Uploaded by John Arvin S. Anchorez


A Research Proposal
Presented to the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering
College of Engineering, Architecture and Fine Arts
Batangas State University
Pablo Borbon Main Campus II
Alangilan, Batangas City
In Partial Fulfilment
Of the Requirements for ME416
Methods of Research for Mechanical Engineering
May 2019
Increasing amount of waste become one of the biggest problems in this
world. Economic and population growth, and industrialization causes this
increasing amount of waste. Intensive use of natural resources is inevitable, the
waste created by the ever-increasing consumption tendency have reached the
huge amount that threatens the environment and human health due to its quantity
and harmful contents. To solve the problems caused by this waste and pollutants,
waste management studies were carried and waste policies were developed
especially in the field of waste recycling.
As we see billions of plastic bottles are discarded every year into bins and
some are improperly disposed. About 6.3 billion tons of plastic waste has been
generated in the world so far, according to a 2015 study by Britain’s Ellen McArthur
Foundation. In year 2011, the approximate total waste generated by Philippines
was estimated to be 35,000 tons per day and a huge percentage of it is plastic.
Greenpeace and thEcoWaste Coalition have done several waste audits in Laguna
Lake and Manila Bay, wherein the consistent placers on top are plastic bags and
other residual wastes like candy wrappers, plastic packaging materials, plastic
bottles and others. In the Manila Bay surveys, plastic wastes were recorded at
76.9% in 2011 and 75% in 2010. (Plastic Regulation: Its time has come, 2012)
The plastic waste is not a biodegradable material but it is one of the most
recycled material. Today, people are leaning towards using recycled materials
instead of using new materials. Recycled materials can lead to a significant
reduction in energy consumption, lessening CO2 emissions, oil preservation,
usage of raw materials, and decrease in wastage and dumps. Recycling of plastic
waste to produce new materials is one of the solutions for getting rid of the
mountains of trash. Different machines were designed and developed to reduce
this waste and turn it into something alternative and useful such as constructional,
decorative, and many more including tiles made of plastics.
The plastic tiles have significant advantages over conventional tiles –
they’re thinner and lighter, and are just as strong as their stony counterparts. It’s
also cheaper and more fuel efficient to manufacture than conventional tiles. It’s
also less energy intensive than recycling the plastic into another forms.
Background of the Study
Growth of population, increasing urbanization, and rising standards of living
due to technological innovations have contributed to increase in the quantity of a
variety of solid wastes generated by industrial, mining, domestic and agricultural
activities (Safiuddin et al., 2010). The low cost and convenience of plastic as well
as inefficient waste disposal has made the Philippines one of the world’s leading
plastic polluters, with tremendous negative impacts on the environment (WWF,’
The scourge of single-use plastic in the Philippines’, posted on 22 June, 2018,
Philippines is ranking third on the five countries that produces the half of the
world’s plastic waste according to a data on 2016. Based on the data from the
2015 study “Plastic waste inputs from land into ocean “, shows that the Philippines
wastes 6,237,653 kg (6875.84 tons) of plastic per day, of which 81% is
mismanaged. Overall the Philippines generates 2.7 million tons a year and 20
percent or half a million tons of that leaks into the ocean the report says.
According a study conducted by global advocacy firm McKinsey Center for
Business and Environment showed that the Philippines has one of the highest PET
bottle recovery rates at 90 percent. Thus, recycling and turning of plastic waste
into a new product is possible and a must because of its quantity and harmful
effects to the environment. And one of the many possible solutions to reduce this
waste is by recycling and turning used plastic bottles into high quality products.
According to a research by William L. Hosch in 2009, plastic can be shaped
by all the common methods employed with other thermoplastics. Molten plastic
can be molded into different items with high strength and rigidity.
Some studies were done related to plastic tiles making process. Under
Epistemics in Science, Engineering and Technology, comparative analysis of
recycled waste plastic tiles and alumina ceramic tiles with ANSYS 15 was
conducted by Department of Civil Engineering, University of Ilorin and Department
of Architecture, Ahmadu Bello University in Nigeria. The research illustrates and
compares the analytical and behavior of recycled waste plastic tiles and a
conventional alumina ceramic tile. Also, they analyze the different properties of
said materials. In 2016, design and fabrication of compression molding machine
for plastic waste recycling was done at the same country.
Objectives of the Study
The main thrust of this study was to modify a plastic – based tiles making
machine using PETE bottles through shredding, extruding, and molding process.
Specifically, this study aims to:
1. Modify a plastic-based tiles making machine using widely available
materials and considering the following:
1.1 material specification and
1.2 system components
2. Fabricate a plastic – based tiles making machine according to design
specifications and requirements created.
3. Conduct preliminary testing of the prototype to establish the following
3.1 operating capacity
3.2 operating temperature
3.3 operating speed
4. Test
4.1 shredding rate
4.2 extrusion rate
4.3 production rate
4.4 over-all efficiency
5. Test the mechanical properties of the product in terms of:
5.1 breaking load
6. Develop an operation and maintenance manual for the fabricated
plastic based – tiles making machine.
Significance of the Study
The results of the study would be beneficial to several factors through the
following aspects:
To the Department of Environmental and Natural Resources, this study will
benefit them in their promotion of upholding a clean and safe waste management
that will result to a healthy environment.
To the Environmental Management unit of the different communities in the
Philippines, this machine can help in the reduction of volume of plastic wastes
produced and help produce a possible stream of income.
To the Mechanical Engineering Department of Batangas State University,
this study opened new ideas in efficiently handling plastic wastes. This also served
as basis in conducting further researches similar to this study.
To the researchers, this study further enhanced and developed their
technical and practical knowledge through researching, developing, and designing
this study.
Scope and Limitations of the Study
Due to paucity of time and finance this study is limited to the modification
and construction of a Plastic – Based Tiles Making Machine only, and will not
involve formulation of clay body for the production of tiles. However established
compositions will be adopted to test run the machine. The study is limited only for
plastic – based tiles as the products which are commonly used for decorative,
and Polyethylene Terephthalate (PETE) bottles as the raw materials. This
research covers the design and fabrication of a tile-making machine, using
mainly mild steel and other relevant available materials. The design is based on
the existing machine with enhance production rate and more convenient machine
operation. It utilizes generally established parameters in Mechanical
Engineering, as applied in machine design and product design. A more efficient
shredder machine is based on the parameters and calculations to meet the
desired production rate. To enhance the tile properties, fiber resin will be
reinforced before the molding process. The molder of the machine is modified
into 4 slot rotating plate with interchangeable molder. The size of slot is design to
be fit with the standard size of the tile. The construction of all components of the
machine, except the electric motor, switch, bearings, V-belt, belt conveyor,
electric control box, chain and sprocket, bolts and nuts, contactors, etc., that
were purchased from the stock shop. Tile production to a size from a minimum of
7.5 x 3,.75 cm and a maximum of 7.5 x 3,.75 cm.
