Uploaded by Melissa Collins

Unit 1-Intro to Human Body

Student Name:
FALL 2015
Mrs. Leila Warren
EMAIL: [email protected]
WEBSITE: www.WarrenScience.com
FACEBOOK: www.facebook.com/warrenanatomy
Anatomy and Physiology of Human Body Curriculum & Standards
The human anatomy and physiology curriculum is designed to continue student investigations that began in grades K8 and high school biology. This curriculum is extensively performance and laboratory based. It integrates the study
of the structures and functions of the human body, however rather than focusing on distinct anatomical and
physiological systems (respiratory, nervous, etc.) instruction should focus on the essential requirements for life.
Areas of study include organization of the body; protection, support and movement; providing internal coordination
and regulation; processing and transporting; and reproduction, growth and development. Chemistry should be
integrated throughout anatomy and not necessarily taught as a stand-alone unit. Whenever possible, careers related
to medicine, research, health-care and modern medical technology should be emphasized throughout the curriculum.
Case studies concerning diseases, disorders and ailments (i.e. real-life applications) should be emphasized.
SAP1. Students will analyze anatomical structures in relationship to their physiological functions.
a. Apply correct terminology when explaining the orientation of body parts and regions.
b. Investigate the interdependence of the various body systems to each other and to the body as a whole.
c. Explain the role of homeostasis and its mechanisms as these relate to the body as a whole and
predict the consequences of the failure to maintain homeostasis.
d. Relate cellular metabolism and transport to homeostasis and cellular reproduction.
e. Describe how structure and function are related in terms of cell and tissue types.
SAP2. Students will analyze the interdependence of the integumentary, skeletal, and
muscular systems as these relate to the protection, support and movement of the human body.
a. Relate the structure of the integumentary system to its functional role in protecting the body and
maintaining homeostasis.
b. Explain how the skeletal structures provide support and protection for tissues, and function
together with the muscular system to make movements possible.
SAP3. Students will assess the integration and coordination of body functions and their dependence on the
endocrine and nervous systems to regulate physiological activities.
a. Interpret interactions among hormones, senses, and nerves which make possible the coordination of functions of
the body.
b. Investigate the physiology of electrochemical impulses and neural integration and trace the pathway
of an impulse, relating biochemical changes involved in the conduction of the impulse.
c. Describe how the body perceives internal and external stimuli and responds to maintain a stable
internal environment, as it relates to biofeedback.
SAP4. Students will analyze the physical, chemical, and biological properties of process
systems as these relate to transportation, absorption and excretion, including the
cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive, excretory and immune systems.
a. Describe the chemical and physical mechanisms of digestion, elimination, transportation, and
absorption within the body to change food and derive energy.
b. Analyze, and explain the relationships between the respiratory and cardiovascular systems as they obtain oxygen
needed for the oxidation of nutrients and removal of carbon dioxide.
c. Relate the role of the urinary system to regulation of body wastes (i.e. water/electrolyte balance, volume of body
d. Examine various conditions that change normal body functions (e.g. tissue rejection, allergies,
injury, diseases and disorders) and how the body responds.
e. Describe the effects of aging on body systems.
SAP5. Students will analyze the role of the reproductive system as it pertains to the growth
and development of humans.
a. Explain how the functions of the reproductive organs are regulated by hormonal interactions.
b. Describe the stages of human embryology and gestation including investigation of gestational and
congenital disorders (e.g. ectopic pregnancy, miscarriage, cleft palate, hydrocephaly, fetal alcohol syndrome).
c. Describe the stages of development from birth to adulthood (i.e. neonatal period, infancy, childhood, adolescence
and puberty, and maturity)
Human Anatomy & Physiology COURSE SYLLABUS
Chamblee Charter High School
Teacher: Mrs. Leila Warren, BA Biology, M.Ed.
Website: www.WarrenScience.com
Email: [email protected]
Room Number: Room 4125
*Email is the preferred method of contact*
Become a “FAN” on Facebook: “Warren: Anatomy & Physiology”
Semester: Fall Semester, 2015
Phone: (678) 676Tutorial Days: Monday-Friday
Textbook: Essentials of Human Anatomy &
Tutorial Hours:
Physiology, 9th Edition, Elaine Marieb, 2009
7:45 am  First Bell
Lost Book apx. $78
After School: By Appointment Only
Department Philosophy: The mission of the Chamblee Charter High School Anatomy Program is to increase scientific
literacy as well as to foster the intellectual, social, moral growth & physical health of every student.
