FUND MANAGEMENT CHAPTER PROLOGUE ○ ○ The term management conjures up images of placing a cash in bank for safe keeping . Cash concepts and techniques are applied in a wide range of activities. 2 Good reasons why one has to manage cash well: 1. First, at the core of business operation, regardless of what type and form of business they are into. a. Sole proprietorship b. Partnership c. Corporation Infographic Style TYPES OF BUSSINESS ORGANIZATION A. SERVICE CONCERN- the business that render income to earn income. B. TRADING CONCERN- these are the business that sell to earn income. C. MANUFACTURING CONCERNthese are the business that convert raw materials into finished products. 2.Second, it is the asset that is most susceptible to theft and abuse thus may cause business failures. 3. Lastly, This can be a good source of additional income aside from normal operation. HOW WELL DO YOU KNOW CASH? cash Cash on hand Represents as cash collection waiting to be deposited on the bank. Cash in bank Represents the cash already deposited in the bank. A.Savings Account B.Demand Deposits C. Combo Account RISKS 1. INHERENT RISKS 2. CONROL RISKS 3. SYSTEMS RISKS CASH FUND Funds are classified as cash: a. PETTY CASH FUND - this is the fund that will cater the small expenditures of the company. - this fund could either be maintained under the imprest system or the fluctuating. The person handling this fund is called PETTY CASH CUSTODIAN. b. CHANGE FUND - this fund is used to maintain loose change to address the concern for small bills and coins. c. DIVIDEND FUND - this is the fund used to pay dividends which the board of directors have declared payable a time certain in the future. CASH EQUIVALENT - PAS (Philippine Accounting Standards) - Short term and highly liquid investments - Readily convertible to cash - Acquired three months before maturity If the term is three months of less ,such as instrument is classified as cash equivalent If the term is more than three months but within one year, such investments are classified as SHORT TERM OR TEMPORARY INVESTMENT and should be presented as separate current assets. If the term is more than one year , such investments is classified as non current or long term investments. However if such investment will already mature within a year ,then this will be considered as current assets 13 Overnight Placements BANK Products (interest are paid at maturity date) Weekly time deposits Monthly time deposits or time deposits 60 days, 90 days, 180 days, one year, 2 years, 3 years etc. Trusts Government Securities 1. Treasury Bills 2.Treasury Notes 3. Treasury warrant 15 4. Treasury Bond ADA Corporation and Subsidiaries Consolidated Statement of Financial Position December 31, 2007 (Amounts in Million Pesos) 1.Cash Flow liquidity Ratio Cash& cash equivalent + Trading Securities + Cash flow from Operating activities /Current liabilities Gauges the firm’s ability to pay current financial obligation by considering cash and other equivalents. 2.Days cash Average Cash Balance / Cash Operating Costs/ 365 days or 360 days Indicates the ability of the firm to pay the average daily cash obligations. The breakdown of cash and cash equivalents must have been: 1.Cash on hand 2. Cash Fund 3. Cash in banks 4. Investments with less than one year maturity HOW DO WE VALUE CASH? How do we document cash? A. Provisional Receipt B. Official Receipt C. Sales Invoice D. Daily Collectors Remittance Form Tips in formatting forms and documentary evidence: 1. What are the information necessary so that the various concerns of the control aspects could be addressed: a. Date b. Serial number c. Is it thru manual operation or mechanical operation d. Purpose 2. How big will these forms be 3. Filing 4. Distribution 5. The responsible employees who will handle it. How Cash is handled? • Collector • Cashier • Junior Accountant • General Account • Accounting Supervisor • Internal Auditor The following control measures so that the cash will no be abused. 1. The VP for Finance should establish the policy on cash handling. 2.From the policy established , the head of the accounting department should prepare the procedure. 3. The implementation of the procedure is subject to the review and audit by the internal audit group or department so that continuous improvement on the control mechanism may be done to address the continuous and fast charging technology of the company. Collectors collect the receivable of the company Customers as an alternative, may pay directly to the office. The cashier receives the money from collectors and customers. The Junior Accountant will journalize the receipt transactions The Accounting supervisor will check the entry and later on check the bank reconciliation statement. Depository bank The General Accountant will record the transaction. How will receive the bank statement and prepare the bank reconciliation. Policy on cash handling : 1. The company should adopt the imprest system handling cash. 2. The company should maintain the combo account for easier tracking of banking transaction. 3. The company should place its money in various banking companies so as the distribute the risk involve in banking. 4. The following bank signatories will be observed a) If the amount of disbursement is P50, 000.00 and below the following will be the check signatories. The Comptroller or the Head of the accounting department and to be countersigned by the Treasurer or VP Finance. b) b. If the amount of disbursement is more than P50, 000.00 the following will be the check signatories. The Comptroller or the Head of the accounting department and to be countersigned by the Treasurer or President. 5. Official receipts can only be issued when cash is received. Check payments received from costumers or other persons will be covered by provisional receipts. 