Conceptual Framework
This study dealt on modification of a plastic – based tiles making machine
using PETE bottles through shredding, extruding and molding process. The
conceptual framework of this study is presented based on the CDIO (ConceiveDesign-Implemented-Operate)
conceptualization and design of the machine. The modification …… The principles
of the operation are also included. Figure 1 shows the research paradigm of the
The conceive stage considered the knowledge requirements necessary for
the study namely the knowledge about the raw materials used, plastic shredding,
plastic extrusion, properties of the end product and procedures for the operation
and processes.
Design stage included the design and development process in which
system components and material specifications are considered. It also comprised
of the design layout of the machine and the evaluation of the different materials
and equipment needed for the machine and the evaluation of the different
materials and equipment needed for the machine fabrication. The proposed design
is created and simulated through CAD program.
For the implementation stage, the fabrication of the machine is discussed,
the preliminary testing of the machine is performed to test its limitations and output
capacity as well as to find if there will be some adjustments that needs to be made.
The performance testing was also conducted for each experiment to ensure that
the design parameters are established well.
Definition of terms
Presented herewith are the definition of terms this study governs which are
crucial in the understanding of the different concepts, procedures and theories
regarding the study.
Extrusion. A process used to create objects of a fixed cross-sectional
profile. A material is pushed through a die of the desired cross-section. This
process will be used to produce the tiles from the plastic bottles.
small piece
reinforcing material processing certain
characteristics properties. They can be circular or flat.
Fiber Reinforced Plastic. A composite material consisting of mixtures of
plastics uniformly dispersed suitable fibers.
Molding. The process of manufacturing by9 shaping liquid or pliable raw
material using a rigid frame called a mold or matrix. This itself may have been
made using a pattern or model of the final project.
Polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Most common thermoplastic polymer
resin of the polyester family and is used in fibers for clothing, containers for liquids
and foods, and thermoforming for manufacturing.
Shredding. A process used to reduce the size of a given material.
A thin object usually square or rectangular in shape. Tile is a
manufactures piece of hard-wearing material such as ceramic, stone, metal, baked
clay, or even glass, generally used for covering roofs, floors, walls, or other objects
such as tabletops.
This chapter presents the conceptual literature, research literature which is
crucial for the understanding of the present research study.
Conceptual Literature
This contains the literary section from different sources and their studies
which gave sufficient information related to the study.
I. Plastic Waste Management
Plastic recycling originally increases alongside the plastic production grew
since plastic manufacturers also focused on processing scraps that are left in the
production but as time passes, the recycling of these plastic went to a decline and
is starting to be left behind. The industry, therefore, plays a crucial and important
role in our goal towards a sustainable society. (Plastics Waste Management n.d.)
In year 2011, the approximate total waste generated by Philippines was
estimated to be 35,000 tons per day and a huge percentage of it is plastic.
Greenpeace and thEcoWaste Coalition have done several waste audits in Laguna
Lake and Manila Bay, wherein the consistent placers on top are plastic bags and
other residual wastes like candy wrappers, plastic packaging materials, plastic
bottles and others. In the Manila Bay surveys, plastic wastes were recorded at
76.9% in 2011 and 75% in 2010. (Plastic Regulation: Its time has come, 2012)
To give another perspective of plastic waste generation in the Philippines,
another extensive study was made by a group of environmental scientists,
oceanographers, and researchers revealed that the Philippines’ mismanaged
plastic waste reached a staggering 1.88 million metric tons (MMT) a year, which is
estimated to be 5.9 percent of the world’s total.
From that data, about 0.28-0.75 of MMT/year are following and have found
its way toward the ocean. This will lead to the destruction of the ecosystem in the
ocean by polluting the water and killing the species living in the area.
The plastic trash, are not only found in coastlines or shore but also at the
sea surface and some on the sea floor. The recovery of retrieval of this trash
proves to be extremely difficult task and energy extensive job to do. It is then
concluded that the most effective way of mitigation is to minimize or reduce the
inputs that can be brought to the ocean.
One of the laws filed to solve this problem is the RA 9003 or the Ecological
Solid Waste Management Act of 2001 which offers the needed measures to
mitigate but unfortunately only half of all the LGUs have complied with the said
provisions even after a good amount of time have passed since its enactment.
According to Senator Loren Legarda, out of 178 LGUs within the Manila Bay
region, only 51 percent are compliant with segregation-with-source; 50 percent for
segregated collection; 44 percent with functional materials recovery facilities; and
30 percent with the allowed disposal facilities/sanitary landfills. (Plastic, Plastic
Anywhere, 2015). Table 1 shows the amount of waste generated in the Philippines.
Amount of Garbage per person resulted in Urban; 0.60 kg/day, Rural; 0.30 kg/day
and only 28% of the total waste are recycled.
Table 1
Amount of Waste Generation in the Philippines
Scope/ Coverage
Weighted Average
Metro Manila (NCR)
Metro Manila and some
highly urbanized cities
(Excluding NCR/ HUCs)
All LGUs in the country,
excluding Metro Manila
Municipalities (cities and
Source: DENR
II. Plastic
Plastic is material consisting of any of a wide range of synthetic or
semisynthetic organic compounds that are malleable and so can be molded into
solid objects.
Plasticity is the general property of all materials which can deform
irreversibly without breaking but, in the class of moldable polymers, this occurs to
such a degree that their actual name derives from this specific ability.
Plastics are typically organic polymers of high molecular mass and often
contain other substances. They are usually synthetic, most commonly derived from
petrochemicals, however, an array of variants are made from renewable materials
such as polylactic acid from corn or cellulosic from cotton linters.
Due to their low cost, ease of manufacture, versatility, and imperviousness
to water, plastics are used in a multitude of products of different scale, including
paper clips and spacecraft. They have prevailed over traditional materials, such as
wood, stone, horn and bone, leather, metal, glass, and ceramic, in some products
previously left to natural materials.
A. Types of Plastic
1. Thermoset or thermosetting plastics. Once cooled and hardened, these
plastics retain their shapes and cannot return to their original form. They are
hard and durable. Thermosets can be used for auto parts, aircraft parts and
tires. Examples include polyurethanes, polyesters, epoxy resins and phenolic
Figure 2. Thermoset or thermosetting plastics
Source: https://www.pinterest.ph/pin/479422322805630081/?lp=true
2. Thermoplastics. Less rigid than thermosets, thermoplastics can soften
upon heating and return to their original form. They are easily molded and
extruded into films, fibers and packaging. Examples include polyethylene (E),
polypropylene (PP) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC).