Course Description: This course provides an introduction to the structure and function of the human body through a
systems approach. The first semester focuses on the studies of clinical terminology, cellular and tissue levels of
organization, the biochemical basis of metabolism & begin the study of the systems that provide support, movement,
integration & control for the body.
Course Outline: Assignments will be checked daily & entered into the grade book on the Notebook Check/Test Date.
Week 1
Week 2
Week 3
Week 4
Week 5
Week 6
Week 7
Week 8
Week 9
Week 10
Introduction to Anatomy & Physiology,
Organization of the Body &
Case Study: Cells
Science Fair
Integumentary System (Skin)
Skin Tissue Box Project
Case Study: Desiree’s Baby
Week 18
Skeletal System
Case Study: Osteoporosis
Muscular System
Personal Trainer Project
Review for Cumulative Final
from this Final!!!)
**NOTE: Due to content requirements and student achievement, this course outline is subject to change to best
address the needs and interests of individual classes
DeKalb County Grading Policy:
A: 90-100%
B: 80-89%
C: 71-79%
D: 70%
F: 69% and below
Anatomy Course Grading Percentages:
Summative Assessment:
Tests, Quizzes & Final Exam (NO EXEMPTIONS!!!)
Guided Group Practice:
Interactive Notebook & Laboratories
(Includes classwork, homework, lab activities and left page reflections)
Assessment During Learning:
Projects (Including Science Fair assignments)
Interactive Notebooks: In this class all assignments will be kept in your Interactive Notebook. If an assignment is
not completed by the assignment date it can be turned in on the Notebook Check Date for half/reduced credit if it
has been completed. If you are caught cheating on the assignment, test, project, lab OR Science Fair you will
be given a zero and no make-up will be allowed.
Initial Here: ______________Student
Required Materials:
Materials are to be brought to class every day. Most of these supplies can be used in other classes
as well. They do not need to be used for this class only!
1. One spiral notebook: 8 ½ X 11 or larger***YOU MUST GET THIS SIZE*** or your pages won't fit!!!
 150-200-sheet (often called a 5-subject notebook)
 College rule
you lose
 Perforated sheets
 3-hole punched
2. Colored pencils or Markers (we will color a lot in this class)
3. Highlighters (3 different colors of your choice--used daily)
4. 3-4 Glue Sticks
5. Access to the internet &/or a word processor. There is computer access available at the school library (before
school, after school, and during lunch) as well as public libraries but you will have to plan your time accordingly….NO
extensions will be given for assignments!! NO EXCEPTIONS!!!
6. 1 Composition Book for daily lesson on Word Elements: “The Word of the Day”
7. 1 Composition Book for Science Fair (YES…Science Fair!).
Classroom Expectations: I have high expectations for this class! I am a patient teacher, but I do not tolerate “slacking-off!”
It is very easy to get an “A” in my class—here’s how you do it:
 Come to class on time and be ready to work when the bell rings! I start on time!!!
 Do your best work (homework/class-work, studying for tests, labs, group and individual participation)
 Pay attention in class! Ask lots of questions when you don't understand.
 Take good Cornell Notes
 Complete your projects/assignments on time and to the best of your ability
 Work cooperatively with your peers, no matter who they are!
 Most important—keep up!!! Homework is assigned daily and is a crucial part of this class.
 Don’t get behind…it’s a lot harder to catch up than to stay on task!
Late Assignments: Most assignments can be made up for half credit. However, this is solely teacher discretion.
Make-up Policy: One day of make-up time allowed to complete assignments for each day with an excused absence.
The student must produce an excused absence slip in order to make up missed work. All missed tests and quizzes must be
made up within 48 hours of returning to school. All make-up work that must be done at school, such as tests, quizzes, oral
reports, labs, etc., may be scheduled before or after school during tutorial sessions, rather than during regular class time.
Ultimately, it is the student’s responsibility to identify missing assignments and complete them. You must get missing stamps
before the notebook check day. If you miss a homework or classwork assignment you may receive partial credit for it on your
notebook check. So, develop a relationship with your classmates to determine missed assignments or you may stop by and ask Mrs.
