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Economic Integration

Economic Integration
What Is Economic Integration?
Economic integration is an arrangement between different regions that often includes the
reduction or elimination of trade barriers, and the coordination of monetary and fiscal
policies. Economic integration aims to reduce costs for both consumers and producers and
to increase trade between the countries involved in the agreement.
Economic Integration Explained
As economies become integrated, there is a lessening of trade barriers and economic and
political coordination between countries increases. There are seven stages of economic
integration: preferential trading area, free trade area, customs union, common market,
economic union, economic and monetary union, and complete economic integration. The
final stage represents a complete monetary union and fiscal policy harmonization.
Regions may agree to economic integration to better serve their citizens.
Economic integration can broaden markets, boost employment, and spur political
Some advantages and disadvantages must be weighed when pursuing economic
Trade unions may divert trade from nonmembers even if doing so is detrimental to
one or more members.
Strict nationalists may oppose economic integration due to feelings of a loss of
Three Categories of Economic Integration Advantages
The advantages of economic integration fall into three categories: trade
benefits, employment, and political cooperation. More specifically, economic integration
typically leads to a reduction in the cost of trade, improved availability of and a wider
selection of goods and services, and efficiency gains that lead to greater purchasing
Employment opportunities tend to improve because trade liberalization leads to market
expansion, technology sharing, and cross-border investment flows. Political cooperation
among countries can improve because of stronger economic ties, which can help resolve
conflicts peacefully and lead to greater stability.
The Costs of Economic Integration
Despite the benefits, economic integration has costs. The disadvantages include trade
diversion and the erosion of national sovereignty. For example, trade unions can divert
trade from nonmembers, even if it is economically detrimental for them to do so.
Additionally, members of economic unions are typically required to adhere to rules on
trade, monetary policy, and fiscal policy, which are established by an unelected external
policymaking body.
Because economists and policymakers believe economic integration leads to significant
benefits for society, many institutions attempt to measure the degree of economic
integration across countries and regions. The methodology for measuring economic
integration typically involves the combination of multiple economic indicators, including
trade in goods and services, cross-border capital flows, labor migration, and others.
Assessing economic integration also includes measures of institutional conformity, such as
membership in trade unions and the strength of institutions that protect consumer and
investor rights.
Real World Example of Economic Integration
The European Union (EU) includes 28 member states and formally came into being in
1993. Since 2002, 19 of those nations have adopted the euro as a shared currency.
According to the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the EU accounted for 16.04% of the
world's gross domestic product.
The United Kingdom voted in 2016 to leave the EU, effective March 29, 2019. In the weeks
leading up to that date, no deal had been reached to settle on the details of the departure,
leaving the impact uncertain.
The Stages of Economic Integration
Economic integration
There are several stages in the process of economic integration, from a very loose association of
countries in a preferential trade area, to complete economic integration, where the economies of
member countries are completely integrated.
A regional trading bloc is a group of countries within a geographical region that protect themselves
from imports from non-members in other geographical regions, and who look to trade more with
each other. Regional trading blocs increasingly shape the pattern of world trade - a phenomenon
often referred to as regionalism.
Stages of integration
Preferential Trade Area
Preferential Trade Areas (PTAs) exist when countries within a geographical region agree to
reduce or eliminate tariff barriers on selected goods imported from other members of the area.
This is often the first small step towards the creation of a trading bloc. Agreements may be made
between two countries (bi-lateral), or several countries (multi-lateral).
Free Trade Area
Free Trade Areas (FTAs) are created when two or more countries in a region agree to reduce or
eliminate barriers to trade on all goods coming from other members. TheNorth Atlantic Free Trade
Agreement (NAFTA) is an example of such a free trade area, and includes the USA, Canada, and
Customs Union
A customs union involves the removal of tariff barriers between members, together with the
acceptance of a common (unified) external tariff against non-members.
Countries that export to the customs union only need to make a single payment (duty), once the
goods have passed through the border. Once inside the union goods can move freely without
additional tariffs. Tariff revenue is then shared between members, with the country that collects the
duty retaining a small share.
The advantages of a customs union
Without a unified external tariff, trade flows would become distorted. If, for example, Germany
imposes a 10% tariff on Japanese cars, while France imposes a 2% tariff, Japan would export its
cars to French car dealers, and then sell them on to Germany, thereby avoiding 80% of the tariff.
This is avoided if a common tariff is shared between Germany and France (and other members of
the customs union.)
A common external tariff effectively removes the possibility of arbitrage and, some would argue, is
one of the fundamental building blocks of economic integration.
The disadvantages of a customs union
Union members must negotiate collectively with non-members or organisations like the WTO as a
single group of countries. While this is essential to maintain the customs union, it means that
members are not free to negotiate individual trade deals.
For example, if a member wishes to protect a declining or infant industry it cannot do so through
imposing its own tariffs. Equally, if it wishes to open up to complete free trade, it cannot do so if a
common tariff exists.
Also, it makes little sense for a particular member to impose a tariff on the import of a good that is
not produced at all within a that country.
For example, the UK does not produce its own bananas, so a tariff on banana imports only raises
price and does not protect domestic producers. The current EU tariff on bananas imported from
outside the EU is 10.9%.
