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1. literature review
1.1 Variability as an effective method of studying the functional capabilities of
the body
1.2 Tension of regulatory systems in students, the role of the nervous system
1.3 The impact of innovative learning technologies on the health of young people
2. Materials and methods
2.1 Organization of the study
2.2 Psychological tests
2.3 Methodology of the study of heart rate variability using the "VARICARD"
3. Research result
3.1 Results of studying the level of anxiety with the help of psychotests
3.2 The state of tension of regulatory systems, the students studied "variсard"
List of abbreviations and symbols
HRV – heart rate variability
VPR- vegetative parameters of regulation
IARS - indicator of activity of regulatory systems
IARP – indicator of the adequacy of the regulation processes
СVS - cardiovascular system
CNS- central nerve system
ANS- autonomic nerve system
SNS – sympathetic nervous system
PSNS - parasympathetic nervous system
VI - voltage index
CI- cardio-intervals
PW (PoWer spectrum) - the total power of the heart rate spectrum reflects the
overall activity of regulatory systems.
VLF (Very Low Frequency) - power in very low frequency range. Hz: the
physiological nature is not clear.
LF (Low Frequency) - power in the low frequency range
Hz: reflects the activity of the sympathetic division of the ANS.
HF (High Frequency) - power in the high frequency range
Hz: reflects the activity of the parasympathetic division of the ANS.
LF/HF : balance the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the ANS.
AP – adaptive potential
WHO - World Health Organization
ICT - information and communication technologies
Multilingualism as an important direction of development of mankind has been
aware for a long time. Today it is impossible to imagine that somewhere else there
are countries whose people would know only one language. And in reality there are
no civilized States where only one nation would live. The formation of bilingualism
and multilingualism is essential for the normal functioning of any multi-ethnic state.
The most important strategic task of education in Kazakhstan is, on the one hand,
the preservation of the best Kazakh educational traditions, on the other, providing
graduates with international qualifications, the development of their linguistic
consciousness, which is based on the mastery of the state, native and foreign
"Now in Kazakhstan, bilingualism is mainly established as the most important
direction of the culture of interethnic communication. A person who speaks in
addition to his native language the language of another nation, has the opportunity to
communicate with a large number of people, to join the material and spiritual wealth
developed by native speakers of another nation, closer and deeper acquainted with its
history, culture» [1].
In his Address to the people in 2009 "New Kazakhstan in the new world"
President of the Republic of Kazakhstan N. Ah. Nazarbayev noted that in order to
ensure the competitiveness of the country and its citizens, a phased implementation of
the cultural project "Trinity of languages" is proposed, according to which it is
necessary to develop three languages: Kazakh as the state language, Russian as the
language of international communication and English as the language of successful
integration into the global economy.
Multilinguism – "the use of several languages within a certain social community
(primarily the state); the use by an individual (group of people) of several languages,
each of which is selected in accordance with a specific communicative situation [2].
According to President N. Nazarbayev "...Kazakhstan is unique and strong for its
multinational population. On his land formed a unique multicultural space...
Multiculturalism of Kazakhstan is a progressive factor in the development of society.
The Eurasian roots of the peoples of Kazakhstan allow us to connect the Eastern,
Asian, Western, European flows and create a unique Kazakh version of the
development of multiculturalism".
On behalf of the Head of state, starting from 2013, English language learning is
introduced in schools of the Republic from the 1st grade. After 5 years, these students
will begin to study subjects in English. By that time, it is necessary to train qualified
personnel to carry out such work. So with the 2012-2013 academic year began
concrete and effective measures in educational institutions for the training of
multilingual teacher training. The new model of education will be based on three
languages. This is the task set by the Head of State in the near future.
Entering the University, young people are faced with a large psycho-emotional
burden, significant mental work, the need to adapt to new conditions of study, the
day, food, and a number of students and to new living conditions and socializing with
Stress, as a nonspecific adaptive reaction of the body to extreme external factors,
is necessary to maintain the constancy of the internal environment and adapt to new
conditions [3]. With a weak impact on the body of stimuli, produced "eustress" - a
positive reaction with a slight mobilization of internal reserves, when the body begins
to adapt to changes in the external environment, whereas with more severe irritation
there is a phenomenon of "distress", a decrease in adaptive reserves and suppression
of mechanisms of antistress protection [4] .
It is known that both during the educational process and during the examination
period, students experience psycho-emotional stress , which can lead to stress,
accompanied by disorders of the nervous, cardiovascular, respiratory and immune
systems [5]. It is also worth noting that stress - induced psychoemotional stress can
cause a shift in the normal, synchronized operation of the autonomic nervous system,
an increase in the activity of the sympathetic Department of the VNS. With the
introduction of multilingual education , where students study disciplines in three
languages, it is possible to reduce the level of psycho-emotional stress in students in
the dynamics of the educational process and in the examination period.
The functional state depends on the combination of three components:
1)internal psychophysiological conditions;
2) the external environment, including social; 3)factors of activity [6;]. The
process of adaptation to study at the University is a complex and multifaceted
phenomenon, which includes both social and physiological ways of adapting the
body. The level of influence of training loads on the adaptation process is higher
during the session and exams. Negative emotional state is aggravated and delayed in
case of failure of the examination session, which makes the stress long.
According to research by E. A. Belikova [7], E. N. Bogdanov [8], E. M.
Ermakova [9], N. A. Linnik [10], R. W. Gattarov [11], S. V. Zimina [12], E. B.
Lyakhov [13] V. A. Batarseh [14] V. P. Maksimov [15], etc., during the session the
majority of students there are significant changes in the indices of circulatory system
of brain potentials and also biochemical indicators that did not reach the standards
after the examination within 2-3 days, which allows one to consider the exam for
students a strong stressogenic factor.
Similar results showing that students in the examination
the period changes physiological characteristics, such as heart rate and blood
pressure, respiration rate, there is a tremor of the hands, increased sweating,
described in the works of D. Taylor [16].
Biochemical studies conducted by R. S. Nizamutdinova [17],
showed a significant increase in adrenaline excretion in the days following
after each exam. At the same time, the increase in the concentration of adrenaline
was almost twice recorded after the last exam, when the psycho-emotional tension
had already decreased. In the works of O. P. Docheva [18],
A. I. Pryazhnikova [19], S. O. Skvortsova [20], E. A. Tishchenko [21], L. M.
Yanukais [22] found that during the session under the influence of chronic emotional
stress there is an increase in electrical activity of the brain and there are difficulties
with recovery
The aim of this work is to study the psycho - emotional state and tension of the
regulatory systems of the body in students of multilingual groups during the
educational process and during the exams.
Research problem:
- to assess the psychological state of students in multilingual groups of in the
dynamics of the educational process and during the examination with SpielbergerHanin and Eysenk test, FAM;
- to estimate the tension of organism regulatory system of student in multilingual
group during the educational process with registration heart rate variability;
- to study the features of adaptive activity of student’s organism in the
multilingual group during the examination with activity index of organism regulatory
Научная новизна. In the first studied the functional tension of regulatory system
of students in multilingual group during the educational and examination processes.
In the first revealed the changes of organism regulatory system of students in
multilingual groups.
The educational process is stressful for students. And students in multilingual
group which study disciplines in three languages certainly feeling more stress of
regulatory system and adaptive mechanisms of organism.
The results will be useful for the heads of educational institutions practicing
multilingual education ( kindergarten, school, College, UNIVERSITY). Conducted
research requires the need to adjust curricula and teaching loads of students in
multilingual groups.
1. literature review
1.1 Variability as an effective method of studying the functional capabilities of
the body
Heart rate variability (HRV) is a new method of non-invasive assessment of the
functional state of the body, which allows to study the functioning of regulatory
mechanisms at different levels, the adaptation of the body to changes in the external
and internal environment.
In healthy people, the time interval from the beginning of the cycle of one
heartbeat to the beginning of another is not the same, it is constantly changing. First it
was discovered by A. Haller in 1760 [23]. The phenomenon is called heart rate
variability (HRV), which is observed even at rest in the supine position. It is
characteristic that the variability of the interval between cardiocycles is within a
certain average value, which is optimal for a certain considered functional state of the
organism. All this indicates that HRV should be evaluated only in stationary
conditions, as with any change in the status of the body, the heart rate (HR) begins to
adjust to a new functional level. The heart rate variability is traditionally judged by
the duration of the R–R ECG intervals,although it is more correct to consider the
duration of the P–P intervals, since it is the beginning of the p wave that is the
beginning of a new cardiac cycle associated with the excitation of the sinus node. The
tendency to estimate R–R intervals is due to the fact that the R wave, especially in the
second standard lead, is most easily isolated from the ECG Signal during computer
processing due to the fact that it is the largest in amplitude [24]. The history of the
method of heart rate variability. Currently, there are many methods of diagnosis of
cardiovascular diseases, of which a large proportion are methods using computers.
Computerization provides an optimal and sufficiently accurate result while reducing
the time spent and the probability of errors caused by the so-called human factor. One
of these methods is the assessment of heart rate variability, which can be called a
promising direction in recent decades. With the help of mathematical analysis of the
heart rhythm, it is possible, in particular, to assess the regulation of cardiac activity,
including to identify the predominance of Central or Autonomous mechanisms of
regulation, the prevalence of the effects of sympathetic or parasympathetic activity of
the autonomic nervous system and much more. In the history of the formation of
HRV as an objective method of studying the adaptive capabilities of the body, several
stages were passed. The discovery of Meyer's waves in 1876– fluctuations in blood
pressure, with a frequency of 0.1 Hz, which were associated primarily with the work
of the vasomotor center – the first discovery that revealed a natural cyclicity of
oscillations in the cardiovascular system.
At the same time, the first approbations of the mathematical calculation of HRV
on a computer did not meet the response in medical circles. This method would
continue to be of interest only in experimental science, but it would be meaningless
for practical application, if not identified by numerous studies of its predictive value.
Thus, already in 1965, at the very origins of HRV analysis as a diagnostic method, its
clinical significance was revealed by Hon and Lee: fetal distress, as they noted, was
preceded by changes in the dynamic range of cardiointervals and, thus, it was
possible to prevent this pathological condition [1963]. This statement aroused great
interest, and repeated attempts were made to study this new technique. In the USSR,
the leading position in the development of HRV analysis was occupied by specialists
in the field of space medicine, and this is quite natural – in such a field as space it is
important not only to assess the somatic health of a person at a particular moment,
but also to provide for possible adaptation failures in conditions of a long space
flight, which in itself is a strong stress. The main works of this time in the USSR are
connected with R. M. Baevsky, who in his numerous works was one of the first to
describe the statistical analysis of HRV, introduced the basic concepts, the total
vegetative indices, explained the regulation of heart rhythm and the origin of
individual HRV indicators [25]. Under the guidance of these scientists in 1966– much
earlier than in the West-the first Symposium on mathematical analysis of heart
rhythm was held. Their monograph, released in 1984, summed up the results of
researchers working in the field of HRV analysis in 70-80– Zemaityte D. I.,
Bezrukikh M. M., Nidecker I. G., gabinskiy Ya. l., Voskresenskogo A. D., Vorobyov
V. I., Wentzel M. D., S. Z. and kleckina. Introduction the widespread use of personal
computers gave a push to intensify the study of HRV, and in 70 years there's been an
explosion of research activities in this area. In 1981, with the establishment of the
prognostic significance of spectral analysis methods in patients after acute
myocardial infarction, this technique has become one of the main, recommended in
practical application. In 1996 there was the first attempt of standardization of HRV
technology, unification of basic concepts, development of practical recommendations
by the working group of the European Society of Cardiology and the North American
society of Stimulation and Electrophysiology, which are referred to by researchers to
the present time [26]. This was a big step, as the problem of comparability of results
is one of the main ones when using this method. The introduction of HRV into the
daily practice of the doctor is associated with the use of Holter ECG monitoring
devices with the included software that allows you to quickly and accurately calculate
HRV. So, what is meant by HRV? In a narrow sense – it is the variability of RR
intervals. However, as we study this problem, it becomes clear that HRV is not
limited to a simple mathematical analysis of the heart rate. The method combines the
study of the totality of all the properties of the heart rate – from its variability to the
causes of this variability.
