Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION Situational Analysis We are all familiar with the term Technology as it is the primary need and necessity of our industry today. The existence of technology made a massive and significant impact on our lives, due to the application of technology; our standard of lives has increased. It makes human lives easier and transforms the environment we are moving in into a better and more advanced industry to create tools, machines, products and services that meets our needs and desires. The applications of technology have reach hundreds, thousands and millions of places where enhancements are can be seen and developments are continually rising. For instance, Advancements in technology have led to the evolution of modern and faster modes of transport and communication. The computer and Internet technologies are global. As a result, they have changed every area; be it medicine, tourism, education, entertainment or any other. Therefore, Technology has touched every aspect of life, making it easier, better and different in a good way. In the hastiness, noisiness, and continuous activity of modern life, there are so many important elements and these days one of the most important devices you can use to help with your life is a mobile phone. Today, mobile phones are so important due to the connectivity they provide. One of the things that make mobile phones so vital to our daily lives is their efficiency. The speed with which you can do tasks on a mobile phone is almost unparalleled. In fact, there are some occasions in which they may even be faster than using computers. 2 Perhaps the biggest appeal of mobile phones is their functionality. Nowadays in a mobile phone there is no precious little that it cannot do. As mentioned you can use it for work, as almost a portable computer. But there is so much more to a mobile phone than just connectivity and efficiency. You can store important data such as files, information and details on your phone, and many more. Notably batteries are part of our everyday life especially for we always have our phone with us; most of people can’t live without their phones. A day would not last without using our hand phones. Every time we go out, we either drive our car or take a public vehicle. We unconsciously bump with batteries in everyday events. It seems these days with that better, more efficient, faster and multitasking mobile phones are making our lives a little easier to handle. However, there is always that one little problem about mobile phones and it’s not even the size of the screen, but its battery life. Something that's really great about technological advancements is that it's always working to get better. But something that hasn't necessarily always followed that protocol was little thing that's called a power source. In the case of phones, the power source comes in the form of a battery. But as flip phones became feature phones, and feature phones turned to mobile phones, we find ourselves lucky if we can even last an entire day before our phone completely runs out of juice. (Scantlin, 2013), Retrieved November 5, 2017 With mobile charging stations you can improve customer satisfaction and promote services of value. Providing a mobile charging station to waiting customers 3 keeps them charged, connected, and a little less stressed. (Brueggemann, 2014), Retrieved October 9, 2017 People often have to make an inconvenient stop at home in the middle of the day to charge their mobile phone. What if your business offered mobile phone charging as a free service so consumers could avoid the hassle of an extra trip home? A mobile phone charging station is inexpensive, and is sure to increase foot traffic as well as dwell time. (Incharged Method Technology Inc., 2014), Retrieved October 9, 2017 A mobile phone is only as good as its battery. After all, without any power, it’s just a good-looking brick. While most modern mobile phones have decent battery life, however, battery usage varies massively between users and it will come to a point where it needs to recharge your handset for it is inevitable. A wireless charger charges a storage battery of a portable electronic device in a wireless manner (non-contacting or contact-less) so that a variation of charging efficiency is not serious though the storage battery is placed any position of the wireless charger. The wireless charger is provided with a primary coil for generating a magnetic field so as to charge a subject, which is provided with a secondary coil, by means of inductive coupling with the secondary coil. The primary coil includes an outer coil arranged with a predetermined winding number and a predetermined size; and at least one inner coil arranged to be included inside the outer coil. The outer coil and the inner coil are arranged so that, when a primary current is applied to the outer coil and the inner coil, magnetic fluxes generated in the outer coil and the inner coil are formed in the same direction. (Gwon, Dong-Young, Choi, Han, & Moon, 2009) 4 Basically, inductive charging also known as wireless charging uses an electromagnetic field to transfer energy between two objects through electromagnetic induction. In a charging station this is usually done. Through an inductive coupling to an electrical device the energy is being sent, which can then use that energy to charge batteries or run the device. As the name suggests, it does so without the use of a physical connection. Truth to be told, wireless charging as a concept has been around since inventor and physicist Nikola Tesla first concluded that you could transfer power between two objects via an electromagnetic field, said Ron Resnick, president of the Power Matters Alliance, which has a wireless charging protocol. Essentially, wireless charging uses a loop of coiled wires around a bar magnet — is simply called an inductor which is commonly known as for. When an electric current passes through the coiled wire, encircling the magnet, where an electromagnetic field have taken place, which can then be used to transfer a voltage. (Ghose, 2017), Retrieved November 5, 2017 A few phones have wireless charging built right in. Some of the phones with built-in receiver are the following: Apple iPhone: 8, 8 Plus, X, XR, XS, XS MAX; Samsung Galaxy: Note 9, S9, S9+, Note 8, S8, S8+, S7, S7 Edge (Plus more devices; Sony: Xperia XZ3, Xperia XZ2 Premium, Xperia XZ2 (Plus more devices); LG: G7 ThinQ, V30, G6 (US version