There is also a potential disadvantage to a single member in how the tariff revenue is allocated.
Members that trade relatively more with countries outside the union, such as the UK, may not get
their 'fair share' of tariff revenue.
The UK's status as a customs union member is one of the dilemmas facing the UK as a result
of Brexit. If it wishes to create individual trade deals with, say the USA and China, it cannot retain
its current status as a full member of the customs union.
Common Market
A common (or single) market is the most significant step towards full economic integration. In the
case of Europe, the single market is officially referred to a the 'internal market'.
The key feature of a common market is the extension of free trade from just tangible goods, to
include all economic resources. This means that all barriers are eliminated to allow the free
movement of goods, services, capital, and labour.
In addition, as well as removing tariffs, non-tariff barriers are also reduced and eliminated.
For a common market to be successful there must also be a significant level of harmonisation of
micro-economic policies, and common rules regarding product standards, monopoly power and
other anti-competitive practices. There may also be common policies affecting key industries, such
as the Common Agricultural Policy(CAP) and Common Fisheries Policy (CFP).
Full Economic Union
Economic union is a term applied to a trading bloc that has both a common market between
members, and a common trade policy towards non-members, although members are free to
pursue independent macro-economic policies.
The European Union (EU) is the best known Economic union, and came into force on November
1st 1993, following the signing of the Maastricht Treaty (formally called the Treaty on European
Monetary Union
Monetary union is the first major step towards macro-economic integration, and enables
economies to converge even more closely. Monetary union involves scrapping individual
currencies, and adopting a single, shared currency, such as the Euro for the Euro-17 countries,
and the East Caribbean Dollar for 11 islands in the East Caribbean. This means that there is a
common exchange rate, a commonmonetary policy, including interest rates and the regulation of
the quantity of money, and a single central bank, such as the European Central Bank or the East
Caribbean Central Bank.
Fiscal Union
A fiscal union is an agreement to harmonise tax rates, to establish common levels of public sector
spending and borrowing, and jointly agree national budget deficits or surpluses. The majority of
EU states agreed a fiscal compact in early 2012, which is a less binding version of a full fiscal
Economic and Monetary Union
Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) is a key stage towards compete integration, and involves a
single economic market, a common trade policy, a single currency and a common monetary
Complete Economic Integration
Complete economic integration involves a single economic market, a common trade policy, a
single currency, a common monetary policy, together with a single fiscal policy, including common
tax and benefit rates – in short, complete harmonisation of all policies, rates, and economic trade
members' attempt to adjust with different culture, historical, and economic backgrounds (if any) to enter effectively
into the agreement
Relationships are powerful. Our one-to-one connections with each other are the foundation for change. And
building relationships with people from different cultures, often many different cultures, is key in building
diverse communities that are powerful enough to achieve significant goals.
Whether you want to make sure your children get a good education, bring quality health care into your
communities, or promote economic development, there is a good chance you will need to work with people
from several different racial, language, ethnic, or economic groups. And in order to work with people from
different cultural groups effectively, you will need to build sturdy and caring relationships based on trust,
understanding, and shared goals.
Why? Because trusting relationships are the glue that hold people together as they work on a common
problem. As people work on challenging problems, they will have to hang in there together when things get
hard. They will have to support each other to stay with an effort, even when it feels discouraging. People
will have to resist the efforts of those who use divide-and-conquer techniques--pitting one cultural group
against another.
Regardless of your racial, ethnic, religious, or socioeconomic group, you will probably need to establish
relationships with people whose group you may know very little about.
Each one of us is like a hub of a wheel. Each one of us can build relationships and friendships around
ourselves that provide us with the necessary strength to achieve community goals. If each person builds a
network of diverse and strong relationships, we can come together and solve problems that we have in
In this section, we are going to talk about:
Becoming aware of your own culture as a first step in learning about other people's culture.
Building relationships with people from many different cultures.
But first let's talk about what culture is. Culture is a complex concept, with many different definitions. But,
simply put, "culture" refers to a group or community with which we share common experiences that shape
the way we understand the world. It includes groups that we are born into, such as gender, race, national
origin, class, or religion. It can also include groups we join or become part of. For example, we can acquire a
new culture by moving to a new region, by a change in our economic status, or by becoming disabled. When
we think of culture this broadly we realize we all belong to many cultures at once. Do you agree? How
might this apply to you?
It may seem odd that in order to learn about people in other cultures, we start by becoming more aware of
our own culture. But we believe this is true. Why?
If you haven't had a chance to understand how your culture has affected you first hand, it's more difficult to
understand how it could affect anyone else or why it might be important to them. If you are comfortable
talking about your own culture, then you will become better at listening to others talk about theirs. Or, if you
understand how discrimination has affected you, then you may be more aware of how it has affected others.
Here are some tips on how to becoming more aware of your own culture:
Do you have a culture? Do you have more than one? What is your cultural background?
Even if you don't know who your ancestors are, you have a culture. Even if you are a mix of many cultures,
you have one. Culture evolves and changes all the time. It came from your ancestors from many generations
ago, and it comes from your family and community today.
In addition to the cultural groups we belong to, we also each have groups we identify with, such as being a
parent, an athlete, an immigrant, a small business owner, or a wage worker. These kinds of groups, although
not exactly the same as a culture, have similarities to cultural groups. For example, being a parent or and an
immigrant may be an identity that influences how you view the world and how the world views you.