Figure 3. Thermoplastics
Source: http://www.estepatermoplastic.net/fr/catalogo2.php?id=1
Examples of Plastics:
a. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET or PETE): John Rex Whinfield
invented a new polymer in 1941 when he condensed ethylene glycol
with terephthalic acid. The condensate was polyethylene terephthalate
(PET or PETE). PET is a thermoplastic that can be drawn into fibers (like
Dacron) and films (like Mylar). It's the main plastic in ziplock food storage
Figure 4. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET or PETE)
Source: http://www.earthfirst.net.au/the-facts-about-plastic.html
b. High-Density Polyethylene (HDPE): Linear form produced tighter,
denser, more organized structures. HDPE is a harder plastic with a
higher melting point than LDPE, and it sinks in an alcohol-water mixture.
HDPE was first introduced in the hula hoop, but today it's mostly used
in containers.
Figure 5. High-Density Polyethylene (HDPE)
Source: http://www.earthfirst.net.au/the-facts-about-plastic.html
c. Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC): PVC is a thermoplastic that is formed
when vinyl chloride (CH2=CH-Cl) polymerizes. When made, it's brittle,
so manufacturers add a plasticizer liquid to make it soft and moldable.
PVC is commonly used for pipes and plumbing because it's durable,
can't be corroded and is cheaper than metal pipes. Over long periods of
time, however, the plasticizer may leach out of it, rendering it brittle and
Figure 6. Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC)
Source: http://www.earthfirst.net.au/the-facts-about-plastic.html
d. Low-Density Polyethylene (LDPE): The most common polymer in
plastics is polyethylene, which is made from ethylene monomers
(CH2=CH2). The first polyethylene was made in 1934. Today, we call it
low-density polyethylene (LDPE) because it will float in a mixture of
alcohol and water. In LDPE, the polymer strands are entangled and
loosely organized, so it's soft and flexible. It was first used to insulate
electrical wires, but today it's used in films, wraps, bottles, disposable
gloves and garbage bags.
Figure 7. Low-Density Polyethylene (LDPE)
Source: http://www.earthfirst.net.au/the-facts-about-plastic.html
e. Polypropylene (PP): In 1953, Karl Ziegler and Giulio Natta, working
independently, prepared polypropylene from propylene monomers
(CH2=CHCH3) and received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1963. The
various forms of polypropylene have different melting points and
hardnesses. Polypropylene is used in car trim, battery cases, bottles,
tubes, filaments and bags.
Figure 8. Polypropylene (PP)
Source: http://www.earthfirst.net.au/the-facts-about-plastic.html
f. Polystyrene (Styrofoam): Polystyrene is formed by styrene molecules.
The double bond between the CH2 and CH parts of the molecule
rearranges to form a bond with adjacent styrene molecules, thereby
producing polystyrene. It can form a hard impact-resistant plastic for
furniture, cabinets (for computer monitors and TVs), glasses and
utensils. When polystyrene is heated and air blown through the mixture,
it forms Styrofoam. Styrofoam is lightweight, moldable and an excellent
Figure 9. Polystyrene
Source: http://www.earthfirst.net.au/the-facts-about-plastic.html
g. Other (Miscellaneous): Large water bottles, sunglasses, DVD cases,
signage, nylon and more. Polycarbonate which is classified as a 7 can
leach a potential hormone disruptor. This plastic group is rarely recycled.
Figure 10. Other Plastics
Source: http://www.earthfirst.net.au/the-facts-about-plastic.html
B. Composition
Many of the chemical names of the polymers employed as plastics have
become familiar to consumers, although some are better known by their
abbreviations or trade names. Thus, polyethylene terephthalate and polyvinyl
chloride are commonly referred to as PET and PVC, while foamed polystyrene and
polymethyl methacrylate are known by their trademarked names, Styrofoam and
Plexiglas (or Perspex).
Industrial fabricators of plastic products tend to think of plastics as either
“commodity” resins or “specialty” resins. (The term resin dates from the early years
of the plastics industry; it originally referred to naturally occurring amorphous solids
such as shellac and rosin.) Commodity resins are plastics that are produced at
high volume and low cost for the most common disposable items and durable
goods. They are represented chiefly by polyethylene, polypropylene, polyvinyl
chloride, and polystyrene. Specialty resins are plastics whose properties are
tailored to specific applications and that are produced at low volume and higher
cost. Among this group are the so-called engineering plastics, or engineering
resins, which are plastics that can compete with die-cast metals in plumbing,
hardware, and automotive applications. Important engineering plastics, less
familiar to consumers than the commodity plastics listed above, are polyacetal,
polytetrafluoroethylene (trademark Teflon), polycarbonate, polyphenylene sulfide,
epoxy, and polyetheretherketone. Another member of the specialty resins is
thermoplastic elastomers, polymers that have the elastic properties of rubber yet
can be molded repeatedly upon heating. Thermoplastic elastomers are described
in the article elastomer.
Plastics also can be divided into two distinct categories on the basis of their
chemical composition. One category is plastics that are made up of polymers
having only aliphatic (linear) carbon atoms in their backbone chains. All the
commodity plastics listed above fall into this category. The structure of
polypropylene can serve as an example; here attached to every other carbon atom
is a pendant methyl group (CH3)
Figure 11. Aliphatic (linear) carbon atoms
Source: https://www.britannica.com/science/plastic
The other category of plastics is made up of heterochain polymers. These
compounds contain atoms such as oxygen, nitrogen, or sulfur in their backbone
chains, in addition to carbon. Most of the engineering plastics listed above are
composed of heterochain polymers. An example would be polycarbonate, whose
molecules contain two aromatic (benzene) rings:
Figure 12. Heterochain polymers
Source: https://www.britannica.com/science/plastic
The distinction between carbon-chain and heterochain polymers is reflected
in the table, in which selected properties and applications of the most important
carbon-chain and heterochain plastics are shown and from which links are
provided directly to entries that describe these materials in greater detail. It is
important to note that for each polymer can be many subtypes, since any of a
dozen industrial producers of any polymer can offer 20 or 30 different variations
for use in specific applications. (Rodriquez. F, ’Plastic: Chemical Compound,
Encyclopedia Britannica, https://www.2101.ml/DySnHIgFIkkRJIOOE11J).
C. Application
a. Construction
Plastics are used in a growing range of applications in the
construction industry. They have great versatility and combine excellent
strength to weight ratio, durability, cost effectiveness, low maintenance and
corrosion resistance which make plastics an economically attractive choice
throughout the construction sector.
b. Electrical and Electronic Applications
Electricity powers almost every aspect of our lives, at home and in
our jobs, at work and at play. And everywhere that we can find electricity,
we also find plastics.
c. Plastic Packaging
Plastics is the perfect material for use in packaging goods. Plastics
is very versatile, hygienic, lightweight, flexible and highly durable. It
accounts for the largest usage of plastics worldwide and is used in
numerous packaging applications including containers, bottles, drums,
trays, boxes, cups and vending packages, baby products and protection
d. Transport
The cost-effective and safe transportation of people and goods is
vital to our economy. Cutting the weight of cars, airplanes, boats and trains
can cut the fuel consumption dramatically. The lightness of plastics
therefore makes them invaluable to the transport industry.