Regulation of the cardiovascular system. The functioning of the cardiopulmonary
system is subject to the classical laws of the theory of adaptation of Selye, and under
the influence of any stress adaptation passes certain phases with the help of
regulatory mechanisms. Regulation of cardiac activity is a multi-circuit multi-level
system, the functions of all parts of which at every moment are aimed at achieving a
certain goal in the best way. It is possible to distinguish the Central and peripheral
contours of regulation. The Central circuit of regulation is represented by several
hierarchically ordered levels, at each of which there is a constant interaction of
incoming elements [27]: 1) the so-called level A – provides the relationship of the
organism with the external environment, changing the parameters of internal
homeostasis in response to external stimuli, changing external conditions – is
represented by the cerebral cortex; 2) level B provides the interaction of different
systems of the body to achieve the most beneficial synergy, includes the
hypothalamogipofizarnuyu system, higher vegetative centers, located in the interdaily brain at the level of the third ventricle and having representation in the cerebral
cortex – motor, premotor, orbital areas; 3) level B – subcortical nerve centers
(cardiovascular center and its component – vascular-motor center), provides
homeostasis within the functional system. Under normal conditions, the influence of
the Central circuit of regulation on the heart rate is not expressed, since the main
function of the control of cardiac activity takes over the Autonomous circuit of
regulation – the nucleus of the vagus nerve, the parasympathetic Department of the
peripheral autonomic nervous system and the direct point of application of regulation
– the sinus node. Thus, in the context of biological Cybernetics, the functioning of the
cardiovascular system can be represented by the scheme proposed by R. M.
Bayevsky.. Direct innervation of the heart is provided by the Autonomous nervous
system. The parasympathetic nervous system is represented by a vagus nerve
originating from the bulbar center, the sympathetic nerves approach the heart from
the thoracolumbar center. Normally, at the basic level of functioning of the
autonomic nervous system, the automatism of the sinus node provides the proper
heart rate in the range (according to different authors, 60-120 beats/ min) depending
on the work of a particular group of pacemakers (heterogeneity of the sinus node),
when the vagus nerve is excited under the action of acetylcholine on the Mcholinoreceptors of the sinus node, the rhythm driver shifts to the group of pacemaker
cells with lower excitability, which is manifested by sinus bradycardia; the excitation
of sympathetic nerves, on the contrary, is accompanied by the release of
catecholamines that stimulate beta-adrenoceptors, cells with higher excitability are
activated, and we observe sinus tachycardia. The action of the autonomic nervous
system is not only in chronotropic effect, each Department has many other purposes.
When the sympathetic nervous system (SNA) is excited, it is possible to shift the
rhythm driver up to the left atrium, or to the basal Atria, accelerate the
atrioventricular node, shorten the expulsion phase with an increase in the rate of
expulsion of blood from the ventricle. The vagus nerve provides opposite effects. The
complex interaction of SNA and PSNS is not a simple mathematical addition.
Previously, there was a common opinion about the reciprocity of their interaction
– with the strengthening of the influences of one Department, the influences of
another weaken, but at the present stage this is only one of the theories, the theory of
accentuated antagonism is increasingly widespread – with an increase in the tone of
one Department, the reaction of the myocardium to the influence of another
Department increases [28]. Feedback regulation of the cardiovascular system occurs
mainly through afferent impulses from the Baro-and chemoreceptors of the heart and
blood vessels. The higher the level of regulation, the more time is spent on the
feedback mechanism, and, consequently, more and periodicals fluctuations and, on
the contrary, the lower the hierarchy level of regulation, the faster its signals reach
the Executive body, and, therefore, this level will correspond to the fluctuations of
higher frequency [29]. The longest periodicity of oscillations is observed in humoral
regulation of the heart rhythm, which includes not only circulating in the blood, but
also tissue hormones. The shortest periodicity of heart rate fluctuations corresponds
to parasympathetic regulation. The main methods of analysis of HRV To get started
with HRV tachogram is constructed. After excluding all artifacts, vertical lines are
sequentially laid, the height of which corresponds to the RR value. Already by the
appearance of the rhythm (by the nature of its envelope curve) can be pre-judged on
the rhythm of the heart and its regulation, which is reflected in the examples . In the
further study of HRV, all heart rate fluctuations are measured using the following
categories of indicators [30]: 1. Statistical methods are used to quantify variability; •
Main indicators obtained by direct measurement of RR intervals: • SDNN [MS] –
standard deviation of Nninterval. It reflects all the periodic components of the
rhythm. The increase in SDNN occurs with an increase in Autonomous regulation,
the decrease indicates the prevalence of sympathetic effects. • SDANN [MS]- the
standard deviation of the average values of NN intervals calculated over 5-minute
intervals throughout the recording. Reflects low-frequency components. • Figures
obtained by comparing the RR-intervals. All of them reflect the activity of the
parasympathetic Department of the VNS, its Autonomous circuit. • RMSSD [MS] –
the square root of the average sum of squared differences between adjacent NN
intervals. • NN50 – the number of pairs of adjacent NN intervals differing by more
than 50 MS. • pNN50 [%] – the value of NN50 divided by the total number of NN
intervals. 2. Geometric methods allow imaginative representation of the distribution
of RR intervals. It is generally accepted to use the histogram of RR-interval
distribution (in the literature you can also find a synonym – "variation pulsogram"),
the width of which is postponed by the values of RR-intervals, and the height – the
frequency of these cardiointervals. Fashion [MS] – the most common for the duration
of cardiointervals, based on the value of Fashion (Mo) can determine the dominant
heart rate. Fashion corresponds to the amplitude of fashion (AMO) – number or
percentage of cardiointervals that fall under the value Mo. The more AMO, the
greater the stability of rhythm and correspondingly less variability. Variation range X
– the difference between the maximum and minimum value of RR-intervalscharacterizes the maximum variability. Examples of RR-intervals of the practice. a)
the maximum strengthening of Autonomous regulation, expressing pronounced
respiratory arrhythmia (high-frequency waves, see below) in a young patient with
suspected autonomic dysfunction of the sinus node. b) one of the most unfavorable
cardiorhythmograms – pronounced rigidity of the rhythm, the complete absence of
wave activity in a patient with pulmonary embolism indicates a failure of adaptation,
and therefore – a poor prognosis of the disease. C) frequent interpolated ventricular
extrasystole in a patient with coronary heart disease. (except when rhythm
disturbances are recorded). The triangular HRV index is the total number of NN
intervals divided by the height of the histogram of all NN intervals. Based on these
indicators Bayevsky RM [31] also introduced the total vegetative indices, of which
are often used: IVR – index of vegetative equilibrium (IVR=AMO/X). Characterizes
the ratio of sympathetic and parasympathetic effects on the heart rate; HRV–
vegetative rate (HRV=1/Mo x), characterizes the degree of influence of
parasympathetic regulation; Voltage INDEX of regulatory systems (VI=AMO/2X *
Mo) IARP – indicator of the adequacy of the regulation processes
(PAPR=AMO/Mo); Spectral analysis of the heart rate is based on the wave
variability of the heart rate. Most often, the total power of the spectrum is divided
into its constituent wave ranges by means of a fast Fourier transform. The method is
good because it provides greater accuracy and, compared with statistical analysis,
allows a clearer separation of the regulatory components of different Genesis. Waves
with a range of 0.4–0.15 Hz (2.5–6.5 s) are high frequency (HF – High Frequency),
most often identified with respiratory arrhythmia as a manifestation of the
functioning of the parasympathetic system. This is followed by low-frequency waves
with a range of 0.15–0.04 Hz (6.5–25 s), in the Russian literature they are also called
slow waves of order 1 (LF – Low Frequency); the contribution to them is made by
the functioning not only of the parasympathetic, but also, to a greater extent,– the
sympathetic nervous system, and, according to some authors, is associated with the
work of the vasomotor center. Waves with a very low frequency of 0.04–0.015 Hz
(25-66 s) (VLF – Very Low Frequency) reflect the functioning of the neurohumoral
link of regulation, suprasegmental (Central) parts of the sympathetic nervous system.
With long-term records, it is also possible to distinguish ultra-low-frequency waves
with a frequency of 0.015–0.003 Hz (frequency 66 s – 333 s), their physiological
value at this stage is not clear, the influence of the thermoregulation center, reninangiotensin-aldosterone system, the level of catecholamines in the blood is assumed.
For each of the components can be calculated not only the absolute power, but also
relative (as a percentage of the total power of all waves TP – Total Power). Also their
derivatives are widely used: the index of centralization (Index of Centralization IC=
(HF+LF)/VLF) and vagosimpaticescoy index LF/HF. 4. Correlation rhythmogram
unlike cardiorhythmography, allows you to more compactly represent the whole
range of R-R intervals regardless of how long the study – a few minutes or many
hours. In a rectangular coordinate system, each point is projected horizontally on the
duration of the current cardiointervals RRn, vertical – for the duration of the previous
interval, RRn-1. Thus, on the bisector of the correlation rhythm there will be only
those cardiointervals, the duration of which will be approximately equal to the
duration of the previous interval. Normal correlation rhythmogram (synonym –
scatterogram) looks like an ellipsoid "cloud", somewhat stretched in length on the
bisector, the lowest points of which correspond to cardiointervals with the highest
instantaneous heart rate, the highest – with the lowest instantaneous heart rate. Those
points that are separated from the main "cloud", and are those that require differential
diagnosis, deviations. Each type of deviation has its own characteristics, so in typical
cases, only the analysis of the scatterogram can be pre-concluded . In the context of
practical application, it is convenient to introduce a working classification of the
above indicators and conditionally divide them into 4 groups: 1) indicators of total
heart rate variability – SDNN, triangular index, total spectrum power. The
physiological meaning of them is the total effect of all regulatory levels; an Example
of the histogram of the distribution of RR intervals in a patient with frequent
ventricular extrasystole. Mo=750 MS, AMO=30%, the first column – the intervals of
adhesion, the last – compensatory pauses, in the middle – the main array of normal
cardiointervals.2) indicators reflecting the influence of the parasympathetic nervous
system: changes in heart rate with a short cycle duration – NN 50, pNN50%,
RMSSD, HF; as well as HRV; 3) indicators reflecting the influence of the
sympathetic nervous system: changes in heart rate with a longer cycle duration –
SDANN, LF, possibly VLF; as well as the ratio of LF/HF, IVR; 4) indicators of
humoral regulation – possibly VLF and ULF, which are poorly studied. This division
is very conditional, as some indicators are treated ambiguously and relative to each
other. Thus, LF and HF parameters should be evaluated only together, since
parasympathetic effects also contribute to LF, and VLF is interpreted as an indicator
not only of the suprasegmental level of the sympathetic nervous system, but also of
the neurohumoral regulation system.
The development of the method at the present stage, possible applications of
HRV To date, has accumulated a lot of information about what may mean a particular
deviation of HRV in some pathological processes. There is no doubt that the decrease
in total rhythm variability dramatically worsens the prognosis in patients with acute
myocardial infarction, including by increasing the risk of sudden death in this
category of patients. According to the prognostic value in this category of patients
HRV is comparable to the assessment of left ventricular ejection fraction, remaining,
at the same time, an independent prognostic factor. Sharply reduced HRV is observed
in persons who have undergone ventricular fibrillation. Vegetative neuropathy in
patients with diabetes also leads to a decrease in HRV and a change in the ratio of its
components. HRV changes in patients with arterial hypertension, chronic heart
failure, dilated cardiomyopathy, patients with arrhythmias, mitral valve prolapse, who
underwent heart transplantation were studied. At the present stage, additional
attempts are made to apply relatively HRV new techniques, including the
mathematical theory of chaos, bioadaptive control, nonlinear methods, etc. [32].