Becoming aware of your different identities can help you understand what it might be like to belong to a
cultural group.
There are many ways that people can learn about other people's cultures and build relationships at the same
time. Here are some steps you can take. They are first listed, and then elaborated upon one at a time.
Make a conscious decision to establish friendships with people from other cultures.
Put yourself in situations where you will meet people of other cultures.
Examine your biases about people from other cultures.
Ask people questions about their cultures, customs, and views.
Read about other people's culture's and histories
Listen to people tell their stories
Notice differences in communication styles and values; don't assume that the majority's way is the right way
Risk making mistakes
Learn to be an ally.
Make a conscious decision to establish friendships with people from other cultures
Making a decision is the first step. In order to build relationships with people different from yourself, you
have to make a concerted effort to do so. There are societal forces that serve to separate us from each other.
People from different economic groups, religions, ethnic groups, and races are often isolated from each other
in schools, jobs, and neighborhoods. So, if we want things to be different, we need to take active steps to
make them different.
You can join a sports team or club, become active in an organization, choose a job, or move to a
neighborhood that puts you in contact with people of cultures different than your own. Also, you may want
to take a few minutes to notice the diversity that is presently nearby. If you think about the people you see
and interact with every day, you may become more aware of the cultural differences that are around you.
Once you have made the decision to make friends with people different from yourself, you can go ahead and
make friends with them in much the same way as with anyone else. You may need to take more time, and
you may need to be more persistent. You may need to reach out and take the initiative more than you are
used to. People who have been mistreated by society may take more time to trust you than people who
haven't. Don't let people discourage you. There are good reasons why people have built up defenses, but it is
not impossible to overcome them and make a connection. The effort is totally worth it.
Put yourself in situations where you will meet people of other cultures; especially if you haven't had
the experience of being a minority, take the risk.
One of the first and most important steps is to show up in places where you will meet people of cultures
other than your own. Go to meetings and celebrations of groups whose members you want to get to know.
Or hang out in restaurants and other gathering places that different cultural groups go. You may feel
embarrassed or shy at first, but your efforts will pay off. People of a cultural group will notice if you take the
risk of coming to one of their events. If it is difficult for you to be the only person like yourself attending,
you can bring a buddy with you and support each other in making friends.
Examine your biases about people from other cultures.
We all carry misinformation and stereotypes about people in different cultures. Especially, when we are
young, we acquire this information in bits and pieces from TV, from listening to people talk, and from the
culture at large. We are not bad people because we acquired this; no one requested to be misinformed. But in
order to build relationships with people of different cultures, we have to become aware of the
misinformation we acquired.
An excellent way to become aware of your own stereotypes is to pick groups that you generalize about and
write down your opinions. Once you have, examine the thoughts that came to your mind and where you
acquired them.
Another way to become aware of stereotypes is to talk about them with people who have similar cultures to
your own. In such settings you can talk about the misinformation you acquired without being offensive to
people from a particular group. You can get together with a friend or two and talk about how you acquired
stereotypes or fears of other different people. You can answer these kinds of questions:
How did your parents feel about different ethnic, racial, or religious groups?
What did your parents communicate to you with their actions and words?
Were your parents friends with people from many different groups?
What did you learn in school about a particular group?
Was there a lack of information about some people?
Are there some people you shy away from? Why?
Ask people questions about their cultures, customs, and views
People, for the most part, want to be asked questions about their lives and their cultures. Many of us were
told that asking questions was nosy; but if we are thoughtful, asking questions can help you learn about
people of different cultures and help build relationships. People are usually pleasantly surprised when others
show interest in their cultures. If you are sincere and you can listen, people will tell you a lot.
Read about other people's cultures and histories
It helps to read about and learn about people's cultures and histories. If you know something about the
reality of someone's life and history, it shows that you care enough to take the time to find out about it. It
also gives you background information that will make it easier to ask questions that make sense.
However, you don't have to be an expert on someone's culture to get to know them or to ask questions.
People who are, themselves, from a culture are usually the best experts, anyway.
Don't forget to care and show caring
It is easy to forget that the basis of any relationship is caring. Everyone wants to care and be cared about.
Caring about people is what makes a relationship real. Don't let your awkwardness around cultural
differences get in the way of caring about people.
Listen to people tell their stories
If you get an opportunity to hear someone tell you her life story first hand, you can learn a lot--and build a
strong relationship at the same time. Every person has an important story to tell. Each person's story tells
something about their culture.
Listening to people's stories, we can get a fuller picture of what people's lives are like--their feelings, their
nuances, and the richness of their lives. Listening to people also helps us get through our numbness-- there is
a real person before us, not someone who is reduced to stereotypes in the media.
Additionally, listening to members of groups that have been discriminated against can give us a better
understanding of what that experience is like. Listening gives us a picture of discrimination that is more real
than what we can get from reading an article or listening to the radio.
The Dudley Street Neighborhood Initiative in Roxbury, Massachusetts, is an example of a culturallycompetent organization (The President's Initiative on Race, 1999). Under the direction of a communityelected board that reflects the diversity of the community, the organization has been able to create an
inclusive community that promotes equity and social justice for all its residents.
