Newton’s First Law: A body at rest will remain at rest, and a body in motion will remain in motion unless it is acted upon by an external force Also called the law of inertia 1) What has more inertia? A 6kg dog or a 2kg cat? 2) What has more inertia? A 6kg bird or a 5kg bird? 3) What has more inertia? A 100Kg man or a 100Kg woman? Newton’s Second Law: The force acting on an object is equal to the mass of that object times its acceleration F = ma ; where F is force, m is mass, and a is acceleration Force is measured in Newton's (N) 1) A 200kg car is pushed with 400N force. Friction is considered zero. What is the acceleration? 2) A 10kg dog is pushed with 10N force. Friction is considered zero. What is the acceleration? 3) A 50kg box is pushed, and accelerates at 5m/s2. What force was applied? Assume force of friction is zero. 4) A box is pushed with a force of 43N. It accelerates at 9m/s2. What is the mass of the box? Free Body Diagrams 1) A book is at rest on a tabletop. A free-body diagram for this situation looks like? 2) A gymnast holding onto a bar, is suspended motionless in mid-air. The bar is supported by two ropes that attach to the ceiling. Diagram the forces acting on the combination of gymnast and bar. 3) A rightward force is applied to a book in order to move it across a desk with a rightward acceleration. Consider frictional forces. Neglect air resistance. A free-body diagram for this situation looks like? 4) A force is applied to the right to drag a sled across loosely packed snow with a rightward acceleration. Neglect air resistance. A free-body diagram for this situation looks like? 5) A car is coasting to the right and slowing down. Neglect air resistance. A free-body diagram for this situation looks like? 6) A rightward force is applied to a book in order to move it across a desk at constant velocity. Consider frictional forces. Neglect air resistance. A free-body diagram for this situation looks like? Types of Forces 1) Applied Force (Fapp) • An applied force is a force that is applied to an object by a person or another object 2) Gravity Force (Fgrav) (Also called weight) • The force of gravity is the force with which the earth, moon, or other massively large object attracts another object towards itself. By definition, this is the weight of the object. All objects upon earth experience a force of gravity that is directed "downward" towards the center of the earth • Fgrav = M * A 3) Normal Force (Fnorm) • The normal force is the support force exerted upon an object that is in contact with another stable object. For example, if a book is resting upon a surface, then the surface is exerting an upward force upon the book in order to support the weight of the book 4) Friction Force (Ffrict) • The friction force is the force exerted by a surface as an object moves across it or makes an effort to move across it. • The friction force often opposes the motion of an object. For example, if a book slides across the surface of a desk, then the desk exerts a friction force in the opposite direction of its motion. • Friction results from the two surfaces being pressed together closely, causing intermolecular attractive forces between molecules of different surfaces. • Ffrict = µ * Fnorm 5) Air Resistance Force (Fair) • The air resistance is a special type of frictional force that acts upon objects as they travel through the air. The force of air resistance is often observed to oppose the motion of an object. This force will frequently be neglected due to its negligible magnitude (and due to the fact that it is mathematically difficult to predict its value). 6) Tension Force (Ftens) The tension force is the force that is transmitted through a string, rope, cable or wire when it is pulled tight by forces acting from opposite ends. The tension force is directed along the length of the wire and pulls equally on the objects on the opposite ends of the wire.