Uploaded by Abdullah Hassnain


Breeding Soundness
Evaluation (BSE)
• BSE is an attempt to measure the bull’s potential to cause conception.
• The BSE aims to identify bulls which are satisfactory (not necessarily
those which are superior)
• Through BSE fertility of bull can not be estimated
• Fertility is a complex trait which is influenced by both male and female traits
as well as by extraneous factors(e.g. nutrition, environment, disease etc).
• The BSE is a relatively quick and simple screening procedure which does not
comprehensively assess all aspects of male fertility
• BSE is a relatively quick and economic procedure for screening bulls prior
to sale or use.
• Its objective is to establish a baseline, above which bulls could be regarded
as satisfactory potential breeders.
• It is simple, repeatable and unambiguous test to judge the breeding
capacity male animal.
• However, the BSE should not substitute for professional judgment or
common sense.
• In the BSE, bulls are placed into the categories of satisfactory,
unsatisfactory and deferred.
• The process is most effective in identifying bulls at the lower end of the
potential fertility spectrum.
Procedure BSE
• 1. Physical examination.
• 2. Reproductive examination (including measurement of scrotal
• 3. Collection and examination of semen.
• 4. Libido/serving capacity test.
Physical exam
• Physical health
• General body condition, teeth, eyes, etc.
• Medical history : vaccination, previous health etc.
• Managemental history: feed, housing, previous use
Physical Exam
Physical Exam
Permanent ID
Physical Exam
Permanent ID
Physical Exam
Physical Exam
Physical Exam
Musculoskeletal disease
• Joints
• Laminitis
• Scars around coronary band
• Interdigital growths
• Footrot
• Hoof Cracks
Interdigital Fibroma
Rear Limb
Sickle Hocked
Cow Hocked
Post Legged
Crooked Legs/Feet
Rear Limbs confirmation
• Libido & mating ability
are directly related to leg
• Relationship of hip joint
with stifle, hock and
pastern joints
• from side (Post legged,
Camped behind & Sickle
• from behind (Bow
leggedness or base
narrow & Toed-out stance
or base wide)
Post legs
Examination of Underline
External Exam of Penis & Prepuce
• Incomplete Extension
• Frenulum
• Hair Rings
• Fibropapillomas (Warts)
• Prolapse of Prepuce
• Lacerations
• Adhesions
Prepuce and sheeth
Eversion, adhesions and pendulous
Ventral or lateral deviation
cockscrew penis
persistent penile frenulum
Penile Hair Ring
Persistent Frenulum
Penile Fibropapilloma
• Scrotum/Testis = Testis held too close to the body, unilateral
hypoplasia, scrotal hernia,
• incomplete descent of testis (cryptorchidism-bilateral or unilateral
also called minorchidism), testicular degeneration & rotation of tesis
> 40
• Normal conformation of scrotum = elongated, rounded, rotation ≤
40 with distinct cleavage
• Epididymis = Hypoplasia, aplasia, Inflammation, tumour, abscess &
spermatic granuloma
Visual Exam of Scrotum
• Scrotal Conformation
• Evidence of Injury
• Skin Lesions
Palpation of Scrotum
• Ensure there are two testes
• Free & Moveable
• Tone
• Symmetry
• Epididymis
Atrophied Left Testicle
Scrotal Circumference
• Indicates Fertility & Puberty
• Ensure Both Testicles are In Scrotum
• Cradle Scrotal Neck
• Place Tape at Largest Diameter
• Pull until Skin Indents
Scrotal Circumference Tape
Proper Tape Placement
Incorrect Hand Placement
Scrotal circumference (SC)
It is indicative of semen quality, quantity and pathological lesions
Bulls with < 30 cm SC should not be used for breeding.
Holstein-Friesian bulls = Sc is 32-36 cm at 1 year of age and it may exceed 40 cm at the age pf 2
-3 years in excellent cases.
Buffalo bulls = SC is 27, 28, 29, 29, 30 and 34 cm at the age of 2-3, 3-4, 4-5, 5-6, 6-7 and 7-8
years, respectively.
↑ SC of bull = early puberty in daughters
↓ SC of bull = delayed puberty, irregular estrous cycles and delayed conception in
Pathological lesions of small testis = Testicular hypoplasia & testicular degeneration
Pathological lesions of large testis = Obstructive lesions in the head of epididymis and
Society for
Semen evaluation
• Motility
• Viability
• Concentration
• Plasma membrane integrity
• Acrosome integrity
• Morphological abnormalities
• DNA integrity
Libido testing
• Reaction time
• Length of time taken for a bull to respond/mount to a given stimulus (exposed
to cow in estrus or dummy)
For further reading
• https://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/animals-and-livestock/beefcattle/breeding/bull-selection/structural-soundness