There are four levels to these concepts:
"Cultural knowledge" means that you know about some cultural characteristics, history, values, beliefs, and
behaviors of another ethnic or cultural group.
"Cultural awareness" is the next stage of understanding other groups -- being open to the idea of changing
cultural attitudes.
"Cultural sensitivity" is knowing that differences exist between cultures, but not assigning values to the
differences (better or worse, right or wrong). Clashes on this point can easily occur, especially if a custom or
belief in question goes against the idea of multiculturalism. Internal conflict (intrapersonal, interpersonal, and
organizational) is likely to occur at times over this issue. Conflict won't always be easy to manage, but it can
be made easier if everyone is mindful of the organizational goals.
"Cultural competence" brings together the previous stages -- and adds operational effectiveness. A culturally
competent organization has the capacity to bring into its system many different behaviors, attitudes, and
policies and work effectively in cross-cultural settings to produce better outcomes.
Cultural competence is non-threatening because it acknowledges and validates who people are. By focusing
on the organization's culture, it removes the need to place blame and assume guilt. Since becoming
culturally competent focuses on the "how-to" of aligning policies and practices with goals, everyone is
involved in the process. This "inside-out" model relieves the outsiders (or excluded groups) from the
responsibility of doing all the adapting.
A Cultural Competence Model: 5 Essential Principles
1. Valuing diversity
Valuing diversity means accepting and respecting differences between and within cultures. We often
presume that a common culture is shared between members of racial, linguistic, and religious groups, but
this may not be true. A group might share historical and geographical experiences, but individuals may share
only physical appearance, language, or spiritual beliefs. Our cultural assumptions can lead us to wrong
conclusions. As people move to new areas and meld with other cultures it creates a kaleidoscope of
subcultures within racial groups. Gender, locale, and socioeconomic status can sometimes be more powerful
than racial factors. For example, a Vietnamese couple may immigrate to America, and raise their children in
a suburban area. As a result, the children may identify much more with European American popular culture
than the Vietnamese culture of their parents. Understanding situations such as this can lead to a better
understanding of the complexity of diversity.
2. Conducting cultural self-assessment
The most important actions to be conscious of are usually the ones we take for granted. For instance,
physical distance during social interactions varies by culture. If a staff member of an organization routinely
touches the arm of whomever she is talking to, this might be misread in some cultures. Such
miscommunication can be avoided if the organization does cultural self-assessment. Each organization has a
culture. Surveys and discussion can help members become more aware of the organization's way of doing
things and can help it adjust to other cultures. This assessment is a continuing process towards cultural
3. Understanding the dynamics of difference
Many factors can affect cross-cultural interactions. Bias due to historical cultural experiences can explain
some current attitudes. For example, Native Americans and African Americans, among other groups, have
experienced discrimination and unfair treatment from dominant cultures. Mistrust coming out of these
experiences may be passed on to the next generations of these groups, but ignored within the dominant
culture. An oppressed group may feel mistrust toward the dominant culture, but members of the dominant
culture may be unaware of it or not understand it. Organizations planning to interact with varying cultures
need awareness of such a dynamic if they want to be effective. Remember that organizations can be
intergenerational. A group that worked with an ineffective, culturally incompetent organization 15 years
ago, may not know that the group has the same name but is in a "second life" -- a new staff, a new board,
and a new approach to working with the community. This means the organization has some work to do, and
must be aware of this dynamic in order to be newly effective. Being proactive rather than reactive about
change produces a synergistic organization. Anticipating change is a basic dynamic in the development of
synergy. Synergy is more than just teamwork. It's the magic that happens when people are truly working
together, understanding one another deeply, and in total agreement about their beliefs and goals, at least as
far as their work goes. Synergy happens only if people treat each other with respect and effectively
communicate with each other.
4. Institutionalizing cultural knowledge
Cultural knowledge should be integrated into every facet of an organization. Staff must be trained and be
able to effectively utilize knowledge gained. Policies should be responsive to cultural diversity. Program
materials should reflect positive images of all cultures.
5. Adapting to diversity
Values, behaviors, attitudes, practices, policies, and structures that make it possible for cross-cultural
communication guide a culturally competent organization. When you recognize, respect, and value all
cultures and integrate those values into the system, culturally competent organizations can meet the needs of
diverse groups.
What are the types of diversity in an organization?
There are all types of diversity in an organization. However, some types of diversity have a larger impact on
organizations than others because they have historical significance. These types of diversity are associated
with a history of inequity and injustice where not every person or group has been treated equally because of
them. These types of diversity include:
Marginalized or socially excluded groups
Native language
Sexual orientation
Social class
Spiritual beliefs and practice
Physical and mental ability
Other types of diversity that should be considered, but tend to be less salient include:
Educational status
Family status
Health status
Skills and talents
Military experience
National, regional, or other geographical area
Ownership of property
Occupational status
Socioeconomic status
Diversity is reality. We are all connected through the increasing globalization of communications, trade, and
labor practices. Changes in one part of the world affect people everywhere. Considering our increasing
diversity and interconnected problems, working together seems to be the best strategy for accomplishing our
goals. Because social and economic change is coming faster and faster, organizations are understanding the
need for cultural competence. We're realizing that if we don't improve our skills we're asking for
organizational and cultural gridlock.