III. Plastic Bottles
A plastic bottle is a bottle constructed from high density plastic. Plastic
bottles are typically used to store liquids such as water, soft drinks, motor oil,
cooking oil, medicine, shampoo, milk, and ink. The size ranges from very small
sample bottles to large carboys. Some consumer blow molded containers have
integral handles.
There are many types of plastic and each of them has its own melting
temperature. Table 2 shows the different melting temperature corresponding to the
different types of thermoplastic.
Table 2
Melting Temperature of different Thermoplastic
Type of Plastic
Commonly Used In
Melting Temperature
Soda & water containers,
waterproof 260 °C
Terephthalate (PET)
Milk, detergent & oil
High-Density bottles, Toys and plastic 130 °C
Vinyl/Polyvinyl Food wrap, vegetable oil
160 °C
Chloride (PVC)
bottles, blister packages.
LowPlastic bags, Shrink 120 °C
Density Polyethylene
wrap, garment bags.
Refrigerated containers,
some bags, most bottle
130 °C
tops, some carpets some
food wrap.
PS Polystyrene
meat packing, protective 240 °C
Layered or mixed plastic
Source: http://www.appropedia.org/Recyclebot
A. Uses
Plastic bottles play an important role in our society. It is use in the
following purposes:
Mineral Water
Soft Drinks (Low and High Carbonated)
Alcoholic Beverages
Cosmetic and Pharmaceuticals
Edible Oil
Powder products, coffee, tea, spices and sweets.
IV. Tiles
By definition, tile is a thin object usually square or rectangular in shape. Tile
is a manufactured piece of hard-wearing material such as ceramic, stone, metal,
baked clay, or even glass, generally used for covering roofs, floors, walls, or other
objects such as tabletops. Alternatively, tile can sometimes refer to similar units
made from lightweight materials such as perlite, wood, and mineral wool, typically
used for wall and ceiling applications. In another sense, a tile is a construction tile
or similar object, such as rectangular counters used in playing games (see tilebased game). The word is derived from the French word tuile, which is, in turn, from
the Latin word tegula, meaning a roof tile composed of fired clay.
A. Types of Tiles
1. Travertine
Travertine is a type of limestone that is a byproduct of natural
artesian springs, hot springs, and caves from around the world. A natural,
porous stone, its pits and rough texture are caused by air bubbles and
organic matter, and this is what gives travertine tiles such as varying colors.
In Ancient Rome, travertine was used in the construction of temples,
bathrooms, statuaries, and theatres, and any trip to Italy will tell you that
travertine can stand the test of time. Used for both indoors and out,
travertine is naturally slip-resistant and an excellent choice for walkways,
pool decks, bathrooms, and other applications where water is present.
Figure 13. Travertine Tile
Source: https://www.shutterstock.com
2. Ceramic
Ceramic tiles are manufactured from clay materials that are quarried,
prepared, and then formed into a mold. They can be best characterized as
either porcelain or non-porcelain.
Figure 14. Ceramic Tile
Source: https://www.shutterstock.com
Porcelain tiles are often extruded and have fewer impurities than
non-porcelain ceramic tiles. Porcelain clays are denser and less porous
than ceramic clays, making porcelain tile harder and more impervious to
moisture than ceramic tile. It’s considered more durable and better suited
for heavy usage.
Non-porcelain ceramic tiles have their advantages too. They are one
of the most economical ways to tile your home, coming in at about 60% of
the price of porcelain tiles. They’re also easier for DIY homeowners to cut if
you plan on doing any tiling yourself.
3. Marble
Marble is a highly durable stone that exists in almost every color due
to the variability of component minerals. Marble tiles have multiple finishes
from polished to honed and brushed to tumbled, making marble an ideal
choice for any room in your home.
Figure 15. Marble Tile
Source: https://www.shutterstock.com
As a natural stone, marble tiles offer high aesthetic value and add
both elegance and value to a home. They are costly, however, and care for
marble tiles can be time-consuming. Their absorbent nature does make
them prone to stains, and generally not acceptable for exteriors or in
4. Slate
Slate is a metamorphic rock which can be found in large deposits all
over the world. Used in flooring for centuries, it comes in a range of colors,
such as blue/grey, green, red, orange, or brown. There are often veins of
colors running throughout the tile, meaning no tile is identical.
Figure 16. Slate Tile
Source: https://www.shutterstock.com
Slate is naturally slip-resistant, even when wet or greasy, making it
an ideal material for kitchens, bathrooms, or around the pool. It’s also
durable and can be used to keep rooms cool or warm with circulating
systems that run under the tile.
In high-traffic areas, the slate should be periodically stripped and
resealed to keep it looking great, and regular mopping with plain water is
5. Faux wood
Faux wood is the hottest new trend in tiles, offering the natural beauty
of wood together with the durability of tile. While tiles present as wood,
they’re actually ceramic and come with the benefits of being more durable
than hardwood, more water-resistant, and free of termite risk. Faux wood
requires very little maintenance and offers unlimited design possibilities.
Figure 17. Faux Wood Tile
Source: https://www.shutterstock.com
6. Granite
Granite is a type of igneous rock that is very dense and hard. Its
distinctive appearance is due to speckled minerals found within the rock,
and its unique veining means no two granite floors are the same. Once
polished, granite resists scratching well, making it an ideal choice for the
kitchen and other high-traffic areas.
Figure 18. Granite Tile
Source: https://www.shutterstock.com
7. Onyx
Onyx is a translucent, calciferous stone similar in makeup to marble.
Because it’s one of the more fragile types of stone, it’s frequently produced
with a mesh, resin, or fiberglass backing to help give it strength as a tile.
Onyx is a popular choice for indoor, light-traffic floors, or countertops,
and each onyx tile varies in colour, making its usage completely unique. To
ensure a pleasing layout of tiles, a dry layout should be performed before
installing them. It’s important to mix up the colours so that colour variation
is well presented.
Figure 19. Onyx Tile
Source: https://www.shutterstock.com
8. Quartzite
Quartzite is a durable, non-slip, and attractive stone that’s one of the
most popular choices of tile for the home. Quartzite can make a high-quality
alternative to paving in pool surrounds, driveways, and paths, and honed
for a smooth finish, quartzite tiles make an excellent addition in the kitchen.