These methods are very promising, but their application is not yet beyond
experimental science. The method of non – invasive assessment of the functional
state of the organism was tested not only in cardiology, but also in almost all areas of
medicine: in obstetrics – in hypertension in pregnant women [33], in gynecology – in
polycystic ovary syndrome [34], in Oncology – to detect gross metabolic defects, in
rheumatology – in children with acute rheumatic fever [35], in endocrinology – in
patients with obesity, diabetes [36], thyrotoxicosis, gastroenterology – in patients
with gastric ulcer-just do not list. However, HRV analysis is of the greatest interest in
the field of cardiology [37,38]. The value of HRV analysis in the field of space and
sports medicine in order to diagnose the functional state remains . Changes in HRV
indicators in any case are not specific and can not speak specifically about any
pathology, but at the same time it is a highly sensitive method in terms of assessing
the degree of functional disorders, the prognosis of the disease, with which it is
possible, moreover, to assess the effectiveness of therapy. In General, recently there
has been a tendency to increase interest in all biorhythmological processes – not only
to the variability of the heart rate, blood pressure, but also the fluctuation of
neurodynamic processes, the daily rhythm of the hormonal background, etc.
According to R. M. Bayevsky, "... the study of HRV should be considered as an
incentive for the further development of studies of variability of physiological,
biochemical and other indicators in order to deepen the idea of life as the movement
of matter in time and space" [39]. A complete picture of the regulation of the
dynamic processes of the body and the features of such adaptation would allow to
come closer to understanding the General pathophysiology.
Studies in various fields of medicine allow us to conclude about the universality
of the described method, it can be used to assess the adaptive processes in almost any
disease, as the cyclic activity of the heart is a kind of indicator of the total interaction
of all regulatory systems of the body. In addition, it is technically available and,
importantly, non-invasive study of health, which has no contraindications, which
allows you to use it if necessary in almost any patients. Despite the large evidence
base on the clinical significance of HRV, in practice HRV analysis is implemented
only for some clinical purposes: 1) assessment of the degree of autonomic neuropathy
in patients with diabetes mellitus; 2) prediction of the risk of fatal outcome in acute
myocardial infarction; chronic heart failure, ventricular arrhythmias dilated
cardiomyopathy; 3) selection and control of the effectiveness of drug therapy (mainly
it concerns cardiology); 4) a kind of modification of HRV analysis is used to control
the fetal condition cardiotocography; 5) evaluation of intraoperative risk in surgical
patients. This (relatively new) method of survey is truly inexhaustible, but it will take
a long time and effort to introduce it into widespread practice.
HRV is the most convenient indicator through which you can evaluate the
effectiveness of the interaction of cardiovascular and other body systems.This
analysis becomes popular due to its simplicity, as it is not invasive.This examination
is beginning to be actively used in functional diagnosis, since the heart rate variability
indicator allows to give an overall assessment of the patient's condition, as it reflects
the vital indicators of the management of physiological functions of the body, these
include functional reserves of its control mechanisms and vegetative balance.
Advantages of using heart rate variability indicators to assess the functional state
of the body
1. Reliability and low variability of indicators, as well as the presence of a clear
relationship between the body systems and HRV parameters.
2. Compliance of indicators with international standards of evaluation,
physiological interpretation and clinical use of HRV (The European Society of
Cardiology and the North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology. Heart
rate variability. Standards of measurement, physiological interpretation and clinical
use // Eur. Heart J. – 1996. – Vol. 17. – P. 354-381.).
3. Objectivity and accuracy of statistical processing of electrical signals
(electrocardiographic signal).
4. Non-invasive method with high reliability and objectivity of the results.
5. Possibility of accumulation of information and its analysis both in real time
and in dynamics.
6. Availability and possibility of visualization of the received information and
results of its analysis.
7. Integrality of the indicator, which enables an objective assessment of the
vegetative support of the most important life support systems:
– cardiac activity;
– external respiration;
– vascular system;
– vegetative system;
– mechanisms of humoral regulation.
8. The possibility of a comprehensive study of the functional state of the body
without limiting the mobility of the patient under study, that is, in more natural
conditions than other methods of functional diagnosis.
The prognostic value of HRV itself is very moderate, but in combination with
other methods it becomes more significant in the clinically important range of
sensitivity (25-75%) in relation to heart mortality and rhythm disturbances. It was
reported that the positive predictive value increased (33 to 58%) due to a combination
of HRV with heart rate, ejection fraction of the left ventricle, the frequency of
ventricular ectopic activity, parameters of ECG high resolution (for example the
presence or absence of late ventricular potentials) and clinical examination data (Task
Force of The European Society of Cardiology and The North American Society of
Pacing and Electrophysiology, 1996). Large prospective studies on large contingents
are designed to determine the sensitivity, specificity and prognostic significance of
HRV to determine patients with an increased risk of death or other pathological
condition. It is not known, however, which of the additional stratification factors are
most relevant in practice and most appropriate for combination with HRV for
multifactor risk stratification. It should be emphasized that HRV is the final link not
only nervous but also humoral regulation, therefore, studying the patterns of changes
in HRV, we can conclude about the state of the body's regulation systems as a whole.
Violation of these regulation systems occurs when emotional stress and mental
diseases, cardiovascular system diseases and disorders that can indirectly influence
the state of the autonomic and Central nervous systems as well as on the mechanisms
of humoral regulation. Based on this, it is necessary to focus on the predictor value of
the method, and not on its physiological interpretation. On the basis of the studied
data, it can be said that the deterioration of regulatory qualities, detected by HRV
data, reduces the stability of the mechanisms of regulation to the effects of external
loads, both physical and psycho-emotional. In case of high depression of vegetative
regulation, any significant load (physical, psycho-emotional) brings the regulation
system to the zone of instability, that is, beyond the limits of adaptation possibilities.
The higher the variability, the more stable the control system to external loads. With
a sharp decrease in variability, that is, with vegetative denervation, the quality of
regulatory mechanisms deteriorates and, as a result, the risk increases.
Thus, the HRV analysis method can be effectively used in various fields of
medicine for risk stratification and diagnosis, especially in patients with
cardiovascular diseases, including sudden cardiac death. But today there are two
problems in the assessment of HRV. The first is the standardization of the
methodology. It is necessary to determine what should be the conditions of ECG
registration, which of the indices and methods of HRV analysis are the most
informative, what are the values of the norm in different age groups. The second
problem is related to the evaluation of sensitivity, specificity and predictive value of
this method in patients with different pathology in relation to the prognosis of VSS.
Thus, there are still many outstanding issues that require careful consideration, and
therefore research in this area must necessarily continue.
Numerous studies have shown that indicators characterizing short-term
components of variability with a short period quickly return to the baseline after
temporary disturbances caused by such manipulations as moderate exercise, the
appointment of short-acting vasodilators, temporary coronary occlusion, etc. Stronger
stimuli, such as maximum physical activity or the appointment of long-acting drugs,
lead to changes significantly longer time not returning to the control values. There are
considerably fewer data on the stability of the long-term components of heart rate
variability, obtained by 24-hour Holter monitoring. Early studies showed that the
stability of the results of the HRV analysis performed on the basis of daily recording
of the ECG in healthy and in patients with acute myocardial infarction [40], and in
patients with ventricular arrhythmias [41]. There are fragmentary results in favor of
the fact that HRV parameters can remain unchanged for many months and years [42].
Since 24-hour readings appear to be stable and placebo-independent, they could
be ideal indicators for assessing the impact of therapy.
It is assumed that interventions that increase HRV may be protective in relation
to sudden cardiac death and cardiac mortality in General. Despite the fact that such a
premise is externally logical, it contains a danger, because it comes from the
assumption that the modification of HRV is directly related to the projector action on
the heart, which in itself has not yet been proven. The aim is to improve the electrical
stability of the heart, HRV is only a marker of vegetative activity. Despite the
growing understanding on the role of a projection of the increase in vagal activity, is
still unknown to what extent should increase it (or its markers) in order to achieve
optimum protection.
Numerous studies have shown that indicators characterizing short-term
components of variability with a short period quickly return to the baseline after
temporary disturbances caused by such manipulations as moderate exercise, the
appointment of short-acting vasodilators, temporary coronary occlusion, etc. Stronger
stimuli,such as maximum physical activity or the appointment of long-acting drugs,
several antiarrhythmics. It was noted that propafenone and flecainide (but not
amiodarone) reduce the time characteristics of HRV in patients with chronic
ventricular arrhythmias [43]. In another study, propafenone reduced HRV and
suppressed the LF component to a greater extent than
RF, resulting in a significant reduction in the ratio of LF/HF components. A
larger study showed that flecainide and encainide reduced HRV in postinfarction
patients, but the observation did not reveal a correlation between these changes and
mortality. Thus, a number of antiarrhythmic drugs associated with increased
mortality can reduce HRV.
However, it is not known whether these HRV changes have any direct prognostic
It was also noted that resynchronizing therapy significantly modifies HRV
parameters (SDANN, SDAAM), while its absence in patients who need it, leads to
to a higher risk of cardiovascular complications[44].
The most studied changes in HRV in patients with myocardial infarction. So, in
the acute period, THEY observed an increase in the tone of the sympathetic nervous
system and a decrease –parasympathetic.
1.2 Tension of regulatory systems in students, the role of the nervous system
A natural result of the development of science and technology began a process of
intensive intellectualization labor in all industrialized strange in many areas of human
deyatelnostyu change the form of labor, where the main place was occupied by
physical components, come work primosiston mental.
It is known that high rates of life, information overload and lack of time have an
increasing impact on the person and can cause a variety of deviations in the normal
activity of individual or many systems of the body, and often such deviations, which
should be considered as pathological, requiring special treatment. Since the influence
of these changes on human activity is primarily realized through the nervous system,
its higher parts, the question of the regularities of the functioning of the regulatory
mechanisms of the Central nervous system in these conditions is of particular
The problem of the body's resistance to various environmental factors is one of
the broadest in physiology and medicine. There is no doubt that such issues as the
adaptation of biological objects to the changed living conditions, the formation of
new environmental relations, ensuring the protection of the body about pathogenic
factors, compensation for the links and regulations disturbed as a result of the
pathological process, are to some extent reduced to the mechanisms of resistance and
adaptation as a form of resistance [45]
Important details of the characteristics of hierarchical systems of self-regulation
in nature are their statistical properties. In a single period of time, the biositem can be
considered as relatively deterministic, since at each subsequent moment of time the
probability of its transition to a slightly different state is very high. This position is
based on a huge amount of experimental data on the presence of constant fluctuations
in the parameters of Biosystems in the form of so-called periodic or aperiodic
The view of the change of rhythm as a change of adaptive nature combines the
problem of adaptation and biorhythm. Change of rhythm and intensity of
physiological processes is one of the mechanisms of adaptation of the organism to the
changed conditions and compensation of the disturbed functions. [46]
The new rhythm of the body is associated with the restructuring of the structure
of the control processes of a set of active elementary regulators that determine the
current biorhythm. On the basis of these submissions, criteria were formulated
individually tragicheski potential adaptability. [47]
The increase in the degree of environmental problems, the way of life of modern
man have a pronounced negative impact on the health of the population [48].