Studies show that new entrants to the workforce and communities increasingly will be people of color,
immigrants, and white women because of differential birth rates and immigration patterns.
There are many benefits to diversity, such as the rich resource of alternative ideas for how to do things, the
opportunity for contact with people from all cultures and nationalities that are living in your community, the
aid in strategizing quick response to environmental change, and a source for hope and success in managing
our work and survival.
Benefits of building an organization's cultural competence are:
Increases respect and mutual understanding among those involved.
Increases creativity in problem-solving through new perspectives, ideas, and strategies.
Decreases unwanted surprises that might slow progress.
Increases participation and involvement of other cultural groups.
Increases trust and cooperation.
Helps overcome fear of mistakes, competition, or conflict. For instance, by understanding and accepting many
cultures, everyone is more likely to feel more comfortable in general and less likely to feel the urge to look
over their shoulders to be sure they are being "appropriate" in majority terms.
Promotes inclusion and equality.
An organization needs to become culturally competent when there is a problem or crisis, a shared vision,
and a desired outcome.
An organization is ready to become culturally competent when groups and potential leaders that will be
collaborating have been identified, the needs of the cultural groups are identified, the organization knows
what was done before and how it affected the groups involved, and the organization is open to learning and
adapting to better fit current needs.
Recognizing the power and influence of culture
Understanding how each of our backgrounds affects our responses to others
Not assuming that all members of cultural groups share the same beliefs and practices
Acknowledging how past experiences affect present interactions
Building on the strengths and resources of each culture in an organization
Allocating resources for leadership and staff development in the area of cultural awareness, sensitivity, and
Actively eliminating prejudice in policies and practices
Willing to share power among leaders of different cultural backgrounds
Evaluating the organization's cultural competence on a regular basis
Cultural differences can either help or hurt the way an organization functions. Creating multicultural
organizations makes us deal with differences and use them to strengthen our efforts. To reach these goals
you need a plan for action.
How do you start this process? If achieving cultural competence is a top-down organizational mandate, some
would say it's less likely to happen. But support from the top should be part of it. Getting everyone to "buy
in" can be aided with a committee representing all levels in an organization. Such a committee can establish
and facilitate the following action steps. If people at all organizational levels are involved more people are
likely to be influenced to become more culturally competent. But, the process can be complicated by the fact
that some people don't want to be more culturally sensitive or don't understand why the issue is important;
be mindful of these realities as the process ensues.
Develop support for change throughout the organization (who wants change and who doesn't?)
Identify the cultural groups to be involved (who needs to be involved in the planning, implementation, and
reinforcement of the change?)
Identify barriers to working with the organization (what is currently not working? What will stop you or slow
you down?)
Assess your current level of cultural competence (what knowledge, skills, and resources can you build on?
Where are the gaps? )
Identify the resource needed (how much funding is required to bring about the change? Where can you find
the resources?)
Develop goals and implementation steps and deadlines for achieving them (who can do what, when, and
Commit to an ongoing evaluation of progress (measuring outcomes) and be willing to respond to change
(what does progress and success look like? What are the signs that will tell you that the organization is on the
right track?).
Form a committee.
This Cultural Competence Committee (CCC) within your organization should have representation from
policy making, administration, service delivery, and community levels. The committee can serve as the
primary governing body for planning, implementing, and evaluating organizational cultural competence.
Write a mission statement.
Be sure that the mission statement commits to cultural competence as an integral part of all of the
organization's activities. The CCC should be involved in developing this statement.
Find out what similar organizations have done and develop partnerships.
Don't reinvent the wheel if you don't have to. Other organizations may have already begun the journey
toward developing and implementing culturally competent systems. Meet with these organizations, pick
their brains, and see if they will continue to work with you to develop your cultural competence. Then adapt
the processes and information that are consistent with your needs to your organization.
Use free resources.
Aggressively pursue and use information available from federally funded technical assistance centers that
catalog information on cultural competence.
Do a comprehensive cultural competence assessment of your organization.
Determine which instruments best match the needs and interests of your organization. Use the assessment
results to develop a long-term plan with measurable goals and objectives to incorporate culturally competent
principles, policies, structures, and practices into all aspects of your organization. Among others, this may
include changes in your mission statement, policies, procedures, administration, staffing patterns, service
delivery practices, outreach, telecommunications and information dissemination systems, and professional
development activities.
Find out which cultural groups exist in your community and if they access community services.
What are the cultural, language, racial, and ethnic groups within the area served by your organization? Then
find out if these groups access services and if they are satisfied with what they get.
Have a brown bag lunch to get your staff involved in discussion and activities about cultural
The object of this get-together is to get your staff members to think about their attitudes, beliefs, and values
related to cultural diversity and cultural competence. Invite a guest speaker.
Ask your personnel about their staff development needs.
Find out what your organization's staff members perceive as their staff development needs with regard to
interacting with cultural groups in your area.
Assign part of your budget to staff development programming in cultural competence.
Analyze your budget to see where there are opportunities for staff development through participation in
conferences, workshops, and seminars on cultural competence. Then commit to provide ongoing staff
training and support for developing cultural competence.