6. All funds should be kept and maintained by the office fund custodian. For the petty cash fund, should request replenishment once the fund is at least 40% used to avoid disruption of operation due to insufficiency of the funds. PROCEDURE IN CASH HANDLING 1) The cashier upon receiving cash from the customer or the company collector will issue on official receipt. 2) The cashier will also issue on official receipt for check deposits that are already cleared in banking system. 3) The cashier will deposit the cash collection up to 12 noon of the current day intact within the day and money collections after 12 noon will be deposited intact the following banking day. 4) The cashier will then prepare the daily cash position report. 5) The official receipt issued together with the validated deposit slip and the original copy of the daily cash position report will then be forwarded to the accounting department for file and the preparation of the appropriate accounting entries and for eventual entry in the books of accounts. Common Misuses of Cash Lapping - This is a case of misappropriating a collection from one customer and concealing this defalcation by applying subsequent collection made from one another customer. Kiting - This happens when a check drawn from one depository bank and deposited bank at the end of the year. There will be no entries made on this drawing and depositing . This happens because there is poor internal control . Poor control can be attributed to poor cash management which is the essence of his book. Fraudulent documents and evidence. -Some employees will make documents and piece of evidence which are not really true. How is cash controlled? 1. Establishing good relationship with the bank officer . There are some banks that are very short term time deposit investments like: a. Overnight Placement . Just place your excess money during the day to an overnight placement and terminate it the following day. b. One week time deposit placement. The reason for this is that the excess money could earn more while waiting for releasing of check payments to creditors and payees. c. Enter into a 30 day short investment- Depending on the cash needs of the company. Under this classification, you could either get a treasury bill or treasury warrant or treasury note . 1. The time deposit is a product of the bank and the liability in the bank while the government securities are government products coursed thru banking system eventual selling and are the liabilities of the government. 2. The time deposit is covered by the Philippine deposit insurance coverage of P250,000 while the government notes are covered and backed up by the Philippine government. 3. The interest of a time deposit can be received at the date of maturity while the interest form government securities can be received at the date of placement. d. If we have any excess cash , while waiting for bigger investment yield, we can place it in a long term investment in time deposit that will yield bigger interest and assured of a steady rate of return of our money. 2. Identifying the various books where this cash transactions were recorded in comparison with the various reports prepared. 3. Routine audit procedures to countercheck the books and reports there is the employees duties, so that there will be no overlapping of functions and strict adherence to company's policies and procedures. 4. The preparation of strategic planning, (more than one year to three year of planning) 5. The preparation of a medium-term development plan (three year to five year planning) 6. The preparation of a long-term development plan (more than 5 year planning and consider the future of the company in carrying its vision/ mission. Bills purchased is a form of discounting , but again if have a good liaison with the bank officer, this can be waived . Earmarking is an old terminology used many years back. Now the new term used in the banking system is confirmation of deposit. Bouncing Check means that the check you received was not funded and therefore will not be cleared in banking system. Concluding Learning .1. In managing cash, you have to learn different bank accounts to open and funds to set up. 2. In managing cash, documents are a must because accounting is objective. 3. In managing cash, should be oriented about its role in the account . Their duties and responsibilities are vital for the achievement of the company’s goal of minimizing risk and maximizing opportunities. 4 In managing cash, the company should have good representation with the banking and financing companies so that it can get the best investment oppurtunities. How is cash controlled? 1. Establishing good relationship with the bank officer . There are some banks that are very short term time deposit investments like: a. Overnight Placement . Just place your excess money during the day to an overnight placement and terminate it the following day. b. One week time deposit placement. The reason for this is that the excess money could earn more while waiting for releasing of check payments to creditors and payees. c. Enter into a 30 day short investment- Depending on the cash needs of the company. Under this classification, you could either get a treasury bill or treasury warrant or treasury note . How is cash controlled? 1. Establishing good relationship with the bank officer . There are some banks that are very short term time deposit investments like: a. Overnight Placement . Just place your excess money during the day to an overnight placement and terminate it the following day. b. One week time deposit placement. The reason for this is that the excess money could earn more while waiting for releasing of check payments to creditors and payees. c. Enter into a 30 day short investment- Depending on the cash needs of the company. Under this classification, you could either get a treasury bill or treasury warrant or treasury note .