According to modern concepts, health is the result of the process of continuous
adaptation of a person to changing environmental conditions [49]. This definition
from the theory of adaptation is basic in the doctrine of health and disease. Negative
changes, deviations from the norm, reduction of adaptation reserves can contribute to
the loss of human health and, accordingly, provoke the development of various
diseases [50]. In other words, human adaptive capacity is a measure of health or a
measure of protection against disease [51]. The state of unsatisfactory adaptation is
characterized by a decrease in the functional reserves of the body, while any stress
factor can provoke a violation of the equilibrium state of "organism-environment"
The concept of "adaptation" includes all kinds of innate and acquired qualities
and abilities necessary for the implementation of adaptive human activity, and are
characterized by specific physiological reactions at the cellular, organ-system and
organizational levels. Modern physiology considers the problem of adaptation not as
a particular phenomenon of adaptation to certain conditions of life in the external
environment, but as a continuous process that lasts throughout ontogenesis. Thus, the
phenomenon of adaptation combines the following definitions: this property of the
body; this is the process of adaptation to changing environmental conditions, the
result of which is the equilibrium between the body and the environment; this is the
goal to which the body aspires [53].
This approach assumes the availability of common, universal mechanisms,
reactions, needed for successful adaptation to diverse factors. The correctness of this
judgment is proved by the fact that the body has a significant potential for the
possibility of adaptation to stress factors (climatogeographic, industrial, social),
which were not previously encountered by both the representative and the species as
a whole [54].
G. Selye's theory of General adaptation syndrome (CCA) describes the phase
character of adaptation reactions, where it is also shown that the depletion of
regulatory systems in acute and chronic stress plays a major role in the development
of diseases [55].
According to the modern interpretation of the theory of adaptation [56], the first
phase, or phase of anxiety, develops at the beginning of the stress agent. The primary
reaction to stressful situations are changes in the Central nervous system, identified
G. Selye adaptation syndrome reflects the secondary somatovegetative reaction of the
body to the conflict situation. Develops indicative dominant, inhibition of those types
of actions that are incompatible with the predominant centers of brain activity.
Restructuring of the nervous regulatory mechanisms realizes its influence through the
hypothalamic centers and the corresponding endocrine glands. At the same time there
is a mobilization of almost all physiological systems, as a result of which the body's
resistance increases. This phase is characterized by an abundance of generalized and
non-environmental reactions, which are exploratory in nature, and affect mainly
organ and systemic mechanisms of regulation.
The second phase of the CCA is a transition to sustainable adaptation. At this
stage, there is a decrease in the overall excitability of the Central nervous system and
the formation of functional systems necessary for the integration, modulation and
synchronization of regulatory systems. There is a decrease in the functional activity
of the endocrine system. Adaptive reactions affect deeper levels of organization in
comparison with the first phase – tissue, cellular levels: active synthesis of necessary
proteins and formation of structural components of adaptation reaction is carried out
The phase of sustainable adaptation, or resistance, is the third in the CCA and is
characterized by a new level of functional activity of many components of the body:
from molecular to tissue. However, the activity of the regenerative systems
themselves can remain unchanged and return to the previous level of functioning,
while deep tissue mechanisms are activated (a structural trace of adaptation is
formed). At the stage of resistance, the work of the endocrine system also changes:
compared with the stage of anxiety, the level of catecholamines and glucocorticoids
decreases, but the concentrations of these hormones are still increased. All reactions
at this stage are extremely appropriate and economical, also formed and developed
specific components specific to a particular stress factor. For the transition of the
organism to a higher level of activity, some tension of the body's regulatory systems
is necessary, additional costs in the implementation of adaptation reactions are called
the "price of adaptation" [58].
The gradual passage of all phases of adaptation is observed with a sufficiently
long and intense exposure to the stress factor. Under the influence of short
adaptogenic factor or weakening of the power of his action the adaptive response are
limited to the dismay and further adaptation is not happening, and caused by changes
in the functioning of the body gradually return to normal, original state. With long term action of the agent, time summation (repeated and intermittent action of the
factor) and a large number of influencing factors, it is possible to form a stable
adaptation to stress [57].
The period of study at the University at the present stage is a complex and long
process that requires a huge amount of physical effort, emotional stability.The
increasing volume of information, change of a number of social factors of activity
lead to emotional and physical overloads that undoubtedly, is reflected in a
psychophysiological state of a young organism. In the last years, researchers
increasingly note that the population of modern students is characterized by poor
physical health, high anxiety, low indicators of social optimism [59].
The problem of emotional stress and neuropsychiatric and psychosomatic
disorders arising on its basis is in the focus of attention of many researchers.
Teaching in three languages is one of the causes of mental stress in high school
Adaptation of a person to stressful conditions depends on the individual
characteristics of the psychophysiological state of the organism. The nature of the
body's reactions to stress depends on the initial state of the regulatory mechanisms of
the autonomic nervous system. Imbalance of the links of the above system with
increased activity of sympathetic and inhibition of parasympathetic divisions is one
of the pathogenetic mechanisms of stress-induced visceral pathology. Long-term and
very significant emotional stress can lead to the activation of sympathetic or
parasympathetic parts of the autonomic nervous system, as well as to the
development of transients, accompanied by a violation of vegetative homeostasis and
increased lability of the reactions of the cardiovascular system to emotional stress.
The effectiveness of adaptation of students to the process of learning in higher
education depends on many factors. These include the properties of the nervous
system (the strength of nerve processes, the level of functional mobility of nervous
processes) [60]. These parameters are among the leading, determining the
effectiveness of any activity, especially cognitive [61].
The nervous system is an organized set of cells that specialize in carrying out
electrical signals. The human nervous system is the main link connecting all human
organs and forming their inseparable activity. The nervous system, namely the brain,
is the organ that creates our psyche. All our thoughts, experiences, behavior,
emotions, memory arise under the influence of electrochemical reactions occurring
between neurons – nerve cells.
The main function of the Central nervous system is to unite the activities of
various systems of the body into a single whole and optimize its response to stress
reactions to the external environment
When characterizing the properties of nerve processes, functional mobility is
important, reflecting the dynamics of cortical processes, the speed of information
processing and the effectiveness of the integrative activity of the brain. Functional
mobility of nervous processes characterizes the level of performance of work for the
concrete individual providing along with positive reactions emergency switching of
actions, fast alternate change of excitatory and brake processes. This property does
not contradict the concept of lability, although it differs from it, because it is a highspeed reaction of the functional system, and not a specific nervous substrate, reflects
the ability of the nervous system to perform a certain number of work cycles per unit
time under the action of positive and braking signals [62]. It is known that nervous
tension adversely affects the performance and emotional tone of students of higher
education. As a result, students may experience apathy, nervousness, difficulty in
concentrating, depressed health, mood swings.
The problem of mass diagnostics of psychological and psychophysiological
States poses the task of creating automated diagnostic systems. [63]. The influence of
the sympathetic nerve leads to an increase in heart rate due to beta stimulation.
1.3The impact of innovative learning technologies on the health of students
Modernization, caused by changes in all spheres of human life, is the main
characteristic of the global processes of modern education. Kazakhstan's education is
developing in line with global trends. The boundary between the two centuries is
marked by the search for new ideas at the global and national levels, which make the
process of modernization of education effective and meet modern requirements. The
fundamental global trend is the change of the paradigm of education as a
consequence of the crisis of its classical model. In place of the old "knowledge"
paradigm of education comes a new – personal. New learning technologies are
developing, the same type of secondary school gives way to innovative institutions
and educational programs. Introduction of innovations in education is one of the main
social and pedagogical problems of the world scale, and innovative activity is the
most important component of progress. The goal of any progressive state is to build a
highly educated society with a modern system of education and training, based on the
traditions characteristic of the state, where everyone has the opportunity to update
their knowledge throughout life. Both economic well-being and social cohesion of
the state depend on the achievement of this goal.
In the early 90-ies in Kazakhstan began the search for effective models of the
education system, the stage of global reform and the widespread introduction of
innovative processes. The problem of reforming education has become a priority,
education is considered as a creative factor of profound changes in society,
strengthening the authority and competitiveness of the state in the international arena.
Kazakhstan supported the requirements of the Declaration of human rights, which
affirms the inalienable right of every individual to receive an education on abilities.
The second article of the Protocol of the European Convention on human rights
States: "no One shall be denied the right to education. The state, in carrying out any
duties it assumes in the field of education and training, shall respect the right of
parents to provide such education and training to children in accordance with their
own religious and philosophical convictions."
Changes in the state policy in the field of education, the legally enshrined right to
freedom of pedagogical creativity allowed us to move away from a uniform approach
in education, characteristic of the Soviet period. One of the main goals of education
was the creation of a new type of socio-cultural orientation and life activity aimed at
self-development and self-improvement of the individual, which is reflected in the
Concept of state policy in the field of education of Kazakhstan. The Concept notes
that the strategic orientation of reforming the education sector should be "the idea of
forming a new generation of people with innovative creative type of thinking, with a
developed worldview culture, highly qualified professionals with an ethically
responsible attitude to the world." The existing educational system "... is obliged to
give way to innovative training, liberating both the teacher and the student, giving the
institution the opportunity to work ahead of the curve, maximum freedom in the
choice of forms and methods of education. It is necessary to achieve flexibility and
mobility of curricula, diversification of programs, courses and disciplines,
individualization of education, the spread of new progressive forms of knowledge
control and the level of development of young people."
Deep and large-scale reform of the education system of the Republic of
Kazakhstan is carried out with the active and purposeful state support. The main task
is to ensure the quality of education on the basis of preservation of its fundamental
nature and compliance with the current and future needs of the individual, society and
the state. Attention to the problem of quality is enhanced in connection with the
participation of society in the evaluation of the norms of the functioning of the
education system, leading to the formation of a "student" society, the basis of which
is lifelong learning.
Innovations, or innovations, are characteristic of any professional activity of a
person and therefore naturally become the subject of study, analysis and
implementation. Innovations do not arise by themselves, they are the result of
scientific research, advanced pedagogical experience of individual teachers and entire
teams. This process cannot be spontaneous, it needs to be managed.
The concept of “innovation“ in Latin means “update, innovation or change“. This
concept first appeared in research in the XIX century and meant the introduction of
some elements of one culture to another. At the beginning of the XX century there
was a new area of knowledge, innovation – the science of innovation, which began to
study the patterns of technical innovations in the field of material production.
Pedagogical innovative processes have been the subject of special study in the West
since about 50-ies and in the last twenty years (from 80-ies of XX century) in our
With regard to the pedagogical process innovation means the introduction of new
goals, content, methods and forms of training and education, the organization of joint
activities of teachers and students.
Pedagogical innovation – innovation in teaching, changes in the content and
technology of training and education, with the aim of improving their efficiency.
Thus, the innovation process consists in the formation and development of the
content and organization of the new. In General, the innovation process is understood
as a complex activity for the creation (birth, development), development, use and
dissemination of innovations.
The scientific literature distinguishes between the concepts of “innovation“ and
Innovation is a means (a new method, technique, technology, program, etc.), and
innovation is the process of mastering this means.
Innovations in education are considered to be innovations specially designed,
developed or accidentally discovered as a pedagogical initiative. As the content of the
innovation can be: scientific and theoretical knowledge of a certain novelty, new
effective educational technologies, made in the form of a technological description of
the project of effective innovative pedagogical experience, ready for implementation.
Innovations are the new qualitative States of educational process which are formed at
introduction in practice of achievements of pedagogical and psychological Sciences,
at use of the advanced pedagogical experience.
Innovations are developed and carried out not by public authorities, but by
employees and organizations of the education and science system.
In the context of the gradual activation of the industrial sector of the economy in
recent years, there has been a steady trend of expanding the training of technical
specialists. Increasing the technical level of production, due to the processes of
technologization and Informatization, requires the provision of personnel of practiceoriented specialists, combining intellectual and practical activities, with a sufficient
amount of fundamental knowledge and multifunctional skills.
In modern conditions, a graduate of a secondary professional institution should
be flexible and think outside the box; apply new in their activities, quickly move from
one level of thinking to another; to accelerate the decision to divide a complex
problem into components; professionally think, make the best rational decision on the
problem, to be prompt in making the optimal decision in risky situations.