Keep in mind: When you are asking the staff to come together to discuss their attitudes, beliefs, and values
related to cultural diversity and competence, consider an outside expert facilitator. The staff members'
comments will typically reflect their exposure to other cultures and their prejudices. Someone might get
offended. If hurt feelings, disagreements, or conflicts are unresolved when the meeting is over, the staff
members' job performance could be affected.
Include cultural competency requirement in job descriptions.
Cultural competency requirements should be apparent from the beginning of the hiring process. Discuss the
importance of cultural awareness and competency with potential employees.
Be sure your facility's location is accessible and respectful of difference.
An organization should be certain that the facility's location, hours, and staffing are accessible to disabled
people and that the physical appearance of the facility is respectful of different cultural groups. Be sensitive
to the fact that certain seating arrangements or decor might be appropriate or inappropriate depending upon
the cultural group. Be aware of communication differences between cultures. For example, in many racial
and ethnic groups, elders are highly respected, so it is important to know how to show respect.
Collect resource materials on culturally diverse groups for your staff to use.
There are many free online resources, as well as printed materials. Visit the library and talk with people at
similar organizations to learn about resources.
Build a network of natural helpers, community "informants," and other "experts."
They have valuable knowledge of the cultural, linguistic, racial, and ethnic groups served by your
organization. Effective organizations must do strategic outreach and membership development. Your
organization should set ground rules that maintain a safe and nurturing atmosphere. And the structure and
operating procedures that you set should reinforce equity. For example, create leadership opportunities for
everyone, especially people of color and women. Your organization should engage in activities that are
culturally sensitive or that directly fight bias and domination by the majority culture. Before proceeding,
your members should complete
Gillian Kaye and Tom Wolff's book, From the Ground Up! Is an excellent source of information about
working in diverse organizations.
Vision and context
It can take time and effort for groups with historically negative relationships to trust each other and begin to
work together effectively. A common problem is cultural dominance and insensitivity. Frequently, people of
color find that when they are in the minority in an organization, they are asked to teach others about their
culture, or to explain racism and oppression -- rather than everyone taking an active part in educating
themselves. In organizations where white people are the majority, people of color may be expected to
conform to white standards and to be bicultural and bilingual. This accommodation takes enormous energy
to sustain. Members of a culturally competent organization do not approach fellow members with
stereotypical attitudes or generalize about an entire people based on an experience of one person. Involve
and include people from all cultures in the process of developing a vision for the organization.
Recruitment and outreach
Include diverse groups of people from your community at the organization's inception. This can ensure that
your organization's development reflects many perspectives. It can also minimize real or perceived
tokenism, paternalism, and inequality among the people who join later. Recognize that changing the
appearance of your membership is only the first step in understanding and respecting all cultures. Develop
and use ground rules that establish shared norms, reinforce constructive and respectful conduct, and protect
against damaging behavior. Encourage and help people to develop qualities such as patience, empathy, trust,
tolerance, and a nonjudgmental attitude.
Diversity training
Become aware of the cultural diversity of the organization. Try to understand all its dimensions and seek the
commitment of those involved to nurture cultural diversity. Address the myths, stereotypes, and cultural
differences that interfere with the full contribution of members.
Keep in mind:
Diversity trainings are typically one-time events. These trainings alone will not change a staff person's
behavior or an organization's practices. It is important to have other strategies that will reinforce and sustain
behavioral and policy changes.
Organizational structure and operating procedures
Share the work and share the power. Create systems that ensure equity in voice, responsibility, and visibility
for all groups. The usual hierarchy with a group or leader in charge may create a power inequity, so create a
decision-making structure in which all cultural groups have a voice at all levels. Find ways to involve
everyone using different kinds of meetings, such as dialogue by phone, mail, or e-mail. Structure equal time
for different groups to speak at meetings. Develop operational policies and programs that confront and
challenge racism, sexism, and other forms of intolerance. Conduct criticism/self-criticism of meetings to
build a common set of expectations, values, and operating methods.
Communication is the basic tool that the organization can use to unite people. Use inclusive and valuing
language and quote diverse sources. Learn and apply the cultural etiquette of your members. Learn to read
different nonverbal behaviors. Do not assume common understanding and knowledge of unwritten rules.
Prohibit disrespectful name -calling and use of stereotypes. Respect and use personal names. Use humor
appropriately -- laugh with each other, not at each other. If humor strikes a sour note, the person bothered
should make their feelings known.
Learn to listen for what is being said, and not what you want to hear. Invite others to be part of the
discussion. Do not misjudge people because of their accent or grammar. Test for understanding by asking
questions to be certain you understand the message. Adapt your communication style to fit the situation -conflicts sometimes arise simply because of the style of a communication rather than its content.
Some people come from cultures that do not encourage confrontation, self-disclosure, or self-praise. This is
especially true in Asian cultures. Be sensitive to these traditions when you consider activities to help people
get to know each other or to confront a problem. Allow sufficient time for people from such cultures to feel
In some cultures, it is impolite to refer to someone older than you by his or her name. Check with another
person from the same culture with whom you feel comfortable or is of the same age as you.
Arrange for bilingual translators or volunteers for meetings.