Quartzite can also be crystalized and sealed with a darker shade to achieve
a dark marble-like finish.
Figure 20. Quartzite Tile
Source: https://www.shutterstock.com
9. Mosaic
Mosaic tiles are one of the most popular choices for decorative tiles
or for creating a feature. Consisting of small tiles, often square, mosaic tiles
are laid together to create a larger effect for a high visual impact. Mosaic
tiles can be made of varying materials, with stone, glass, and ceramic being
the most commonly used.
Figure 21. Mosaic Tile
Source: https://www.shutterstock.com
10. Sandstone
Sandstone has a wonderfully earthy appeal and comes in a range of
colours, sizes and styles. Ideal for pool surroundings, walkways and patios,
sandstone gives your outdoors a rich, natural feel.
Figure 22. Sandstone Tile
Source: https://www.shutterstock.com
11. Terrazzo
Terrazzo is a composite material, consisting of marble, quartz,
granite, glass, and other suitable chips. It’s cured, ground, and then
polished to a smooth surface. Often used in public buildings because it’s
long-lasting, it can be refinished repeatedly ensuring it stays looking new.
Figure 23. Tearrazzo
Source: https://www.shutterstock.com
B. Tile Sizes
1. 45 x 90 cm Tiles
45 x 90 is a large size used above all for flooring large areas in
prestigious civil and commercial construction projects.
2. 22.5 x 90 cm Tiles
22.5x90 is a size used mainly in wood-effect tile collections,
reproducing the large top-of-the-range contemporary parquet strips.
3. 75 x 75 cm Tiles
The 75 x 75 size is useful to highlight the realisticness of the raw
material which inspired the series and which cannot express its
authenticity otherwise than a through a large surface.
4. 60 x 60 cm Tiles
A floor made of large 60 x 60 cm tiles makes any room up-to-date.
Thanks to the rectified edges, minimum width grout joints can be used
which do not interrupt the continuity of the surface and guarantee a great
5. 30 x 60 cm Tiles
Rectangular 30 x 60 cm tiles can be used either alone or in
combination with the 60 x 60 size, on floors and - above all - on walls to
play with shapes and colors to great effect.
6. 10 x 60 cm Tiles
The 10 x 60 is a long and rectangular rectified size used for floors
and walls, it can be combined in infinite flooring compositions.
7. 45 x 45 cm Tiles
45 x 45 is the main size in the entire Novoceram catalogue. It is
easy to lay and extremely versatile and is suitable for rooms of any size
and with many different technical and aesthetic requirements.
8. 22.5 x 45 cm Tiles
Designed especially for walls, the 22.5 x 45 size provides perfect
aesthetic continuity between floor and walls.
9. 30x30 cm Tiles
The preferred size of traditional ceramic and terracotta tiles, the 30
x 30 size is still widely used today in residential construction and for
outdoor floors.
10. 20 x 20 cm Tiles
Novoceram has dedicated two collections to this traditional size,
which meet specific needs of residential and commercial construction sites
11. 1 5x 1.875 cm Tiles
Precious and versatile coverings with a timeless prestige, having
deep roots in the thousand-year old tradition of mosaic art, with
uncompromising performance and aesthetics that are always
12. 7.5 x 3,.75 cm Tiles
Precious and versatile coverings with a timeless prestige, having
deep roots in the thousand-year old tradition of mosaic art, with
uncompromising performance and aesthetics that are always
C. Uses of Tiles
Tiles are not just used for walls and flooring we can use them for decoration,
protection, or other less common applications. Since they are light and easy to
install, anyone can work with tile for a wide range of home improvements.
1. Counter
Ceramic tile is among the most common materials for kitchen
countertops. Because it's hard and water-resistant, it holds up extremely
well to the moist and often humid environment of the kitchen. If you're busy,
you'll also like its low-maintenance nature; a quick wipe once in a while is
usually all it needs.
2. Bathroom
Mostly used on floor. They are commonly used in walls.
3. Backsplash
The backsplash tiles protect the walls against spills coming from the
sink and counter. Almost all backsplashes are made of tile because of its
natural water resistance. Some people prefer stone or marble, but these
are expensive materials. We can use the same tile design as your
countertop, or go for a contrasting colour for a stronger effect.
4. Wall Accents
Small decorative tiles make great accents for walls, counters, and
flooring. They usually come in stronger, deeper colours and feature
interesting patterns, often to complement the colour of bigger tiles. Use
them to dress up large walls or to create designs on your tile floor.
5. Exterior
Some tiles can actually be used on the exterior walls of your home.
These are usually decorative ones made to look like natural materials, such
as wood and stone. They make great alternatives to exterior painting, since
they don't fade and can withstand most outdoor elements. Since you won't
be stepping on them, you can use larger, lighter tiles to make installation
V. Fiber Reinforced Plastics
Fiber-reinforced plastics (FRP), especially carbon reinforced plastics
(CRP), are used in modern lightweight designs because of their extremely high
strength and stiffness. This high strength and stiffness results from the fibers,
which have a Young’s modulus of up to 600 GPa and a tensile strength of up to
6000 MPa (carbon fibers). The matrix material, commonly epoxy, has a Young’s
modulus of about 10 GPa and a strength of about 50 MPa. These values suggest
that the properties result from fibers embedded in the matrix in the primary load
directions. To retain the basic material properties in a bonded structure it is
necessary, besides having good adhesion to the substrate, to introduce the load
into the fibers. If two sheets of FRP are bonded in a single lap shear configuration,
delamination occurs when a higher load is applied. FRP can be better exploited
when the adhesive introduces the load into the complete cross-section and/or
penetrates the fiber layers. A commonly used approach is the application of scarf
joints with very low scarf angles. Figure 11.6shows typical geometry in the repair
of a fiber-reinforced structure. To obtain suitable mechanical properties, a scarf
angle of about 2° is used and a 0°-ply is bonded on either side of the sheet.
Figure 24. Fiber Reinforced Plastic
Source: https://www.craftechind.com
Another method of activating more volume is to include mold embedded
elements into the FRP. In this case, it is important that the elements are integrated
into the structure before it is cured. Thus, the fibers can be arranged continuously
around the bolt. if the mechanical elements are inserted later by drilling, the fibers
are destroyed and the structure is weakened.
The activation of more fibers or layers in a FRP can be reached by using additional
‘inter-adherend-fibers’. In this case, fibers both in and out of the joint plane
direction are placed in order to strengthen the joint and to activate the complete
sheet (Fig. 11.8) (Matsuzaki et al., 2008). If two FRP sheets are being joined,
sewing (stitching) is a common method of employing the additional fibers. The
geometry of the fillet significantly affects the stress distribution in the adhesive
layer and the adherend. Flat fillets with a large radius lead to a higher strength
Another method of reducing stress concentration at the end of the overlap
and enhancing the performance of the bonding is to use various adhesives in
different areas of the overlap. A combination of a high strength and high modulus
adhesive in the inner section and a low strength and low modulus adhesive in the
outer sections provides more uniform stress distribution and improved load bearing
capacity for the bond.