Based on this, the new educational paradigm is focused primarily on the
development of personality, increasing its activity and creativity, expanding the use
of methods of independent work of students, self-control, the use of active forms and
methods of learning.
Thus, S. I. Hessen notes the need to use the method of pedagogical search,
pedagogical research, pedagogical construction and practice, i.e. the Foundation on
which pedagogical creativity and experience can be based.
The creative activity of the teacher is to rationally use in the educational process
the methods that ensure the best achievement of the goal. Teaching methods are ways
of interrelated activities of the teacher and students aimed at mastering the learners '
knowledge, skills and abilities for education and development in the learning process.
Active teaching methods are methods that encourage students to actively think
and practice in the process of mastering the educational material. Active learning
involves the use of such a system of methods, which is aimed mainly not at the
presentation of ready-made knowledge by the teacher, their memorization and
reproduction by the student, but at self-mastery of knowledge and skills in the
process of active cognitive and practical activities. Thus, active teaching methods
encourage students to practical and mental activity, without which there is no
progress in mastering knowledge.
Today, the innovative search has entered the “quiet channel“, has become part of
the image of any self-respecting school, an element of the “normal situation“ in the
life of many educational institutions.
For a complete and accurate representation of the specifics of innovative
processes taking place in the modern educational space, in the education system, two
types of educational institutions can be distinguished: traditional and developing.
Traditional systems are characterized by stable operation aimed at maintaining once
established order. Developing systems are characterized by a search mode, and
innovative processes are implemented in the following areas: the formation of new
content of education, the development and introduction of new pedagogical
technologies, the creation of new types of educational institutions.
Pedagogical technology is a well-thought-out model of joint pedagogical activity
for the design, organization and conduct of the educational process with the
unconditional provision of comfortable conditions for students and teachers (V. M.
Monakhov). Currently, Kazakhstan is developing a new education system focused on
entering the world educational space. This process is accompanied by significant
changes in the pedagogical theory and practice of the educational process. There is a
modernization of the educational system: offers a different content, approaches,
behavior, pedagogical mentality.
In modern education, the principle of variability is proclaimed, which allows
teaching staff of educational institutions to choose and design the pedagogical
process according to any model, including the author's. In this direction, there is
progress in education: the development of various options for its content, the use of
modern didactics in improving the efficiency of educational structures; scientific
development and practical justification of new ideas and technologies. An important
organization is a kind of dialogue of various educational systems and technology
training, testing in practice a new form of complementary and alternative public
education system, the use of modern terms of a holistic educational system of the
In these conditions, the teacher should be guided in a wide range of modern
innovative technologies, ideas, schools, areas, do not waste time on the opening of
the already known, and use the entire Arsenal of pedagogical experience. Today it is
impossible to be a pedagogically competent specialist without studying the whole
wide range of educational technologies. Modern pedagogical technologies can be
implemented only in an innovative school.
An innovative school is an educational institution, whose activity is based on
original (author's) ideas and technologies and represents a new educational
practice[64]. Innovative school is a polysystem with subsystems of educational,
labor, artistic,aesthetic, sports, scientific activities, including various forms of
communication and communication of children and adults. Modern innovative
schools often arise on the basis of conventional mass schools, deeply developing and
implementing on the original technological basis of one or more of its functions. The
following distinctive qualities (criteria) of innovative educational institutions can be
• Innovation: the presence of original author's ideas and hypotheses about the
restructuring of the pedagogical process.
• Alternative: the difference between any of the main components of the
educational process (goals, content, methods, means, etc.) from the traditional,
accepted in the mass school.
• Conceptuality of the educational process: consciousness and use in the author's
model of philosophical, psychological, socio-pedagogical or other scientific grounds.
• Consistency and complexity of the educational process.
• Socio-pedagogical expediency: compliance with the objectives of the school
social order.
• The presence of signs or results that determine the reality and effectiveness of
the author's school.
Currently, a variety of pedagogical innovations are used in professional
education. This depends primarily on the traditions and status of the institution.
Nevertheless, we can distinguish the following most characteristic innovative
1. Information and communication technologies (ICT) in vocational training.
The introduction of ICT in the content of the educational process involves the
integration of various subject areas with Informatics, which leads to the
Informatization of the consciousness of students and their understanding of the
processes of Informatization in modern society (in its professional aspect). It is
essential to understand the emerging trend in the process of Informatization of the
education system: from the development of students of primary information about
computer science to the use of computer software in the study of General and special
subjects, and then to the saturation of the elements of Informatics structure and
content of education, the implementation of a radical restructuring of the entire
educational process based on the use of information technology. As a result, new
information technologies appear in the methodological system, and graduates are
prepared for the development of new information technologies in their future work.
This direction is implemented through the inclusion in the curriculum of new subjects
aimed at the study of computer science and ICT. The use of ICT in vocational
education institutions contributes to
to increase the motivation of students to study various subjects, especially in
combination with the use of the project method;
Informatization of training is attractive to the student because it relieves the
psychological stress of educational communication by moving from subjective
relations “teacher-student” to the most objective relations “student-computerteacher”, increases the efficiency of student labor, increases the share of creative
work, expands the opportunity to receive additional education on the subject;
Informatization of teaching is attractive for the teacher that allows to increase
productivity of his work, increases the General information culture.
2. Personality-oriented technologies
Personality-oriented technologies put in the center of the modern educational
system the child's personality, providing comfortable, conflict-free and safe
conditions for its development, the realization of its natural potentials. The
personality of the child in this technology is not only the subject, but the subject of
priority; it is the purpose of the educational system, not a means to achieve any
abstract goal. Manifests itself in the development of students ' individual educational
programs in accordance with their capabilities and needs.
3. Information and analytical support of the educational process and quality
management of education.
The use of such innovative technology as information and analytical methods of
teaching quality management allows objectively, impartially trace the development in
time of each student individually, group, stream, educational institution as a whole.
With some modification, it can become an indispensable tool in the preparation of
classroom – generalizing control, the study of the state of teaching of any subject of
the curriculum, the study of the system of work of a single teacher.
4. Monitoring of intellectual development.
Analysis and diagnosis of the quality of education of each student by testing and
charting the dynamics of performance.
5. Educational technologies as the leading mechanism of formation of the modern
It is an integral factor in the modern learning environment. It is implemented in
the form of involving students in additional forms of personal development:
participation in cultural events on national traditions, theater, children's creativity
centers, etc.
6. Didactic technologies as a condition of development of educational process of
OU. Here can be implemented as well-known and proven techniques, and new. This
is - independent work with the help of a training book, play, design and protection of
projects, training with the help of audiovisual equipment, the system of "consultant",
group, differentiated methods of training - the system of "small groups" , etc. Usually
in practice, various combinations of these techniques are used.
7. Psychological and pedagogical support of the introduction of innovative
technologies in the educational process of the school.
It is assumed scientific and pedagogical justification of the use of certain
innovations. Their analysis on methodical councils, seminars, consultations with the
leading experts in this field.
8. Research activities of teachers.
Research work carried out in educational institutions increases the intellectual
potential of teachers, promotes the updating of the content of education, the
development of new technologies of the educational process, the formation of
educational research activities of students, the development of their personal
interests, creativity.
Thus, the experience of the modern school has a wide Arsenal of pedagogical
innovations in the learning process. The effectiveness of their application depends on
the existing traditions in the educational institution, the ability of the teaching staff to
perceive these innovations, the material and technical base of the institution.
Health and learning are interrelated and interdependent. The better the health,the
more productive the learning, otherwise the ultimate learning experience loses its true
meaning and value.
Today, education is a strategic basis for the development of the individual,
society, nation, state and the key to a successful future. The transformation of post28
industrial society into a global information society, based not only on knowledge but
also on the competence of specialists, significantly actualized the problem of
innovative approaches to the organization of educational processes.
In modern conditions, the education system has very high requirements: it should
prepare specialists for life and work in a wide, dynamic, rapidly changing world,
where a person is constantly faced with non-standard tasks, the solution of which
involves the presence of skills and abilities to build and analyze their own actions.
The basis of innovative educational technologies used in the educational process
should be a social order, the professional interests of future professionals, taking into
account individual, personal characteristics of students. Therefore, in training the use
of innovative forms and methods must be organically combined with a pragmatic
understanding of the goals and objectives of training. The use of innovative methods
by teachers in the learning process helps to overcome stereotypes in the teaching of
various disciplines, the development of new approaches to professional situations, the
development of creative, creative abilities of students.
The use of various active forms and methods of training such as: creation of
projects, preparation of public speeches, discussion of professionally important
problems, training in cooperation, creation of problem situations, preparation of
professionally directed videos and presentations, etc., are the most effective forms of
educational work on the introduction of innovative processes in the educational
process and the formation of key professional competencies of future specialists. The
transition from information and explanatory training to innovative and effective is
associated with the use in the educational process of new computer and various
information technologies, electronic textbooks, videos, providing free search activity,
and also involves the development and personal orientation.
Innovative learning technologies have a direct impact on the health of students.
Today, almost all higher education institutions of the country have introduced
innovative learning technologies. However, there is no monitoring control of what
indicators students start the academic year with and what they become as a result of
innovations. The desire to further complication of the training programmes lead to
training overload, stress has a negative impact on the health of students.
Numerous studies have established that the effectiveness, success of training
largely depends on the ability of the student to master the environment in which he
gets,entering the University. From the normal physical development, functioning of
organs and systems of students depends on the ability of their body to maintain
resistance to exogenous factors, to adapt to changing environmental conditions.
The study of the impact of the educational process on the health of students for a
long time engaged in the scientist I. R. Shagina, which in many of his works indicates
the personal nature of the impact on the body of students, determining the adaptive
capabilities of the body [65, 66, 67]. The author in her work proved that the
deterioration of health depends on genetic components, that is, hereditary
predisposition to pathologies, but the activation of this is due to the influence of
lifestyle. During the study at the University, the health of students objectively
deteriorates, by the time of graduation only 20 % of graduates can be considered
practically healthy [68].
As you know, the decline in the level of health of students happens when they do
not comply with the principles of a healthy lifestyle. During the period of study,
under the influence of the factors mentioned earlier, there is a weakening of the state
of health, the majority of students are in pre-painful (premorbid) States [69].
Monitoring of Kazakhstan, Russian and international databases (Scopus, Pub
Med, Elsevier) proved that the academic load of medical students is on average 2
times higher than the load of students from technical universities [70]. It is known
that health indicators of students of medical specialties are low when compared with
health indicators of students of humanitarian and technical specialties [71].
Russian researcher V. B. Mandrikov indicates a decrease in physical
performance, as well as the overall activity and endurance of the body of medical
students [72].
Authors A. V. Popov, V. B. Mandrikov, I. A. Ushakov, M. P. Mizulina lead
evidence that medical students have lower health indicators compared with students
of other universities. According to A. V. Popov, the number of students assigned to
the I group of health is from 23.8 to 30.0 %, to II – from 32.8 to 40.0 % and to III –
from 30.0 to 43.4 % [73].
Studies on the dynamics of morbidity indicate an increase in the number of
students with chronic pathology. There is a tendency to increase the incidence, both
in General and in individual nosologies. Most often, students are treated with acute
respiratory viral infections (SARS), angina and bronchitis, tonsillitis. The structure of
chronic pathologies is as follows: everywhere there is a disorder of digestion and
metabolic disorders (40.3 %), high prevalence of diseases of the endocrine system
(35.8 %), respiratory system (35 %), eye diseases (28 %), circulatory system (26.3
%), bone, muscle and connective tissue (23 %), genitourinary system (7.6 %) [74].
Thus, the specificity of training in medical school imposes even higher
requirements to the initial state of health of students. However, most of the research
work is devoted to the study of the health of students of non-medical universities:
pedagogical, agricultural, technical, etc. [75].