Determine whether meetings will be bilingual. If at least half of the group speaks another language consider
breaking into smaller groups with the groups conducted in different languages as needed. If language groups
are large enough consider conducting separate meetings with the same agenda and issues covered.
Be certain that all organization materials are produced in all languages used by organization members.
Use a multicultural vocabulary with terms and phrases that describe cultural relations as they should be. Be
prepared for words to change actions, and actions to change the organization in real ways.
Keep in mind:
Some words can have different meanings and values in different cultures. Words like "action" and "power"
in some cultures remind the members of threats from the police, prison camps, war, etc. A word like "asset"
typically refers to a house or a bank account. Ask participants to describe the meaning of a word before
making any assumptions.
Understanding "different, but similar"
The members of your organization probably have fewer differences than similarities. An appreciation and
acceptance of both commonalities and differences are essential to effective working relationships.
Maintaining the commitment
Your organization will become more connected with the community that it serves if it states publicly that
having a diverse work force is a top priority. Continue to re-evaluate the various components that address
the awareness, understanding, communication, and nurturing of your culturally diverse organization.
Providing strong leadership
Develop a variety of leadership opportunities and a way for leaders to work together in your organization.
Steering committees with different committee chairpersons is a good way to enable many people to function
as leaders and encourages the interchange of leadership styles. Include different types of people in
leadership positions to further the organization's multicultural vision and values. Cultivate new leadership by
helping people gain competence in new areas. These opportunities can be structured in shared tasks and
mentoring by pairing up leaders with less experienced people so that skills are transferred and confidence
Providing activities
Integrate aspects of different cultures into all activities, rather than holding isolated "international dinners,"
for example. Most activities lend themselves to a multicultural approach: social events, sports, street fairs,
talent shows, campaigns, neighborhood improvement projects, demonstrations, and lobbying efforts.
Consciously develop projects that people from different cultures can work on together. Conduct special
activities to educate everyone about different cultural concerns -- e.g. forums, conferences, panels, and
organized dialogues. If activities are not attracting a diverse crowd, try running special events geared
specifically to different groups, led and organized by representatives of these groups. The organization or
community populations should determine the issues and events that they feel are important, so don't assume
you know what is best.
Building culturally competent organizations means changing how people think about other cultures, how
they communicate, and how they operate. It means that the structure, leadership, and activities of an
organization must reflect many values, perspectives, styles, and priorities. Changing how an organization
looks is only the first step. A culturally competent organization also emphasizes the advantages of cultural
diversity, celebrates the contributions of each culture, encourages the positive outcomes of interacting with
many cultures, and supports the sharing of power among people from different cultures. To really change, an
organization has to commit to continuing programming, evaluation, and the creation of a place that is
inclusive of all cultures and celebrates diversity.
Four suspects bust with drugs Daily sun, p13, Thursday April 13: 2017 One South African woman and
3 Nigerian were caught with drugs in Pretoria Kempton Park this happened after the Benoni flying
squad received a tip off about a maroon Toyota Rav 4 allegedly supplying drugs when the car was
stopped an undisclosed amount of money was found in the car which the woman driving the vehicle
could not account for. After further investigation into the matter three Nigerians were also caught
were caught and arrested along with the South African woman for dealing in drugs. What I find
interesting about this article is the use of South African woman for purposes of dealing in drugs. This
story is relevant because of the rise of drug usage by South African youth and teenagers and the
increase of Nigerians who supply these deadly drugs. The role players in this article are the Benoni
flying squad and captain Mtshali who worked hard in investigating the matter after receiving a tip off
by an anonymous person. Together their role from a criminal perspective is to investigate such
crimes and present the evidence to the state prosecutor. The role players in this case were hands on
and did their jobs effectively by investigating the matter without any fear and to the last detail in
order to serve justice. Dad charged with murder of twins sowetan, P 7, Tuesday April 11: 2017 A
father who is a Spanish national who is now in state hospital is charged with the murder of his twins.
Basic Steps in the Research Process
Step 1: Identify and develop your topic. Selecting a topic can be the most challenging part of
a research assignment. ...
Step 2 : Do a preliminary search for information. ...
Step 3: Locate materials. ...
Step 4: Evaluate your sources. ...
Step 5: Make notes. ...
Step 6: Write your paper. ...
Step 7: Cite your sources properly. ...
Step 8: Proofread.
The following steps outline a simple and effective strategy for writing a research paper. Depending on your famili
arity with the topic and the challenges you encounter along the way, you may need to rearrange these steps.
Step 1: Identify and develop your topic
Selecting a topic can be the most challenging part of a research assignment. Since this is the very first step in wr
iting a paper, it is vital that it be done correctly. Here are some tips for selecting a topic:
1. Select a topic within the parameters set by the assignment. Many times your instructor will give you clear guideli
nes as to what you can and cannot write about. Failure to work within these guidelines may result in your propos
ed paper being deemed unacceptable by your instructor.
2. Select a topic of personal interest to you and learn more about it. The research for and writing of a paper will be
more enjoyable if you are writing about something that you find interesting.
3. Select a topic for which you can find a manageable amount of information. Do a preliminary search of informatio
n sources to determine whether existing sources will meet your needs. If you find too much information, you may
need to narrow your topic; if you find too little, you may need to broaden your topic.
