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2nd semfinalreview2013-2014 chem

CPE Physical Science Semester 2 Final Exam Review 2013-2014
Instructions for using this review sheet: This review sheet is divided into chapters with the pages covered in each
chapter listed because we did not cover all parts of all chapters. The important vocabulary is listed for each
chapter. You should make flash cards of the vocabulary to help you study. A set of questions follows the
vocabulary in each chapter. Look for the answers to these questions in your book and in your notes. These
questions do not necessarily cover everything in the chapter. They just give you an idea of some of the important
Write all of your answers on a separate sheet of paper. There will not be enough room for you to write
your answers on this sheet. This sheet is designed so you can then continue to use this as a question/answer review.
Study with friends or family by having other people quiz you. Simply answering these questions will not
prepare you for your exam. You must study the information, memorize vocabulary, and seek to understand how
to do the problems.
Chapter 2- Matter
chemical property
Pages covered- 38-42, 45-58
physical change
chemical change
chemical formula
pure substance
melting point
freezing point
boiling point
physical property
heterogeneous mixture
homogeneous mixture
1. What is the difference between physical and chemical properties? Give an example of each.
2. Should a material have a higher or lower density in order to float in another substance?
3. Which phase of matter generally has the greatest density?
4. What is the difference between a physical change and a chemical change? Give an example of each.
5. Density problems: solve the following problems
a. If the density of gold is 19.3 g/mL, what is the mass of 5mL of gold?
b. A 4mL sample of lead has a mass of 45.2 g/mL. What is its density?
c. An irregularly shaped solid object is placed into a graduated cylinder with 100mL of water. It
raises the level of the water to 243 mL. If its mass is 12g, what is its density?
d. Object X has a mass of 10g and a volume of 10mL. Object Y has a mass of 2g and a volume of
2mL. How do the densities of the two objects compare.
Pages covered- only section 1 – 70-78
Chapter 3-States of Matter
thermal energy
law of conservation of mass
law of conservation of energy
6. Describe what happens to the molecules of a substance when it is heated.
7. Explain the shape and volume characteristics of solids, liquids, and gases.
8. Explain the motion of particles in solids, liquids, and gases.
9. What is the relationship between temperature and motion of particles?
10. Analyze the phase change diagram for water and answer the following questions.
a. At what point(s) (letters A-E) is there no temperature change despite the addition of heat
b. What letter represents a gas?
c. What letter represents freezing?
d. Why is there a constant temperature when a substance is changing phase?
Chapter 13- Heat and Temperature
Vocabulary- temperature thermometer absolute zero
convection convection current radiation
1. Compare conduction, convection, and radiation
Pages covered- 420-431
heat thermal conduction
2. Relate absolute zero to the kinetic energy of particles
3. What temperature is 45F on the Celsius and Kelvin scale?
4. Draw the convection currents that would be seen in a pot on the stove. Show where different
temperature zones are in the pot.
5. If two objects that have different temperatures come into contact with each other, what will happen?
What can you say about their temperatures after several minutes of contact?
6. Temperature is proportional to the average kinetic energy of particles in an object. Thus an increase
in temperature results in a(n)
