Uploaded by Emilee Whitley

IFSTA Fire Ground Support Study Guide

IFSTA Fire Ground Support – Study Guide
Fire Hose 
NFPA Standards
o 1961 – Standard on Fire Hose – Construction
o 1901 – Standard for Automotive Fire Apparatus – minimum quantity of
hose in various sizes to be carried on engine
o 1963 – Standard for Fire Hose Connections –
o 1962 – Standard for Care, Use, Inspection of Hose, Couplings, Appliances
Supply hose – transports water from hydrant to apparatus
Attack hose – transports water from
o Pumps(on apparatus) to nozzle
o Pumps(on apparatus) to fire department connection
Suction hose – connects pump to hydrant or other water source – NFPA 1901
Fire Hose Couplings – NFPA 1963
o Threaded Couplings – male or female couplings with a spiral thread
 Male – threads are on exterior
 Female – threads are on the interior of a swivel
 Shank – portion of coupling that attaches to hose
 Lugs – grasping point on shank
o Non- Threaded Couplings
 No male or female components
 Storz – most common here
Fire Hose Damage
o Mechanical – abrasions, cuts, tears
o Thermal – exposure to heat/freezing temperatures
o Organic – mold, mildew
o Chemical – deterioration due to solvent activity
o Corrosion – rusting of couplings
o Age – cracking at folding points and separation of inner and outer lining
NFPA 1962 – Hose should be inspected and tested within 90 days of being put in
service and annually thereafter
Hose Appliances
o Wye – divide single hose line into two or more lines – 1 female and
multiple male
o Siamese – combines multiple lines into one – 2 female and 1 male
NFPA 1901 – minimum quantity of hose in various sizes to be carried on engine
Characteristics – materials used, diameter, types of couplings
Review Questions
o What are 3 basic fire hose characteristics a firefighter must understand?
Material, size, and couplings
o How are thermal damage and corrosion in a hose similar or different?
Corrosion is the rusting of metal couplings while thermal damage is when
the hose is exposed to high heat or freezing temperatures
o What are the steps taken to perform basic inspection and maintenance
for fire hose? Look for visible soil and damage, check couplings for
deformations and damage
o When should firefighters use basic hose rolls? Easier storage, and
Building Construction 
Types of Building Construction
o Type 1 – Fire Resistant – collapse resistant
o Type 2 – Non Combustible – won’t contribute to development or spread of fire
o Type 3 – Ordinary
o Type 4 – Heavy Timber
o Type 5 – Stick/Wood Frame
Occupancy –
o Separated Use
o Single Use
Building Materials
o Gypsum – drywall, absorbs heat, fire resistant b/c of high moisture content
o Masonry – when heated causes spalling(chips, pits, scars)
o Wood – moisture content affects burn rates
o Lath and Plaster – can conceal fire
NFPA 5000 – Building Constructions and Safety Code
Water Supply 
o Gravity
o Direct Pumping
o Combination
Fire Hydrants
o No more than 300ft apart
o Dead End
 Located on dead end main, only receives water from one direction
o Circulating
 Located on secondary feeder or main that receives water from two
Wet Barrel – water all the way up the barrel
Dry Barrel – operating valve at base of hydrant, no water in barrel
NFPA 291 – Marking/Flow Testing of Hydrants
 Damaged connections
 Broken mains
 Greater demand
 Located on dead end mains
 Closed isolation valves – stop, shut off water supply
 Frozen
 Sediment, debris
Fire Behavior 
Fire – heat producing chemical reaction between fuel and oxidizer
o Potential – stored up energy that can be released in the future
o Kinetic – energy possessed by a body because of its motion aka work
Chemical Reactions
o Exothermic – releases energy in the form of heat
o Endothermic – absorbs heat
o Fuel is heated  temperature increases  sufficient heat transfer 
pyrolysis/vaporization  energy needed for ignition  continues
 Pyrolysis – chemical decomposition of a solid material (solid to gaseous
 Vaporization – liquid to a gaseous state
o Non Flaming
o Flaming
Fire Models
o Fire Triangle  Oxygen + heat + fuel
o Fire Tetrahedron  heat + fuel + oxygen + chemical chain reaction
Products of Combustion
o Heat and Smoke
 Carbon Monoxide
 Hydrogen cyanide
 Carbon Dioxide
Heat Transfer
o Conduction – transfer of heat through/between solids
o Convection – transfer of heat by circulation
o Radiation – transfer of heat through an electromagnetic wave
States of Fuel
o Vapor density – density of gases in relation to air,
 Air = 1
 Greater than 1 = sinks
 Less than 1 = rises
o Specific Gravity – ratio of mass of volume compared to volume of water
Flash Point – will flash(ignite) but not sustain combustion
Fire Point – sufficient vapors to ignite and sustain combustion
Solubility – ability for liquid fuel to mix with water
o Miscible – will mix with water in any proportion
o Hydrocarbon – do not mix with water b/c lighter
o Polar Solvent – mix readily with water
Ropes and Knots 
NFPA 1983 – Standard on Life Safety Rope
Utility vs. Life Safety
o Life safety – must be block creel
o Utility – hoist equipment, secure objects
Natural vs. Synthetic
o Natural – does not melt, sunlight resistant, mildew and molds
o Synthetic – melts, longer life span, strong
o Kernmantle – protective shield over load bearing core
 Static – used for life safety, must no elongate more than 10% of its length
 Dynamic – high stretch
o Laid/Twisted – twisting individual strands together
o Braided – no core
o Braided on Braided – braided core in braided shield
o Webbing – synthetic fibers
Communications 
NFPA 1221 – Dispatching Emergency Responders
Standard 4500 psi
19.5% oxygen in the air
NFPA 1852 – Maintenance of SCBA