4. Be original. Your instructor reads hundreds of research papers every year, and many of them are on the same to
pics (topics in the news at the time, controversial issues, subjects for which there is ample and easily accessed i
nformation). Stand out from your classmates by selecting an interesting and off-the-beaten-path topic.
5. Still can't come up with a topic to write about? See your instructor for advice.
Once you have identified your topic, it may help to state it as a question. For example, if you are interested in fin
ding out about the epidemic of obesity in the American population, you might pose the question "What are the ca
uses of obesity in America ?" By posing your subject as a question you can more easily identify the main concep
ts or keywords to be used in your research.
Step 2 : Do a preliminary search for information
Before beginning your research in earnest, do a preliminary search to determine whether there is enough inform
ation out there for your needs and to set the context of your research. Look up your keywords in the appropriate
titles in the library's Reference collection (such as encyclopedias and dictionaries) and in other sources such as
our catalog of books, periodical databases, and Internet search engines. Additional background information may
be found in your lecture notes, textbooks, and reserve readings. You may find it necessary to adjust the focus of
your topic in light of the resources available to you.
Step 3: Locate materials
With the direction of your research now clear to you, you can begin locating material on your topic. There are a n
umber of places you can look for information:
If you are looking for books, do a subject search in the Alephcatalog. A Keyword search can be performed if the
subject search doesn't yield enough information. Print or write down the citation information (author, title,etc.) an
d the location (call number and collection) of the item(s). Note the circulation status. When you locate the book o
n the shelf, look at the books located nearby; similar items are always shelved in the same area. The Aleph catal
og also indexes the library's audio-visual holdings.
Use the library's electronic periodical databases to find magazine and newspaper articles. Choose the databa
ses and formats best suited to your particular topic; ask at the librarian at the Reference Desk if you need help fi
guring out which database best meets your needs. Many of the articles in the databases are available in fulltext format.
Use search engines (Google, Yahoo, etc.) and subject directories to locate materials on the Internet. Check the
Internet Resources section of the NHCC Library web site for helpful subject links.
Step 4: Evaluate your sources
See the CARS Checklist for Information Quality for tips on evaluating the authority and quality of the informati
on you have located. Your instructor expects that you will provide credible, truthful, and reliable information and
you have every right to expect that the sources you use are providing the same. This step is especially important
when using Internet resources, many of which are regarded as less than reliable.
Step 5: Make notes
Consult the resources you have chosen and note the information that will be useful in your paper. Be sure to doc
ument all the sources you consult, even if you there is a chance you may not use that particular source. The aut
hor, title, publisher, URL, and other information will be needed later when creating a bibliography.
Step 6: Write your paper
Begin by organizing the information you have collected. The next step is the rough draft, wherein you get your id
eas on paper in an unfinished fashion. This step will help you organize your ideas and determine the form your fi
nal paper will take. After this, you will revise the draft as many times as you think necessary to create a final prod
uct to turn in to your instructor.
Step 7: Cite your sources properly
Give credit where credit is due; cite your sources.
Citing or documenting the sources used in your research serves two purposes: it gives proper credit to the autho
rs of the materials used, and it allows those who are reading your work to duplicate your research and locate the
sources that you have listed as references. The MLA and the APA Styles are two popular citation formats.
Failure to cite your sources properly is plagiarism. Plagiarism is avoidable!
Step 8: Proofread
The final step in the process is to proofread the paper you have created. Read through the text and check for an
y errors in spelling, grammar, and punctuation. Make sure the sources you used are cited properly. Make sure th
e message that you want to get across to the reader has been thoroughly stated.
Additional research tips:
Work from the general to the specific -- find background information first, then use more specific sources.
Don't forget print sources -many times print materials are more easily accessed and every bit as helpful as online resources.
The library has books on the topic of writing research papers at call number area LB 2369.
If you have questions about the assignment, ask your instructor.
If you have any questions about finding information in the library, ask the librarian.
Table 2.5 shows bushels of wheat and the
yards of cloth that the United States and the
United Kingdom can produce with one hour
of labor time under four different hypothetical
situations. In each case, identify the
in which the United States and the
Kingdom have an absolute advantage
or disadvantage.
In case A, the United States has an absolute adv
antage in wheat and the United
Kingdom in cloth.
n case B, the United States has an absolute advanta
ge (so that the United Kingdom
has an absolute
disadvantage) in both commodities.
In case C, the United States has an absolute advantage in wheat but has neither an
advantage nor disadvantage in cloth.
In case D, the United States has an absolu
te advantage over the United Kingdom in both
With respect to Table 2.5, indicate in each
case the commodity in which each nation has
a comparative advantage or disadvantage.
In case A, the United States has a comparative advantage in whe
at and the United Kingdom in
In case B, the United States has a comparative advantage in wheat and the United
Kingdom in cloth.
In case C, the United States has a comparative ad
vantage in wheat and the United
Kingdom in cloth.
In case D, the Un
ited States and the United Kingdom have a comparative advantage in neither
With respect to Table 2.5, indicate in each case
whether or not trade is possible and the
for trade.
In case A, trade is possib
le based on absolute advantage.
In case B, trade is possible based on comparative advantage.
In case C, trade is possible based on comparative advantage.