + O/C (? ) Did + S + V1 + O/C ? Or (+) S + Was / Were + C (- ) Was /Were + S + C ? Example : She was crazy. She was sick yesterday. USE 1 : Complete Actions in the Past Example : 1. I saw a movie yesterday. 2. Last year, I traveled malang. 3. Last year, I did not travel bali. 4. Did you have dinner last night? 5. She washed her car. USE 2 : A Series of Completed Actions Example : 1. I finished work, walked to the beach, and found a nice place to swim. 2. Did you add flour, pour in the milk, and then add the eggs? USE 3 : Duration in Past Example : 1. I lived in malang for four years. 2. They sat at the beach all day. 3. We talked on the phone for thirty minutes. USE 4 : Habits in the Past Example : 1. I studied French when I was a child. 2. He played the guitar. 3. She worked at the movie theater after school. USE 5 : Past Facts or Generalizations Example : 1. He did not like tomatoes before. 2. Did you live in Texas when you were a kid? Subject Verb I / you / we / they played Subject Verb He / She played Example : I played football last night. Yes or No Question ? Did Did Subject I / you / we / they He / She Verb Speak? Example : Did you speak English? Did she speak English? Positive and Negative Short Answer Answer Yes/No Subject I / you / we / they He / She Do / Does Did (+) Didn’t (-) Did (+) Didn’t (-) Past Progressive Tense This tense can be used as a past equivalent of the present continuous: 1. Direct speech : He said, ‘I am living in London.’ Indirect speech : He said that he was living in London. 2. The past continuous with always Example : He was always ringing me up. He was always working The pattern (+) S + Was / Were + V ing + O / C (- ) S + Was / Were + Not + V ing + O / C (? ) Was / Were + S + V ing + O/ C ? Example : She was swimming in the swimming pool. She was not swimming in the swimming pool. Was she swimming in the swimming pool? Using Expressions of Place with Progressive Tense Example : Merry is in the room singing and dancing. Rey was at supermarket buying some food. The teacher is in the class teaching students. Rezy is in the class attending the conference. Present Perfect The present perfect is used to express: • The idea that something Happened (or never happened) Before now, at unspecified time in the past. Example : I have already cleaned the floor. • The repetition of an activity before now. Example : I have read four novel since I joined reading class. • A situation that began in the past and continuous to the present. It used with FOR or SINCE : FOR + a particular time SINCE + a duration time Example : I have been here for three days. • Just for a recently complete action. Example : He has just gone out. • For recent actions when time is not mentioned Example : I have read the instruction but I don’t understand them. Pattern : (+) S + have + V3 + O / C (- ) S + Have + Not + V3 + O / C (? ) Have + S + V3 + O / C ? Example : They have moved into a new hotel. They have not moved into a new hotel. Have they moved into a new hotel? Present Perfect Progressive Pattern : (+) S + Have been + V ing + O / C (- ) S + Have not been + V ing + O / C (? ) Have + S + been + V ing + O / C ? This tense is used to indicate the duration of an activity that began in the past and continuous to the present. When this tense has this meaning, it is use with time words such us for, since, all morning, all day, all week. Example : I have been teaching here since two o’clock. It has been snowing all day. I have been singing here for twenty minutes. When the tense is used with out any specific mention of time, it expresses a general activity in progress recently lately. Example : I have been thinking about shopping to market. The teacher has been teaching hard. With certain Verbs (most notably live, work, teach), there is little or no difference in meaning between the two tenses when SINCE or FOR is used. Example • : I have lived here since 1985. with I have been living here since 1985. Both of sentences above there is a little or no difference in meaning. A repeated action in the simple perfect can sometimes be expressed as a continuous action by the present perfect continuous. Example • : I have written six letters since breakfast. (present perfect) can be expressed with I have been writing letters since breakfast.(present perfect continuous) Simple Future To express a prediction Will or Be Going To is used : Example : • According to the malang post report, it will windy tomorrow. • According to the malang post report, it is going to be windy tomorrow. Note : there is no different between Will and Be Going To. To express willingness only used will Example : • A : The phone is ringing B : I’ll get it. Note : Be going to Is not appropriate in this statement. : To express a prior plan only used be going to : Example : • A : Why did you buy this paint? B : I’m going to paint my bedroom tomorrow. Note : will is not appropriate in this statement. The simple future tense is used similarly for future habitual actions which we assume will take place: Example : • Spring will come again. • People will make plans. To express the speaker’s opinions, assumption, speculation about the future. Example : • I’m sure he’ll come back. • I suppose they’ll sell the house. • Perhaps we’ll find her at the market. The simple future tense is used in sentences containing clauses of condition, time, and sometimes purpose: Example : • If I drop this glass it will break. • When it gets warmer the snow will start to melt. • I’m putting this letter on top of the pile so that he’ll read it first. Pattern : (+) S + will / shall + V1 + O / C (- ) S + will / shall + not + V1 + O / C ( ?) Will / shall + S + V1 + O / C ? Future Progressive Tense The future progressive used to express future without intention. Example ; • I will be helping rony tomorrow. • I will be teaching student tomorrow. Form • Positive Example : I will be working. • Negative Example : I will not be working. • Interrogative Example : Will you be working? The future progressive express an activity that will be in progress at a time in a future. Example : • I will be studying when you come. The progressive from of be going to Example : • I am going to be shopping at the market. Sometimes There is little or no difference between the future progressive and the simple future, especially when the future event will occur at an indefinite time in the future. Example : • Don’t get impatient.She will be coming soon. • Don’t get impatient.She will come soon. Both of sentence above have no difference or a litle.