Research Literature
Plastic is one of the recent engineering materials which have appeared in
the market all over the world. It is a material consisting of a wide range of synthetic
or semi-synthetic organic compounds that are malleable and can be molded into
solid objects. By definition, plastics can be made to different shapes when they
are heated. It exists in the different forms such as cups, furniture, basins, plastic
bags, food and drinking containers and they become waste material. Accumulation
of such wastes can result into hazardous effects to both human and plant life.
Therefore, need for proper disposal, and if possible, use of these wastes in their
recycled forms arises.
Plastic waste is increasing day by day throughout the world. Where proper
garbage collection system is not available, waste plastics are strewn everywhere
which becomes eyesore. It also pollutes the environment. A large amount of
plastic wastes is discarded or burned which leads to the contamination of
environment and air. The large volume of materials required for infrastructure
construction is potentially a major area for the reuse of waste materials. Recycling
the plastics has advantages since it is widely used worldwide and has a long
service life, which means that the waste is being removed from the waste stream
for a long period. Reuse of waste plastics has environmental benefits not only
related to the safe disposal of bulk waste, but also to the reduction of
environmental impacts that arises due to burning of plastics. Use of waste plastics
in infrastructure construction has been tried and reported.
ProudGreenHome is known for creating inspiring performance homes
including floor tile decorative. One of their projects “Recycling turns water bottles
into mosaic floor tiles” brought the environmentally friendly mosaic tiles to the
market. Produced from a mixture of recycled Polyethylene Terephthalate or PET
(85%) and recycled mineral additives (15%), Rivesti tiles are 100% recycled and
recyclable. The manufacturing process is also sustainable: it consumes less
energy, emits no pollutants and generates no waste. Each square meter of Rivesti
mosaic tiles prevents the release of 3kg of CO2 into the atmosphere and removes
66 PET bottles from the environment.
Their business plan projection is that in five years the company will be
recycling 6.6 million post-consumer PET bottles per month, which would mean 300
tons of PET being removed from the environment every month. Such figures could
make Rivesti attractive as a strategic option for packaging companies seeking
environmentally sound solutions to the waste they create.
The tiles also have protective properties. They provide a perfect seal (0%
water absorption) for surfaces where they are fitted, and are made with additives
that combat the action of UV rays and chemical agents.
Because Rivesti mosaic tiles are up to 66% lighter than conventional ones,
CO2 emissions during transport are also reduced. According to Rafael Sorano,
who created the eco tiles, "sustainability is the mission of our company”.
Practicality is another concept that applies to Rivesti. The mosaic tile sheets
are easy to install and are made in such a way that ensures perfect alignment.
Visual uniformity is achieved using the tiles’ unique built-in lateral locators,
exclusively developed by the company. “The locators in every tile sheet prevent
misalignment, which happens so often when using conventional mosaic tiles”, says
Mr. Sorano. This is why working with Rivesti mosaic tiles is up to 6 times faster
than with traditional ones, which means savings in labor. The tile sheet has also
been designed so that the amount of mortar and grout used to fit them can be
reduced by up to 60%.
In fact, Rivesti’s efficient design ensures the individual tile pieces will not
detach from the surfaces where they are installed. This is a welcome solution to
the usual problem with mosaic tiles, which tend to come loose after a while, leaving
Another advantage is that Rivesti tiles can be applied to masonry or drywall
in both indoor and outdoor areas, such as kitchens, bathrooms, facades or even
swimming pools. (ProudGreenHome, ‘Recycling turns water bottles into mosaic
floor tiles’.
Some studies were done related to plastic tiles making process. In year
2016, a study entitled “Design and Fabrication of Compression Molding Machine
for Plastic Waste Recycling in Nigeria” by Ejiroghene Kelly Orhorhoroa, Eruero
Victor Atumab, Ayodele Samuel Adeniyic, was carried out a test performance on
the fabricated compression molding machine. Polythene materials in pellet and
small size particles were completely melted between 200 oC to 220 oC. The time
to melt and mold forming were taken note of respectively. From the results
obtained based on the quality of mold produced by the compression molding
machine, the fabricated machine performance was satisfactory and can be used
locally and industrially in small scale.
In the year 2017, under Epistemics in Science, Engineering and
Technology, “Comparative Analysis of Recycled Waste Plastic Tiles and Alumina
Ceramic Tiles with ANSYS 15” by A. A. Jimoh et al., illustrates and compares the
analytical and behavior of recycled waste plastic tiles and a conventional alumina
ceramic tile. The melting point adopted for all waste plastic material was 60 oC with
a controlled cooling temperature method. The flexural strength and compression
strength of the various plastic type used were conducted with a universal testing
machine and these laboratory results were then used to simulate the recycled
plastic tiles which were compared with those of alumina ceramic tile. A recycled
waste plastic tile of 300 x 300 x 10mm was analyzed with a central load for all
recycled waste plastic types and were compared with those of alumina ceramic
tile. The stresses, strain, deformations and force reactions were observed for all
recycled waste plastic types and the alumina ceramic tile analyzed. The results
obtained from the analysis of the plates (tiles) specimen made of various recycled
waste plastic was seen to have maximum deformations of 1.7499, 1.7445, 1.7242,
1.7499 and 1.556mm for water sachets, water bags, water bottles, polythene bags
and alumina ceramic tile respectively and other parameters were also obtained.
Also, the maximum use temperature for the various recycled waste plastic types
were compared with that of the alumina ceramic tile.
According to the study entitled “The Possibility of Making a Composite
Material from Waste Plastic” by Mehdi Seghiri, Djamel Boutoutaou, Abdelouahed
Kriker, Mohamed Ibrahim Hachani (2017), they have successfully demonstrated
that it is possible to manufactured roof tile from recycled HDPEr and sand dune.
This is one of the most effective methods that can be applied to get rid and save
the world form the environmental pollutants. However, two mixes are suspended
because the pro6 (80) gives a very deformable tile and the second pro1 (30) does
not have enough resin (binder) so that the mixture adhere. It is noticeable that the
density decreases with the increase of the HDPEr ratio that gives the polymer tile
to a light weight. And also, the polymer roof tile containing 70% HDPEr with 30%
sand dune gives the best quality. Further all polymer roof tile mix gives a good
result in the permeability coefficient according the standard. As a mechanical result
the breaking load of all polymer roof tile mix was lower than the clay roof tile
reference as well as the standard. According the results this polymer roof tile has
potential to be used as Clay roof tile.