Warren before or after school or look online at the lesson plans. Class time is NOT the time to inquire about missed assignments
from Mrs. Warren.
Re-do Policy: Case by case—Teacher discretion.
Free Stamps: Free stamps can be used for extra time to complete an assignment that is stamped by the teacher.
The assignment still needs to be completed by the Notebook Check date. Ask Mrs. Warren how you can earn a free
stamp (first chance below)!
Student Signature: ________________________________________
Date: ______________
Parent/Guardian Signature: ________________________________
Date: ______________
Best Means of Contacting Parent: ____________________________________________________
Lab Supply Help (not required but you will receive a Free Stamp!)
***If your last name begins with the letters "A - E" please bring one package of glue sticks (3 pack)***
***If your last name begins with the letters "F - J" please bring one package of colored pencils***
***If your last name begins with the letters "K - O" please bring one pack of 3 highlighters***
***If your last name begins with the letters "P - T" please bring box of Kleenex or roll of paper towels ***
***If your last name begins with the letters "U - Z" please bring roll of tape***
Left Page Assignment Choices
Highlight the Top 3 Left Page Assignments You Would Like to Try This Semester
Draw Pictures or Cartoon (www.Toondoo.com), Which Demonstrate the Meaning Of The Words In The
Assignment. The Word Itself Must Appear In The Picture.
Create A Chapter Test with A 10 Question Matching Section & 4 Multiple Choice Items.
Write 3 Questions You have About or From the Right Page. Do some Online Research and answer the
3 questions below it. Make Sure to Include The Web Addresses Used
Using This Chapter’s New Vocabulary Words As Search Prompts, Find 3 Websites,
Which Provide More Info. Write 2 Facts You Learned From Visiting Each Website
In 75 Words Or More, Describe An Invention, Which Would Allow Scientists To Instantly Learn More
About The Subject In The Assigned Pages
# 6
Choose The Most Important Concept In The Assigned Pages & Write An Explanation In 75 Words Or
Less Which Would Explain The Concept To A Young Child
Choose A Concept From The Assigned Pages & Then Describe How This Applies To A
“Real Life” Situation. Make A Comparison
Make A Set Of Flashcards With At Least 8 Words From The Assigned Pages. Write The Word On
The Top Of The Flashcard. Write the Def. & Picture Demonstrating The Meaning Underneath On Your
Notebook Paper (or Reverse)
Create A Crossword Puzzle Using At Least 10 Vocabulary Words From This Chapter
www.puzzlemaker.com or http://puzzlemaker.discoveryeducation.com/
(Remember, you are just making the puzzle…don’t fill it in until the day before the NB check)
Create a Concept Map with One Key Vocabulary Word/Concept in the Center.
You must use at least 5 words or concepts to complete the Map
Write A Letter To A Friend Explaining What You Learned From The Assignment
Highlight /Underline/Color at least 10 Vocabulary Words or Concepts in the Letter
Design A Book Or Magazine Cover For The Subject We Are Covering. Use Key Information
Create An Advertisement Which Might Appear In A Scientific Magazine Which Tries To Convince
People To Learn More About What We Are Studying
Create a Word Search. However, Instead of Word Clues at the Bottom, You Must Use Definitions at
the bottom and then find the Word in the Puzzle
#15 Concept Map: Choose any kind of Map to show your understanding
This is the first step in the Intel International Science and Engineering Fair. To insure that your project is eligible to
compete in the regional competition and beyond (and to improve your grade), your project should follow the ISEF
guidelines. The easiest way to complete the official documentation is to download and save the forms found on
www.warrenscience.com under the “Science Fair” tab on left sidebar. Fill out the forms on a computer and then print
them. You won’t be able to save your changes to the document, so print out the forms as you go along.
Except for form 1B, only one copy of the forms is needed per group. If you need to complete human subject or
qualified scientist forms, and/or download all forms you will find them on the ISEF website
 ___(1) Checklist for Adult Sponsor
The “Checklist for Adult Sponsor (1)” also lists situations when additional forms are required.
 ___(1A) Student Checklist
 ___Research Plan Parts A-D
 Submit to TurnItIn.com
My TurnItIn.com Class Code is: _________________
Make sure ALL Group Members names are on the file.