only), G4 (optional), G3 (optional) (Plus more devices); Nokia: 8 Sirocco; Huawei: Mate series (Plus more devices); Microsoft Lumia: 1520, 1020, 930, 929, 928, 920; Google Nexus: 4, 5, 6, 7 (2013) Pixel series; BlackBerry: Priv (Plus more devices) (Hildenbrand, 2017) 5 In the era of mobile phones wireless charger is a safe and a more usable device by the mobile phone users. It can be easily used at the workplace, at home or in the industry. More importantly it eliminates the wires which works with the help of electricity or have the physical electrical wires. Now a wireless technology charger is now up and about and is now being utilized to charge mobile phones. No more different chargers, no cable spaghetti, are only some of the advantages of wireless charging. (techno FAQ Inc., 2016) Retrieved November 5, 2017) Besides people love wireless charging, which saves them time and money. Another equally important fact is that it increases the production and value of wireless charging. The best benefit of wireless charger is that you do not need to mess with cable charger. You just have to put your mobile phones on the wireless charger and it will work smoothly. In addition, it does not reproduce any sparkle and electrical shock if it is wirelessly charged. In fact, it has less consumption of electricity. Not only that but it is also rust free and does not corrosion from water. You can use the wireless charging device safely and harmlessly. (techno FAQ Inc., 2016), Retrieved November 6, 2017 A charging station is a designated place for charging a mobile device. A designated place typically features a sign, perhaps a table for devices to sit, and potentially mobile specific connectors. Charging stations are perfect for college campuses because they are able to charge both legacy devices and the newest model of mobile phones. So with that in mind, campuses need to find ways to ensure students’ devices are able to stay charged as they move back and forth through classes and other daily activities. Implementing charging 6 stations in common areas throughout the campus is a great way to ensure students’ devices stay charged. It also plays a big role in encouraging the connection students share through their mobile phones. (Romanenko, 2015), Retrieved November 6, 2017 A charging apparatus for a portable battery powered device, including one or more of the following: a receiver that inserts into a charging jack of the portable batterypowered device, an outer casing that removable receives the portable battery powered device and the receiver, and a battery cell contained within the outer casing that inductively charges the portable battery powered device through the receiver. In various exemplary embodiments, the charging apparatus includes a charging base that inductively charges the battery cell when the outer casing is placed upon the charging base. (Burley, 2009) Retrieved on November 15, 2017 A charging station has multiple effects, one factor is that cable wire can easily destroyed due to twisted cables, improper unplugging and mishandling of mobile charger. The researchers has innovated the mobile phone charging station to centralized wireless charging station. That can also be an instrument for Income Generating Project (IGP). The aforementioned concepts helped the researchers to conceptualize the study. The literature offered ideas from which the researchers organized such work. Statement of Objective This study aims to develop a Centralized Wireless Charging Station of College of Engineering DMMMSU-MLUC. Specifically, it sought to accomplish the following objectives: 7 1. To design the centralized wireless charging station. 2. To construct the centralized wireless charging station. 3. To test the centralized wireless charging station. 4. To evaluate the Centralized Wireless Charging Station in terms of: 4.1 Technical Soundness 4.1.1 Durability 4.1.2 Safety of Operation 4.1.3 Simplicity 4.2 Technical Performance 4.2.1 Functionality 4.3 Economical Acceptability 4.3.1 Maintenance 4.3.2 Cost Time and Place of the Study The researchers will design, construct, test and evaluate the Centralized Wireless Charging Station at the College of Engineering of Don Mariano Marcos Memorial State University Mid - La Union Campus, City of San Fernando, La Union during the first Semester of school year 2017- 2018 and first Semester of school year 2018-2019. Definition of Terms For a better comprehension of this research study, the following terms are operationally defined: 8 Centralized Wireless Charging Station (CWCS) is an element in an infrastructure that supplies electric energy for wireless charging in one place. It is composed of a three wireless charging pads. Charger is a device used in the output of the study to put energy into a secondary cell or rechargeable battery by forcing an electric current through it. Charging pads are one of the main components of the CWCS where in, it acts as the transceiver and would charge the smartphones wirelessly by inductive charging through the receiver. Charging station is the designated place for charging several mobile devices in this study it can charged three unit of smartphones simultaneously. Cost is how cheap and affordable the CWCS is. Durability of the Parts is the assurance that the equipment, materials, and components used in the CWCS are properly fixed, do not easily break down, and will have a relatively long continuous useful life without requiring frequent maintenance. Economical Acceptability is when the CWCS proves to be economically feasible, innovative and sustainable in terms of investing financial resources into the project. Mobile Phone is a portable telephone that can make and receive calls over a radio frequency carrier while the user is moving within a telephone service area. Precision of Design is the accuracy of the CWCS conceptual design to the actual CWCS. Technical Performance is a term refers to key technical goals that needed to be met, where the technical goals were vital for the functioning of a CWCS in its environment. 9 Safety of Operation how safe the CWCS is, and contains safety precautions and operation manual. Simplicity of Mechanism how the CWCS provides a better alternative source of electricity and use readily available materials. Technical Soundness this term is showing a good judgment/reasoning or a sound of investment of the CWCS. Wireless charger used in CWCS that uses a transmitter and receiver coil through magnetic induction.