According to Noel Deepak Shiri, P. Varun Kajava, Ranjan H. V., Nikhil
LloydPais, Vikhyat M. Naik, Department of Mechanical Engineering, St Joseph
Engineering College, Mangaluru, India, thermoplastics can be heated up to form
products and then if these end products are re-heated, the plastic will soften and
melt again. These include PET, HDPE, LDPE, PP, PVC, PS etc. Thermoset
plastics can be melted and formed, but once they take shape after they have
solidified, they stay solid and, unlike thermoplastics cannot be re-melted. These
include Multilayer and Laminated Plastics, Bakelite, Polycarbonate, Melamine,
Nylon etc.
Based on the findings of the research, any other thermoplastic that is
recycled to form any of the specimens above, its properties will be the same since
the plastics recycled in this research showed very little or no difference. Also, when
a thermoplastic is recycled or melted, it has little or no tensile strength due to it
great shrinkage. There is really no difference between the plastics types studied in
this research because, they all have similar properties and can all be applicable in
all areas such as construction tiles just as alumina ceramic tile. When cooling these
recycled plastics, the controlled cooling method should be adopted because this
method minimizes the chances of shrinkage in the final product. The maximum
used temperature of these recycled waste plastic tiles was found to be 300 °C
compared to that of alumina ceramic tile which is 1250 °C and the suitable melting
point for all the waste plastics studied in this research was found to be 160 °C.
From the computer analysis carried out, the alumina ceramic tile shows less
deformations compared to recycled plastic product and also, the stresses in the
recycled plastic product were found to be less compared to that of alumina ceramic
tile when the was applied at the center of the plate. Furthermore, the equivalent
strain for all recycled plastic types were equal but less than that of alumina ceramic
tile and also the strain energy of alumina ceramic tile hits a value higher than strain
energy of all the recycled plastic types.
Many companies are making artistic tiles from recycled bottles such as
ProudGreenHome, Changzhou Broad New Materials Technology Co., Ltd., Changzhou
Broad New Materials Technology Co., Ltd., Guangzhou Himat Plastic Technology Co.,
Ltd., Changzhou Broad New Materials Technology Co., Ltd., Huangshan Huasu New
Material Science & Technology Co., Ltd., Zhangjiagang Longree Technology Co., Ltd.,
M/s Ideal Eco Environment System, etc.
Resin Bonded (Plastic Waste) Tile products by M/s Ideal Eco Environment
System is also one of the companies contributing in the production of plastic – tiles
products which is a certified holder of performance appraisal from BMTPC
(Building Materials and Technology Promotion Council) in India. The product tiles
are manufactured from plastic waste and white sand. The plastic waste is taken
from city waste collection center, dried, segregated, crushed, grinded, separated
from metals and formed into plastic chips. Plastic chips are then mixed with sand
granules for further processing for production of tiles. These tiles may be used for
walls, flooring and roofing depending upon the thickness.
Some studies were conducted to test the capability of PETE to reinforce
other materials to enhance its properties. According to Daniel Wiliński, Paweł
Łukowski, and Gabriel Rokicki on their research “Application of fibres from recycled
PET bottles for concrete Reinforcement, waste PET can be reused as partial or
complete substitute of an aggregate in a concrete composition or as a concrete
reinforcement. However, the main drawback of such applications is the hydrolysis
of ester linkages of polyethylene terephthalate in highly alkaline environment of the
cement matrix. To prevent alkaline hydrolysis, the PET fibers were coated with
commercially available ethylene/vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA). Effectiveness of
the use of copolymer EVA as a protection layer against strong alkali solutions has
been demonstrated and discussed. Chemical changes in PET fibers after alkaline
treatment have been referred to mechanical properties of the fibers. Mechanical
properties, like compressive and flexural strength of the composites as well as the
long-term durability performance of recycled PET fibers in alkaline environment
were also investigated. The preliminary results indicated that the introduction of
the PET fibers does not deteriorate the mechanical strength of the concrete
According to the “Study of Polyethylene Terephthalate (Pet) Plastic
Bottles Inthreaded Form as Micro Level Reinforcement in Fly Ashconcrete” by B B
Sourav, Er. Sugam Sehgal, and Sameer Malhotra, the concrete with PET fibers
reduced the weight of concrete and thus if mortar with plastic fibres can be made
into light weight concrete based on unit weight. It was observed that the
compressive strength increased with threaded plastic PET bottle fibres. Hence
threaded plastic bottles are very useful as a micro level reinforcement. It was
observed that the split tensile strength increased also increased with PET bottle
fibres. Hence, more threaded like plastic fibres used will be reasonable with high
split tensile strength compared to the other specimens casted and tested. It was
observed that the flexural strength increased while plastic fibers used as a micro
level reinforcement to gain strength in the concrete moulds. Hence, the plastic
bottles in the form of threaded structure will be very useful and also reduced the
cost because plastic bottles are locally available i.e. in the garbage, scrap site,
dumpster diving site, in the factory also etc.
The study aims to develop a machine that can recycle plastic bottles and
turn into a useful tile that can be used as an alternative to usual tiles for a lower
cost and can also help the community especially those who are less fortunate. The
literature cited on this study will help the researchers to gain pertinent information
to attain a design. Important facts presented include the properties of plastic
bottles and its uses and the knowledge about fiber reinforced plastic.
From the previous study entitled “The Design and Fabrication of Tile Making
Machine” by Abraham David Morakinyo (2012), the tile production of the machine
is expected to produce of 48 of 20 x 20 cm and 72 of 15 x 15 cm pieces of tiles
about 384 and 576 pieces in a day working in projection of 8 hours, 2,688 and
4,032 pieces of tiles in a week and 10,752 and 16,128 pieces of tiles respectively
in a month. In this research, most of the modification use the modern innovation
of the technology which is automation. The rotating molder can reduce the waiting
time of the loading of the die. Its rotating motion gives the continuous flow of the
loading and unloading of the extruded tiles. This research aim to reduce this time
rate about half of the previous study. With this statement, the new machine can
produce 1152 pieces of tiles in a day in the same duration of operation.
One of the bases of our study was the study conducted by Mehdi Seghiri,
Djamel Boutoutaou, Abdelouahed Kriker, and Mohamed Ibrahim Hachani, “The
Possibility of Making a Composite Material from Waste Plastic”, and the
“Comparative Analysis of Recycled Waste Plastic Tiles and Alumina Ceramic Tiles
with ANSYS 15” by A. A. Jimoh, O. L. Tazou, H. T. Kimeng and R. O. Rahmon
from Department of Civil Engineering, University of Ilorin,Ilorin, Nigeria, and
Department of Architecture, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria. The
researcher adopted the parameters to be considered in the current study.