a. increase in mass
c. increase in average kinetic energy
b. decrease in average kinetic energy
d. decrease in mass
Chapter 4- Atoms and the Periodic Table
valence electron
periodic law
period group
Pages covered- 104-108,110-128- skip section 4
atomic number
mass number isotope
11. What is the atomic mass of oxygen?
12. List the names and location of all the chemical families on the periodic table.
13. What is the atomic number of lead?
14. Where are metals located on the periodic table?
15. How many electrons are in one atom of xenon?
16. How many protons are in one sulfur atom?
17. How many neutrons are in one fluorine atom?
18. Which groups contain the most reactive elements? The least reactive?
19. Where are protons, neutrons, and electrons located in the atom?
20. What is Dalton’s atomic theory?
21. Draw Bohr’s atomic model.
22. Define modern atomic theory.
23. Noble gases have how many valence electrons?
24. Where is the nucleus located?
25. Chemical bonding involves what part of an atom?
26. What is a Lewis dot diagram used for?
27. What is the difference between atomic number and atomic mass?
Chapter 5- The Structure of Matter
Pages covered-144-145, 151-155, 159-161- Skip section 4
Vocabulary- ionic bond
metallic bond
covalent bond
oxidation number
polyatomic ion
28. What is the oxidation number of all atoms in group 18 of the periodic table?
29. Between which types of atoms do ionic bonds, covalent bonds, and metallic bonds occur?
30. Do metal atoms tend to gain or lose electrons?
31. What makes an atom stable?
32. Show the correct covalent bonding for the following compounds: a. CCl4 b. H2O
c. PBr3
33. Determine the type of bond holding the atoms together in the following compounds:
a. KCl
b. NH3
c. CH4
d. CO2
34. First, write the correct formula needed for these elements to combine, then name the resulting
compound. Remember to determine the oxidation numbers:
a. Sodium and Iodine
c. Magnesium and Bromine
b. Sodium and oxygen
d. Phosphorus and Fluorine
Chapter 6-Chemical Reactions
chemical energy
Pages covered-184-189, 198-201 skip sections 2 and 4
exothermic reaction
endothermic reaction
chemical equation
35. What is the difference between an endothermic and an exothermic reaction?
36. Where are reactants and products located in a chemical equation?
37. One molecule of C6H12O6 consists of how many atoms of C, H, and O?
38. What is changed or added to balance a chemical equation?
39. In the formula NH3, what does the 3 refer to?
40. Balance the following equations
a. KClO3  KCl + O2
c. Ba(NO3)2 + NaCl  BaCl2 + NaNO3
b. Zn + HCl  ZnCl2 + H2
d. H2O + O2  H2O2
41. How many atoms of each element are present in the following formulas?
a. Ca(NO3)2
b. NH4CO3
Chapter 8- Acids, Bases, and Salts
c. 2Mg(C2H3O2)2
d. P2(SO4)3
Pages covered-256-263 skip sections 2 and 3
42. How are acids and bases different.Give an example of each.
43. What are the differences between strong and weak acids?
44. What are the differences between strong and weak bases?
45. What does pH measure?
Chapter 9- Nuclear Changes
Pages covered- 284-288, 293-298 skip section 3
nuclear radiation
alpha particle
beta particle
gamma ray
nuclear chain reaction
critical mass
46. Explain the similarities and differences between fission and fusion.
47. Explain the similarities and differences between alpha particles, beta particles, and gamma rays
Chapter 19- The Solar System
solar system
Pages covered- 630-636, 646-649 skip section 2
nebular model
48. Explain the theory of how the solar system formed.
49. What is the difference between the theories of Ptolemy and Copernicus?
50. What did Aristotle do?
51. What is the approximate age of the solar system?
52. What did Kepler do?
Chapter 20- The Universe
red giant
white dwarf
red shift
big bang theory
53. Explain the Big Bang theory
Pages covered-666-673, 680-686 skip section 2
black hole
54. Explain how the surface temperature of a star is measured.
55. What is a black hole and how does it form?
56. What happens when a star forms?
57. What are the 3 possible fates of the Universe?
58. What is the approximate age of the Universe?
Chapter 21- Planet Earth
Pages covered- 700-709, 714, and 716-717
Vocabulary- crust mantle core lithosphere plate tectonics magma subduction fault
59. Describe how the gap is filled when two tectonic plates move away from each other.
60. Determine whether each of the following is likely to occur at convergent or divergent boundaries
a. rift valley b. continental mountains c. mid-oceanic ridge d. ocean trench
61. Explain how magnetic bands provide evidence that tectonic plates are moving apart at mid-oceanic
62. Explain the difference between convergent and divergent boundaries.
63. Identify whether volcanoes are likely to form at the following locations:
a. hot spot
b. transform fault boundary
c. divergent plate boundary d. convergent boundary between continental and oceanic plates