Physical development is a direct indicator of health, according to the author A.V.
Shilovskaya, the analysis of her works determined that 54.6% of physical
development is harmonious, disharmonious – 31.4 %. Despite this, about 30 % of
medical University students belong to a special group for physical education, and 4 %
are completely exempt from physical education [76].
The survey carried out by the Kazakh scholar S. A. Butrimova, has allowed to
establish that in the city Families only 10.6% of students enrolled in the first year,
related to the healthy group of students, and the city of Aktobe, the number of healthy
students in the first year amounting to 32.6 % [77].
The analysis of pathologies of 1st year students revealed the presence of several
pathologies [78]. One disease was registered in 44.7 %, 38.9 % recorded a
combination of two, three, four or more diseases. The paper analyzes the work of
Russian scientists, in which there is a change in the health of students in the direction
of deterioration, to the second year. The number of cases of appeals, according to the
incidence on the 2nd course, increased by 23 %, and by the fourth – by 43 % [79].
Dynamics from 1 to 6-7 course indicates a decrease in the percentage of students with
I and II health groups from 48.7 to 25.2 %, an increase in the number from III from
51.3 to 74.8 % [80].
The study of students ' health, its determinants, health care identifies not only the
medical but also the social aspect, and also determines one of the priorities of higher
education. However, at present, most often the work related to the prevention and
rehabilitation of students is haphazard, there is no clear methodology, poorly used
new technologies of notification and recovery, diagnosis, treatment and
rehabilitation, low level of material and technical base of Universities [81].
The success of rehabilitation and rehabilitation of students depends largely on the
organizational forms of work, methods of rehabilitation and medical rehabilitation,
the level and quality of training, engaged in therapeutic and preventive activities
among young people [82]. This requires the adoption of urgent effective measures
and rules to create conditions for the transition to a healthy lifestyle for each student.
For the development and implementation of which requires significant joint efforts of
government agencies, all teaching staff of universities and students themselves.
Currently, the methods of prenosological diagnosis [83] should take an important
place in the practice of doctors and be applied to those students who are considered
by doctors to be practically healthy, but in fact they may be in a borderline state
between health and disease. The ability to diagnose these conditions, prevent and
eliminate – the most important task of medical science and practical health care.
2. Materials and methods
2.1 Object of study
The work was carried out on the basis of Karaganda State University. The study
involved students of 3-4 courses of the faculty of biology, the average age of 20±1
year. Students were divided into two groups: 1 group-experimental multilingual,
where students studied in three languages, 15 students; 2 group-control group (15
students) enrolled in the traditional system of education. The studies were conducted
in the morning. Weight, height, blood pressure, pulse, respiratory rate were measured.
The level of physical development and features of cardiovascular system in two
groups were determined, anthropometric indicators – height (cm), weight (kg),
adaptive potential were measured at rest. Body mass index was calculated .
2.2 Psychological test
2.2.1 Spielberger-Hanin technique identification of personal and situational
Most of the known methods of measuring anxiety allows you to assess personal
anxiety, or the very presence of anxiety. The only technique that allows to measure
anxiety differentially both as a personal property and as a state is the technique
proposed by CH. D. Spielberger and adapted in Russian by Yu. L. Khanin. The form
of spielberger's self-assessment scales includes 40 reasoning questions, 20 of which
are designed to assess the level of situational and 20 – to assess personal anxiety.
Spielberger - Hanin testing is carried out using two forms: one form for
measuring indicators of situational anxiety, and the second for measuring the level of
personal anxiety.
Instructions: read each of the above sentences and cross out the number in the
appropriate box on the right, depending on how you feel at the moment. Over
questions for a long time n think, because the right and
there are no wrong answers.
Table 1
Situational anxiety scale (SA)
I'm calm.
I'm safe.
I'm stressed.
I'm restrained internally
I feel free
I'm upset.
I'm worried about failure.
No, That's
Rather, so
not so
Quite true
I feel peace of mind
I'm worried.
I feel a sense of inner satisfaction
I am confident
I'm nervous.
I don’t find place for myself
I'm wound up
I don't feel constrained, tense.
I'm happy
I'm concerned
I'm too horny and I'm not myself
I’m glad
I am pleased
Table 2
I have case elated mood
I can be irritable
I can easily get upset
I would like to be as lucky as the other
I get nervous a lot of trouble and been
unable to forget about them
I feel a surge of strength, desire to
I am a calm, cool and collected
I am concerned about possible
I worry too much about trifles
I happen to be quite happy
I take everything to heart
I lack self-confidence
I feel defenseless
I try to avoid critical situations and
I have the Blues
I happen to be satisfied
All sorts of trifles distract and excite
Sometimes I feel like a loser
I am a balanced person
I feel uneasy when I think about my
affairs and concerns
Scale of personal anxiety (PA)
Table 3
Situational anxiety
Personal anxiety
Interpretation of results
When analyzing the results, it should be borne in mind that the total final score
for each of the subscales can be in the range from 20 to 80 points. At the same time,
the higher the final figure, the higher the level of anxiety (situational or personal).
When interpreting indicators, the following indicative estimates of anxiety can be
 up to 30 points – low,
 31 – 44 points – moderate;
 45 and more - high.
Individuals classified as highly anxious tend to perceive the threat to their selfesteem and life in a wide range of situations and respond to a very pronounced state
of anxiety. If the psychological test expresses the subject's high rate of personal
anxiety, it gives reason to assume that he has a state of anxiety in a variety of
situations, especially when they relate to the assessment of his competence and
Individuals with high anxiety scores should develop a sense of confidence and
success. They need to shift the focus from external demands, categoricity, high
importance in setting tasks to meaningful understanding of activities and specific
planning for subtasks.
For low-alarm people, on the contrary, it requires the awakening of activity,
emphasizing the motivational components of activity, arousing interest, highlighting
a sense of responsibility in solving certain tasks.
The state of reactive (situational) anxiety occurs when you get into a stressful
situation and is characterized by subjective discomfort, tension, anxiety and
vegetative excitation. Naturally, this state is characterized by instability in time and
different intensity depending on the strength of the impact of a stressful situation.
Thus, the value of the final indicator for this podshkale allows you to assess not only
the level of actual anxiety of the subject, but also to determine whether he is under
the influence of a stressful situation and what is the intensity of this impact on him.
Personal anxiety is a constitutional feature that determines the tendency to
perceive a threat in a wide range of situations. With high personal anxiety, each of
these situations will have a stressful effect on the subject and cause him expressed
anxiety. Very high personal anxiety is directly correlated with the presence of
neurotic conflict, emotional and neurotic breakdowns and psychosomatic diseases.
Comparison of the results for both subscales makes it possible to assess the
individual significance of the stress situation for the subject. Spielberger scale due to
its relative simplicity and efficiency is widely used in the clinic for various purposes:
to determine the severity of anxiety, assessment of the state of dynamics, etc.
2.2.2 Personality inventory H. J. Eysenck
The questionnaire is designed to diagnose extra-introversion and neuroticism,
it also includes nine questions that make up the "scale of lies". Answers,
matching the key is evaluated in one point.
G. Eysenck have developed two versions of this questionnaire (A and b), which
for example, to conduct a re-study after one or another
experimental procedures, eliminating the possibility of memorizing previously
given answers.
Instruction. "You are invited to answer 57 questions. Questions aims to identify
your usual way of behavior. Try present typical situations and give the first "natural"
answer that will come to you. Answer quickly and accurately. Remember that there
are no "good" or "bad" answers. If you agree with the statement, put next to it number
sign + (Yes), if not — sign - (no)".
1. Do you like to be in a noisy and cheerful company?
2. Do you often need help from other guys?
3. When someone asks you something, do you often find the answer quickly?
4. Are you very angry, irritable?
5. How often do you change your mood?
6. Does it happen that sometimes you like being alone more than Dating
with the other guys?
7. You sometimes prevent fall asleep different thought?
8. Do you always do everything at once, as you're told?
9. Do you like to make fun of someone?
10. Has it ever happened that you feel sad for no particular reason?
11. Can you say about yourself that you are generally a cheerful person?
12. Have you ever broken any school rules?
13. Does it happen that sometimes almost everything annoys you?
14. Would you like a job where everything has to be done very quickly?
15. Has it ever happened that you were entrusted with a secret, and you on any
why couldn't you keep it?
16. Can you cheer up a bunch of bored kids without much difficulty?
17. Is it possible that your heart begins to beat, even if you don't
18. If you want to meet another boy or girl, then you always
you start the conversation first?
19. Have you ever told a lie?
20. Are you very upset when you are scolded for something?
21. Do you like to joke and tell funny stories to your friends?
22. Do you sometimes feel tired for no particular reason?
23. Do you always do what your elders tell you?
24. Are you usually happy with everything?
25. Can you say you're a little more touchy than the others?
26. Do you always like to play with other guys?
27. Has it ever happened that you were asked at home to help with the housework
and you
for some reason, you couldn't do it?
28. Do you ever get dizzy for no particular reason?
29. Do you sometimes feel like you're tired of everything?
30. Do you like to brag sometimes?
31. Does it happen that being in the company of other guys, you often
32. Do you usually make quick decisions?
33. Do you joke sometimes in class, especially if there is no teacher?
34. Do you have bad dreams sometimes?
35. Can you have fun without holding back in the company of other guys?
36. Does it happen that you are so worried that you can not sit still?
37. You do easily hurt or upset?
38. Have you ever spoken ill of anyone?
39. Can you say about yourself that you are a carefree person?
40. If you find yourself in a stupid position, then you get upset for a long time?
41. Do you always eat what you're given?
42. When you're asked for something, is it always hard to say no?
43. Do you like to visit often?
44. Was there ever a time in your life when you felt very bad?
45. Whether that happened to you ever rude talking with your parents?
46. Do you think they think you're funny?
47. Do you often get distracted when you do your homework?
48. Does it happen that you do not want to take part in the General fun?
49. Do you sometimes say the first thing that comes to mind?
50. You're almost always sure that they will cope with the case in which you are
51. Do you ever feel lonely?
52. Are you usually too shy to talk to strangers first?
53. Do you often wonder when it's too late?
54. When someone yells at you, do you yell back?
55. Does it happen that you become very cheerful or sad, without much
56. Do you sometimes think that it is difficult to get real pleasure from the
company of farebeat?
57. Are you affected by the weather?
The results are processed in three relatively independent ways:
1. The scale of "lies" (evaluation of the reliability of the results and self-denial –
self-affirmation): the answer "Yes" on issues: 3, 23, 41. Answer "no" to
questions: 4, 12,
15, 19, 27, 30, 34, 36, 45. The sum of points on this scale is desirable no more
than 5.
2. Scale extra and introvertness: the answer is "Yes" on: 1, 3, 9, 11, 14, 16, 18,
21, 24, 26, 32, 35, 39, 43, 50, 54. Answer "no" to questions: 6, 31, 48, 52, 56.
3. Neuroticism scale: Yes to questions: 2, 5, 7, 10, 13, 17, 20, 22, 25, 28, 29,57.
Answer "no" to questions: 34, 36, 37, 40, 42, 44, 47, 49, 51, 53, 55
According to Eysenck variables extroversion – introversion and instability –
stability orthogonal, i.e. independent, and each represents the continuum between two
poles of an extremely pronounced personality trait, therefore, most subjects will be
located somewhere between the poles, closer to center, the distance from which will
indicate the degree of deviation from the average and the severity of the relevant
personal properties, to measure which Eysenck was created special questionnaires.
The most popular of these is the EPI questionnaire, proposed in 1963, which is
the development and improvement of pre-existing questionnaires MMQ Eysenck
(1947) and MPI (1956). EPI contains 57 questions, of which 24 work on the
extroversion – introversion scale, the other 24 questions – on the scale instability –
stability, and the rest are included in the control L-scale, designed to assess the
sincerity – insincerity of the subject, his attitude to the survey and reliability of the
results. Low scores on the extroversion – introversion scale mean introversion, high
scores mean extroversion (the maximum score in EPI is 24 points, and with the
simultaneous use of two forms of the questionnaire, A and B, – 48 points).