From another study about recycling plastic bottles as yarn, a report from
Dame Ellen MacArthur’s foundation published in 2017, fashion production
currently creates greenhouse emissions of 1.2 billion tons a year. It is estimated
that more than half of fast fashion production is disposed of in under a year, and
one garbage truck full of textiles is landfilled or burnt every second. This, combined
with a very low rate of recycling, leads to an ever-expanding pressure on
resources. Textiles production (including cotton farming) also uses around 93
billion cubic meters of water a year, contributing to problems in some water-scarce
This study focused on the modification of existing machine that can recycle
plastic bottles into plastic – based tiles wit the help of the previous studies. Through
the use of acquired information, applying engineering techniques and knowledge
of modern technology is done to make this research possible.
Chapter III
This chapter covers the presentation and discussions of the whole design
process which is basically involves the methods and procedures utilized on how
the machine was constructed. This provides the outline of steps to be implemented
in order to obtain the objectives of the study. This includes the design,
development stage, the preliminary testing and the gathering of required data to
complete the study.
Research Design
The study utilized an engineering design, planning and analysis of the data
to achieve the desired goals. The overall design was divided into different stages:
design stage, development stage, preliminary testing, actual gathering of data and
determining performance parameter.
Evaluation of the diverse system components and its possible combinations
has been considered and studied to help arrive at the simplest and most
economical design with considerations to the machine’s durability and efficiency
to operate.
Development Stage
The study will undergo into different stages focusing on the design and
fabrication. Comprehensive analysis of the processes of the study were conducted
to justify the viability and feasibility of the machine.
1. Design Stage
This stage focused in gathering related information, planning of
activities during conceptualization before advancing to the actual
fabrication of the prototype. The researchers gathered related information
about the machine processes of transforming plastics into plastic – based
tiles, reinforcing with fiber in extrusion process, its machine design,
component design, assembly and operation. Locally available materials
were prioritized in this study in order to develop a cost-effective machine.
2. Fabricating Stage
This stage will be done at the fabrication shop, wherein the design of
the machine for this study will be provided to the fabricator. Time will be
allotted for the proper supervision during the fabrication to ensure that
design given to the fabricator including its dimensions and materials
specified will be properly followed.
The machine in this research uses modern technology which is the rotating
of disk is programmable and automated process. This includes shredder which
usually other related machine doesn’t have. The heating element composed of 3
thermocouples with a certain distance from each other and is modified into 3 way
melting process which means that the temperatures are different from each other
or 10 oC difference starting from 180 oC. The highest temperature is located near
the feed hopper. The molding process is modified into automatic loading and
unloading of molder from the rotating disk with a given time rate and delay. A hole
is place on the bottom of the frame of the rotating disk to serve as exhaust when
the extruder and molder holes aren’t aligned with each other. The excess plastic
from this hole can be reuse for another cycle. The motor is a variable motor that
can operate in different speed. Also speed reduction will be calculated for the
mechanism of the unloader and loader.
Preparation of Raw Materials
Polyethylene Terephthalate (PETE or PET) used in the study will be safely
handled in order to have an effective result. Preliminary clean-up of bottles is
necessary before proceeding to the entire process of production. The plastics will
be preheated at 50°C to ensure that it is dry before shredding. It is important to
complete dry the raw materials before the shredding process to avoid corrosion
of the shredder blade.
Methods of testing
The following methods were used to determine the following parameters:
A. Method of Determining Preliminary Testing Parameters
1. Method of Determining the Operating Capacity
Series of tests were done in order to determine the operating capacity of
the machine. Each trial uses a different input of capacity. The operating capacity
was determined by trials through continuous feeding into the machine and test
running with different capacities. The operating capacity that yielded that highest
efficiency is the operating capacity.
2.Method of Determining the Operating Temperature
Each test used a different temperature in order to identify the operating
temperature that will result to the highest efficiency. Operating temperature of the
machine while extruding is determined using the digital temperature controller.
3. Method of Determining then Operating Speed
Each test used a different set of speed in order to identify the operating speed that
will result to the highest efficiency. Operating speed of the machine is determined
using a techno meter.
B. Methods of Determining Final Performance Testing Parameters
1. Method of determining the shredding rate
The conversion rate of the raw plastic fed into smaller pieces to be extruded.
The formula in determining the shredding rate is:
Shredding rate=Mass of plastic shredded (g)/Shredding time (min)
2. Method of determining the Extrusion rate
The conversion rate of the shredded plastic into shredded plastic.
ER=mass of acceptable extruded plastic (g)/E time
3. Method of determining the Product rate
Product rate is the rate to which the raw plastic fed in the shredder is turned
into extruded plastic.
Product Rate=mass of acceptable extruded plastic/production time
4. Method of determining the Overall Efficiency
Efficiency of the machine will be determined by using then formula:
% efficiency = mass of acceptable extruded plastic/mass of raw plastic fed
5. Method of determining the Properties of the product
The properties of the product are determined through laboratory testing that
gave analysis to the necessary results. Extruded plastics will be undergoing
performance test for breaking load in tension at Industrial Technology
Development institute ITDI), Standards and testing division at DOST.
Analyze the Properties of the Produced Plastic Tiles
The properties of the produced tiles will be examined through laboratory
1. Corrosion Resistance
This refers to the resistance a material offers against a reaction with
adverse elements that can corrode the material.
2. Chemical resistance
This refers to the strength of a material to protect against chemical
attack or solvent reaction.
3. Durability
This testing is done to test the structure and strength of a product to
ensure its reliability, and sturdiness. This is basically done to know the product
durability on the factor lifespan. It’s a part of reliability testing or one can say
that branch of performance testing. This is also used to determine the
characteristics of a system under various load conditions over time.
Operating Procedure
1. Prepare the raw materials.
2. Load it to the shedder in order to reduce it into bits.
3. Material (plastics bits) will enters through the feed throat and comes into contact
with the screw.
4. The rotating screw will force the plastic beads forward into the heated barrel
with the desired temperature usually 160 oC.
5. Attach the reinforcement fiber to the molder.
6. Load up the molder to the inlet of the rotating disk. The mechanical part of the
inlet will automatic push the molder to the slot in the disk.
7. The extruder will fill the molder with melted plastic.
8. The outlet has the reverse mechanism of he inlet that will execute the load out
process. After the first load – in of the inlet, the outlet will wait ¾ rotation of the
disk to have the first molder with finished tiles inside.
Figure 25. Schematic diagram of machine process
Jimoh A, Tazou O, Kimeng H & Rahmon R 2017, Comparative Analysis of
Recycled Waste Plastic Tiles and Alumina Ceramic Tiles with ANSYS 15,
Epistemics in Science, Engineering and Technology, Nigeria.
Kubisa, Przemyslaw; Rinaudo, Marguerite; Schué, François (2012). "Terminology
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