Low scores on the instability scale – stability means stability, high – instability
(maximum score also 24 points, using forms A and B – 48 points), the average for
both scales – 12 points (with A+B – 24 points) – falls on the point of their
intersection (see "Circle Eysenck", marked for one form of the EPI questionnaire).
The specific position of the individual in the Eysenck model can be represented as a
point, the coordinates of which are determined by its estimates on these two scales.
Average rating 12±2 points (for one of the forms of EPI) is like perfect a
hypothetical mean that can be obtained on a very large sample subjects of different
sex, age, education, profession, etc., but may to fluctuate if the corresponding group
of subjects will be considered separately.
"Clean" sanguine quickly adapts to new conditions, quickly converges with
people, sociable. Feelings easily arise and are replaced, emotional experiences are
usually shallow. Facial expressions are a rich, mobile, expressive. A few restless,
needs new experiences, enough regulates their impulses, can not adhere strictly to the
developed routine, of life, of the work. In this regard, can not to successfully carry
out the work, requiring equal effort, long and persistent tension, perseverance,
resilience, attention, patience. In the absence serious goals, deep thoughts, creative
activities are developed superficiality and impermanence.
Choleric is characterized by increased excitability, intermittent actions. Him
characterized by sharpness and swiftness of movement, strength, impulsiveness,
bright the intensity of emotional experiences. Due to unbalance, engrossed in
business, inclined to act with all his might, to be exhausted more than follows. With
the public interest, temperament shows initiative, energy, integrity. In the absence of
spiritual life choleric temperament often manifests itself in irritability, efficiency,
incontinence, temper, inability to self-control when emotional circumstances.
Phlegmatic characterized by a relatively low level of activity behavior, new
forms of which are produced slowly, but are persistent. It has slowness and calmness
in actions, facial expressions and speech, evenness, constancy, depth of feelings and
moods. Persistent and persistent "hard worker of life", he rarely goes out of himself,
is not prone to affects, calculating your hand, brings it to the end, even in
relationships, sociable, loves talk about nothing. Saves manpower, they are not
wasting spends. Depending on the conditions in some cases, phlegmatic can be
characterized by "positive" features — endurance, depth of thought, constancy,
thoroughness, etc., in others —lethargy, indifference to others, laziness and lack of
will, poverty and weakness of emotions, a tendency to perform only the usual actions.
Melancholic. His reaction often does not correspond to the strength of the
there is depth and stability of the weak feelings in their expression. Him it is difficult
it's a long time to focus on something. Strong impact often cause have melancholic
prolonged brake reaction (lowered hands). It is peculiar restraint and muffled motor
skills and speech, shyness, timidity, indecision. Under normal conditions,
melancholic —a person deep, meaningful, can be a good worker, successfully cope
with life tasks. Under adverse conditions can turn into a closed, fearful, anxious,
vulnerable person, prone to severe internal the experiences of such life circumstances
that do not deserve.
2.2.3 Questionnaire FAM (felling, activity, mood)
This blank test is intended for rapid assessment well-being, activity and mood
(according to the first letters of these functional States and called the questionnaire).
The essence of the evaluation is that the subjects are asked correlate your
condition with a number of features on a multistage scale.
This scale consists of indices (3 2 1 0 1 2 3) and is located between thirty pairs of
words of opposite meaning, reflecting the mobility, speed and the rate of function
flow (activity), strength, health, fatigue (felling), as well as the characteristics of the
emotional state (mood.) The subject must select and mark the number most
reflecting his condition at the time of examination.
Instruction: You are invited to describe your condition that you experience in the
present moment, using the table (table 4) consisting of 30 polar signs.
You have to choose in each pair that characteristic which the most accurately
describes your condition, and mark a number that matches degree (strength) of this
Table 4
Felling bad
2. I feel
I feel weak.
6. Good
Bad mood
8. Full
of energy
9. Slow
Being tired
figure out
figure out
29. Full
of hope
Processing and interpretation of results
When processed, these numbers are recoded as follows:
- index 3, corresponding to poor health, low activity and bad mood, is taken as 1
- the next for him index 2 – for 2;
- index 1 – for 3 points and so to index 3 on the opposite side of the scale, which
is respectively taken as 7 points (note that the poles of the scale are constantly
So, positive States always get high points and negative ones get low. According
to these "given" points, the arithmetic mean is calculated both as a whole and
separately by activity, health and mood. For example, the average scores for a sample
of Moscow students are equal to: health – 5,4; activity – 5,0; mood – 5.1.
It should be mentioned that in the analysis of the functional state are important
not only the values of its individual indicators, but also their ratio. The fact that a
rested person assessment of activity, mood and well-being are usually about equal.
And as fatigue increases, the ratio between them changes due to a relative decrease in
health and activity compared to mood.
Questionnaire code:
Questions on well-being– 1, 2, 7, 8, 13, 14, 19, 20, 25, 26.
Questions on activity– 3, 4, 9, 10, 15, 16, 21, 22, 27, 28.
Questions on mood– 5, 6, 11, 12, 17, 18, 23, 24, 29, 30.
2.3 Method of the study of heart rate variability using the "VARICARD"
Heart rate variability was studied with the help of a computerized complex
Figure1 complex "VARICARD-axion»
electrocardiograph three-channel EC3TC-04 "AXION»; a device for the
treatment of cardiointervalogram and analysis of heart rate variability "varikard
 laptop, notebook Amid;
 A4 printer, Samsung;
 software on CD.
This complex solves the problem of assessing the adaptive capacity of the body
based on the analysis of heart rate variability and removal of the electrocardiogram,
its full automatic decoding with the measurement of amplitude-time parameters and
the issuance of a preliminary diagnosis-conclusion.
EC3TC-04 "AXION" is a three/six/twelve-channel electrocardiograph. In
manual mode, ECG removal is performed by 12 standard leads, Cabrera and Sky
leads with real-time output of any block of 3, 6 or 12 leads across the paper. The
duration of the removal of ECG in automatic mode — 10, 16, or 24 C is set by the
user. The ECG print format is selected from the output menu.
The device provides:
automatic measurement of 142 amplitude-time ECG parameters;
formation of typical cardiocycles with tooth markings;
drawing a coordinate grid in 1 or 5 mm increments when using paper without a
coordinate grid;
automatic generation of syndromal diagnostic findings with high efficiency.
Number of diagnosis-categories — 241;
rhythm monitoring with arrhythmia detection;
all print settings to the paper with of 112 mm.
Information about operating modes and presets is displayed on the alphanumeric
LCD. Built-in real-time clock and calendar allow you to record the exact time of the
survey. The electrocardiograph operates as a network — 220 In, and removable
battery. Docking with a PC takes place on the USB port. Software on CD is part of
the complex.
"VARICARD 2.51" is a device providing input of electrocardiosignals from
finite electrodes to the personal computer for processing by means of the
SOFTWARE which is a part of a complex. When processing, the problem of
assessing the adaptive capacity of the body based on the analysis of heart rate
variability (HRV) is solved. For HRV analysis, the methods recommended by both
European-American standards and Russian methodological recommendations were
implemented. More than 30 different HRV indicators are calculated.
Main methods of analysis:
 the histogram (variational pulsometrija);
 autocorrelation analysis;
 correlation rhythmography;
 spectral analysis.
All graphs of these functions can be viewed on the PC screen. In addition, the
analysis assesses the degree of tension of regulatory systems, which allows to
objectively judge the adaptive capabilities and functional reserves of the body.
To visualize the results of the functional state assessment according to the
analysis of heart rate variability, a scheme of the "traffic light"Type is used. It
provides green, yellow, red zone States, which correspondingly characterize the
normal human condition, prenosological (transitional between health and disease)
and pre-pathological condition that requires the attention of a doctor. The output
document of the complex is the patient card — health passport, printed on a color
The software, which is part of the complex, also implements all the features of
the electrocardiograph EC3TC-O4 "AXION" on the PC and allows you to create a
database of patients.
Studies were conducted in the morning, in a quiet room, where the temperature is
maintained constant 20-22C. The electrodes are placed on the limb according to the
conventional method: red, yellow, green and black electrodes are placed respectively
on the inner surface of the right and left forearm and the lower third of the left and
right tibia. It is advisable to impose electrodes on the patient, included monitoring
and observed the rhythm. As a rule, reogramme (WG) is clearly seen when the
process is stationary (repetitive wave structure of the cardiac rhythm without the slow
trend heart rate). The record was registered in the II standard lead. In the period of
registration of the CWP, the patient was breathing without making deep breaths. In
accordance with the "International standard" the duration of the short recording was 5
minutes (300 seconds).
The estimation of heart rate variability was carried out by the method of
mathematical statistics on Baevsky R.M. (1997). The most informative parameters of
heart rate variability (HRV) were used: TP,VLF,HF,LF,LF/HF. The results of the
spectral analysis were presented in view of the frequency distribution. Statistical
processing of the data was carried out on a personal computer using Excel 6.
3. Results and discussions
3.1. Psychological test
3.1.1. Personality inventory Eysenck G.U.
Eysenck personality inventory consists of several stages. And the first stage is the
"scale of sincerity" or "scale of lies". The results of the personality questionnaire of
Eysenck, the phase "PI" is represented by graphs (Fig.2)
Indicators of the multilingual group are shown in blue, the control group in red.
The first diagram shows the high level, the second diagram shows the normal level of
the "scale of lies»
The high level of the stage "scale of lies" suggests that the person being
interviewed is experiencing emotional stress and anxiety. A person can not open up
to the world around him, unable to give truthful answers, looking for social approval.
Figure 2 The Scale of lies
As we see in figure 2 65% of the students in the multilingual group showed a
high level of falsehood, while in the control group this figure was found only in 12%
of students.Also, 35% of students in the multilingual group and 88% of students in
the control group showed a normal level of the stage "scale of lies".
The next stage of the Eysenck personality questionnaire called the "scale of
Extroversion". This stage is needed to determine the individual psychophysiological
properties of a person. The "extroversion scale" divides people into extroverts
("outward-facing") and introverts ("inward-facing").
Extroverts require constant stimulation from the environment, they are sociable,
eager for new experiences, prone to risk, love change, ready for quick reactions; they
are characterized by looseness of behavior, optimism, cheerfulness, temper and
aggression, superficiality in the perception of people and phenomena.
Introverts, on the contrary, incentives to draw vitality from the inside out, live
with your rich inner world. They are closed, unsociable, slow, serious, reserved, like
order, prone to self-contemplation, friends faithfully, but with a few, avoid noisy
Figure 3 shows the results of the extroversion scale phase .
Figure3 extroversion scale
The study revealed that 35% of students in the multilingual group and 23% of
students in the control group are absolute introverts; 12% of students in the
multilingual group and 18% of students have a tendency to introversion; 53% of
students in the multilingual group and 36% of students in the control group are
absolute introverts; 23% of students in the control group are extreme extroverts,
while in the multilingual group there are no extreme extroverts, that is, 58% of
students in the control group are extroverts and bright extroverts.
The third stage of the questionnaire is "neuroticism scale". The results of the
"neuroticism scale" are shown in Fig. 4. There are two main levels of neuroticism
scale: high and low. A low level of neuroticism indicates that a person is emotionally
stable. A high level, on the contrary, indicates that a person is not emotionally stable
and experiences emotional stress.
Figure 4 neuroticism scale
In the diagram we can see the following: 32% of students in the multilingual
group and 59% of students in the control group have a low level of neuroticism; 26%
of students in the multilingual group and 14% of students in the control group have a
moderate level of neuroticism; 28% of students in the multilingual group and 27% of
students in the control group showed a high level of neuroticism, as well as 14% of
students in the multilingual group have a very high level of neuroticism. In General,
42% of students in a multilingual group have a high and very high level of
neuroticism, that is, they are not emotionally stable.
3.1.2. Spielberger-Hanin anxiety level
Spielberger-Hanin psychological test is conducted to determine the level of
situational and personal anxiety. The test was conducted in two stages: during the
educational process and during the exams. For rice.5 the results of the test during the
educational process are presented. In the diagram, the low level is painted blue, the
moderate level is red and the high level is yellow.
1st diagram is results of multilingual group, the 2nd is result of control group.
Figure 5 Level of anxiety on Spielberger-Khanin during the educational process
As a result of the study it was found that, during the educational process, 35% of
students of the multilingual group have low anxiety, 47% have moderate anxiety and
18% have high reactive anxiety.
It was also found that 65% of the students in the control group have low, 35%
have moderate reactive anxiety. A high level of anxiety in this group was not
On fig.6 presents the results of reactive anxiety in students of different groups
during exams .
Figure 6 The level of reactive anxiety on Spielberger-Hanin during exams
The first diagram shows the results of testing in a multilingual group during
exams. According to these results, it was found that 17% of students have a low level,
44% have moderate, 39% have a high level of reactive anxiety.
While, in the control group, 23% have a low level, 46 %moderate level, 31%
high level of reactive anxiety.
Based on this, we can draw the following conclusions:
 multilingual students are prone to high reactive anxiety compared to the
control group;
 the level of reactive anxiety in students of different groups during exams shows
high anxiety than during the learning process.
3.1. 3 FAM Test (felling, activity, mood)
Like the previous test, the FAM test was conducted in two stages: during the
educational process and during the exams. The results of the FAM test during the
educational process are presented on fig.7. The indicators of the multilingual group
are shown in blue, the indicators of the control group in red. The first column of
results on the part of-well-being, the second column the activity, the third column - in
the mood. Less than 4.5 – reduced; less than 6, but more than 4.5 – normal; more than
6 – increased
Figure 7. FAM test results during the learning process
The study in the period of the educational process, students of multilingual
groups identified the normal state of health (5,3), the tendency to decrease the activity
of the (4,4) and normal mood (5,1).
The students of the control group during the educational process showed normal
health (5.5), reduced activity (4) and normal mood (5.3).
As it became known, the difference between the indicators of multilingual and
control group is not significant.
The results of the FAM test during the exams are shown in Fig.8
Figure 8. FAM test results during exams
According to the test results the period of examination of students of multilingual
groups were identified proximity to deterioration of General condition (4,6) , reduced
activity(4,4) and lowered mood (3).
While in the control group gave the following indicators:
Normal health (5) , normal activity, normal mood (4,8).
It is observed that the indicators of health, actinism, mood of students in the
multilingual group is reduced compared to the control. It can also be noted that the
performance during the exams is much lower than during the educational process.
3.2 The state of tension of regulatory systems of the students which studied
3.2.1. Spectral analysis
Spectral analysis was used to assess heart rate variability. The structure of waves
on the cardiointervalogram is studied and the degree of activity of the sympathetic
and parasympathetic systems, as well as the somatic Department of the Central
nervous system is determined.
Table 5 presents the results of spectral analysis of HRV students of different
groups during the educational process..
Table 5.
The indices of the spectral power of the students during the learning process
It was found that during the educational process the total power reflecting the
total activity of neurohumoral effects on cardiac activity was higher in students of the
multilingual group compared to the control group. In addition, the LF/HF ratio
indicates the activation of sympathetic effects compared to parasympathetic ones.
The following table (table 6) presents the results of spectral analysis of HRV in
students of different groups during exams.
Table 6.
The indices of the spectral power of the students during exams
During the examination period, the total capacity, reflecting the current state of
the body, is significantly lower in a multilingual group compared to the control. The
LF/HF ratio, which characterizes sympathetic-parasympathetic effects, reflects even
greater activity of the sympathetic nervous system.
The result of spectral analysis of students of multilingual group in the educational
process indicates that the main modulating effect on heart rate have more sympathetic
parts of the autonomic system than the parasympathetic compared with the control
group. During the exam, this modulating effect is enhanced.
3.2.2 Indicators of the body's regulatory systems activity (IARS)
Method of evaluation overall HRV is relevant from the HRV analysis.
R. M. Bayevsky proposed the activity index of regulatory systems (IARS), which
is calculated in points on the basis of statistical indicators, histogram and spectral
analysis, for a comprehensive assessment of the heart rate. Pars VALUES are
expressed in points from 1 to 10.
1. The state of optimal tension of regulatory systems necessary to maintain the
active balance of the body with the environment (IARS=1-2).
2. The state of moderate voltage of regulatory systems, when the body requires
additional functional reserves to adapt to environmental conditions. Such conditions
occur in the process of adaptation to work, under emotional stress or under the
influence of adverse environmental factors (IARS=3-4).
3. The state of expressed tension of regulatory systems, which is associated with
the active mobilization of protective mechanisms, including increased activity of the
sympathetic-adrenal system and the pituitary-adrenal system (IARS=4-6).
4. The state of overvoltage of regulatory systems, which is characterized by a
lack of protective and adaptive mechanisms, their inability to provide an adequate
response to the impact of environmental factors. Here, excessive activation of
regulatory systems is no longer supported by the corresponding functional reserves
5. The state of exhaustion (asthenization) of regulatory systems, in which the
activity of control mechanisms is reduced (lack of regulation mechanisms) and there
are characteristic signs of pathology. Here, specific changes clearly prevail over nonspecific (IARS=8-10). (Bayevsky, 1979, Berseneva, 1991, 1997).
On fig.9 indicators of activity of regulatory systems of an organism at students
of various groups during educational process are presented.
Figure 9 indicators of activity of the regulatory systems of the body of students
during the educational process
According to the results of the study, it was found that during the educational
process in a multilingual group 45% of students experience optimal stress, 28%
moderate stress, 21% expressed and 6% pronounced tension.
In the office group, 15% experience optimal stress, 7% moderate stress and 18%
expressed stress. There are no students with pronounced stress in this group.
Indicators of activity of the regulatory systems of the body of students during the
exams are shown in figure 10
Figure 10 Indicators of activity of the regulatory systems of the body of students
during exams
During the exams, students of the multilingual group have the following
10% experiencing a moderate stress, 50% of the marked voltage, 35% pronounced
voltage, 5% discovered asthenia (failure of adaptation)
While, in the control group, 5% of students experience optimal stress, 45% moderate,
25% pronounced and 25% pronounced stress. Asthenization (failure of adaptation) in
the control group was not detected.
The most important strategic task of education in Kazakhstan is, on the one hand,
the preservation of the best Kazakh educational traditions, on the other, providing
graduates with international qualifications, the development of their linguistic
consciousness, which is based on the mastery of the state, native and foreign
Kazakhstan pays great attention to the study of the languages of the peoples
living in this country. Here, the Kazakh language is the state language, and the
Russian language is the language of international communication. Foreign languages
are taught in all schools. If we consider that the training is carried out in the state,
Kazakh, and the language of international communication, Russian languages in
schools, colleges and universities, and in the curricula of all educational institutions
provides for the study, except Russian, at least one foreign language, we can say that
in Kazakhstan has already formed a bilingual situation and there is a trend of
multilingual education.
Years of development of sovereign Kazakhstan show that bilingualism and
multilingualism in society not only does not infringe the rights and dignity of the
Kazakh language, but also creates all the necessary conditions for its development
and progress. But it depends on the deeply thought-out language policy of President
Nazarbayev and the state and the ability of the national intelligentsia to preserve and
develop the culture, history and language of the Kazakh people.
The concept of language policy of the Republic of Kazakhstan defines Russian as
the main source of information in various fields of science and technology, as a
means of communication with the near and far abroad. The development of the state,
Kazakh, language, preservation and development of Russian, the implementation of
the policy of multilingual education – the most important task, but difficult. This task
can be solved only together, by the efforts of all members of society.
Stress is a word that is widely used, but not everyone correctly understands its
meaning. Stress is a state of tension, mobilization of reserves, arising under the
influence of emergency and intense influences. Speaking of stress, it is necessary to
take into account the relationship between the actual problem and the ability of a
person to cope with it. An event that leads one person to a state of stress, for another
can flash completely unnoticed. In a stressful situation, there is stimulation of all
body systems. As soon as the brain receives a signal from the environment, the
production of hormones adrenaline and cortisol begins. The nervous system without
any conscious effort on our part sends signals throughout the body about the need to
prepare for action in this situation, which can be extraordinary for a particular person.
As a result of the chemical transformations taking place in the body, the level of
energy rises sharply and the person feels excitement and tension and is ready to
overcome the difficulties or solve the task. Stressful reaction leads to the following
physiological changes in the body: increased sweating, quickens breathing and
expands the respiratory tract, the liver increases the release of sugar into the blood,
the muscles tense, dry mouth, heart beats faster, increased pressure, etc. If the stress
situation is repeated often, the body begins to experience some discomfort. Any part
of our body in response to stress can manifest itself unpleasant sensations.
Educational stress is a condition characterized by excessive stress of the body, a
decrease in emotional and intellectual potential, leading in the long term to
psychosomatic diseases and stopping the personal growth of the student. The ability
to be collected and disciplined, to remember a large amount of information in a short
time, to properly organize your school day, to learn to communicate with a lot of new
people, to make the right decisions in a variety of situations – all this requires the
student great endurance, emotional stress and internal resistance.
Students ' health is a state of сomplete socio-biological and mental well-being
with balanced processes of life with social and natural characteristics of the territory.
The state of health of students, as well as the population as a whole is not only an
important indicator of social development, a reflection of the socio-economic and
hygienic well-being of the country, but also a powerful economic, labor, •defense and
cultural potential of society, a factor and a component of well-being. Therefore, the
knowledge of the laws of its formation is extremely important, both for the state as a
whole and for each of its citizens.
Education in higher education is a stress for most students and is accompanied by
the tension of regulatory systems. Students in a multilingual group who study
disciplines in three languages, certainly experience more stress and tension of
regulatory systems.
The study was conducted on the basis of Karaganda state University. The study
involved students of 3-4 courses, the average age of 20±1 year. Students were divided
into two groups: 1 group-experimental multilingual, where students studied in three
languages, 15 students; 2 group-control group (15 students) enrolled in the traditional
system of education
The level of physical development and features of cardiovascular system in two
groups were determined, anthropometric indicators – height (cm), weight (kg),
adaptive potential were measured at rest. Body mass index was calculated
The study consists of two phases: 1) psychological tests; 2) studies of heart rate
variability using the "VARICARD".
There are 3 types of psychological tests: Eysenck test, test Spielberger-Hanin test
and FAM. Psychological tests were conducted to determine the psycho-emotional
state of students. Tests were conducted in the morning, with the consent of the
Spectral analysis was used to assess heart rate variability. The structure of waves
on the cardiointervalogram is studied and the degree of activity of the sympathetic
and parasympathetic systems, as well as the somatic Department of the Central
nervous system is determined.
Final results:
1. Psycho-emotional state of students in a multilingual group during the
educational process is characterized by a high level of emotional stress, a high level
of neuroticism (42%). High reactive anxiety among students in a multilingual group
is observed both during the educational process (18%) and during exams (39%)
compared to the control group.
2.The result of spectral analysis of students in a multilingual group during the
educational process indicates that the main modulating effect on the heart rate have
more sympathetic parts of the autonomic system than parasympathetic compared with
the control group. During the examination period, this modulating effect is further
3.In determining the indicators of activity of regulatory systems of the organism
in students of multilingual group revealed expressed tension of the regulatory systems
of the organism during the educational process (27%). While 40% of students in the
multilingual group had overvoltage tension stress and asthenization, reduced
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