 ___(1B) Approval Form
All students in the group need to complete this form
Please plan ahead so that you have time to ask for help if problems come up and to obtain
RESEARCH PLAN (Hard Copy of Forms #1 - #6 on Rubric)
DATA SET 1 (One variable tested + Graph hand-drawn in Lab Book)
DATA SET 2 (Three variables tested + Computer Graph + Lab Book)
BACKBOARDS (Rough Draft Presentation)
FINAL PROJECT (Completed Backboards-all info typed, Research
Paper, Abstract-typed and taped or stapled
to Backboard)
Student Reflection on Unit & Exam
This is an example of the Reflection you and your Parents/Guardians will fill in after
each Unit Exam and Notebook Check. So, since this is practice…Instead of reflecting on
what has happened in the past, I would like you to briefly tell me what your
expectations are for the class this year? Why did you choose to take this course?...
Parent/Significant Adult: Review
This Interactive Notebook represents your student's learning to date and should contain the work your student has
completed in Anatomy & Physiology. Please take some time to look back at their unit work with them, read their
reflection above and respond to any of the following:
 In your opinion, how does your student learn best?
 What struggles might I need to watch out for and catch early, if any?
 What would you like your student to get out of Anatomy & Physiology this year?
Additional Comments? Questions? Concerns? Contact Me at:
[email protected]
Parent/Significant Adult Signature: _____________________________Date: _____________
3-4 Questions:
Level 1
Introduction to Anatomy & Physiology
Important Info
– science of structure
– relationships revealed by dissection imaging techniques
– science of body functions
Clinical Observational Techniques
– feel body surface with hands
• pulses and breathing rates
– listen to body sounds with stethoscope
• abnormal fluid in lungs
– tap on body surface and listen to echo
• air in intestines
Levels of Organization
Chemical - Cellular - Tissue - Organs - System Level - Organismic Level
Levels of Structural Organization
Chemical Level - atomic and molecular level
Cellular Level - smallest living unit of the body
Tissue Level - group of cells & materials surrounding them that work together on one task
4 basic tissue: Epithelium - Muscle - Connective Tissue - Nervous
Organ Level
Organ System
Organismic Level - one living individual.
Interactions of Body Systems
– grouping of 2 or more tissue types into a recognizable structure w/a specific function.
– collection of related organs with a common function
– sometimes an organ is part of more than one system
• Example: Integumentary System & Skeletal System
– Skin produces vitamin D needed for CA absorption and bone growth
– Bone marrow produces cells which help the skin resist infection.
Life Processes
Metabolism = sum of all chemical processes
– breakdown of large molecules into small
– building new structural components
– providing chemical energy for cells
– detect & respond to changes in internal or external environment
– some typical responses
• muscle contraction, electrical signals, hormone or glandular secretion
3-4 Questions:
Level 2
– any structural level
– body, organ, cell or cell component
– increase in #/size of cells or material found b/t cells
– specialization of cells for a specific function
– stem cells give rise to cells that specialize
– formation of new cells or new individuals
Postmortem examination of body by dissection
confirm or determine cause of death
support findings of other tests
provide info on effects of drug usage
educate healthcare students
reveal congenital defects
Maintaining the internal environment within physiological
limits (internal balance)
First described by French physiologist, 1813-1878
Delineation of fluid compartments
Process named by Walter Cannon, 1871-1945
Example: blood glucose level is kept within narrow range
Homeostasis of Body Fluids
• Intracellular Fluid (ICF) = w/i cells
• Extracellular Fluid (ECF) = o/s cells
• Intercellular Fluid = tissue fluid = interstitial fluid
• Plasma = fluid portion of blood
• Composition of fluids change as substances move between compartments
– nutrients, oxygen, ions and wastes move in both directions across capillary walls
Control of Homeostasis
Summary: 4-5 Sentences
Homeostasis is continually being disrupted by:
External Stimuli
Internal Stimuli
• intense heat, cold , and lack of oxygen
• psychological stresses
• exercise
Disruptions are usually mild & temporary
If homeostasis is not maintained, death may result
3-4 Questions:
Level 3
Neural and Endocrine Controls
Maintaining a controlled condition
Ex: Control of blood gas level
– sensory receptors detect change in a monitored variable
– nervous system and/or endocrine system responds
exercise increases blood CO2 levels
sensory receptors detect change
nervous system increases heart and breathing rates to remove excess CO2
adrenal gland releases epinephrine to increase heart and breathing rates
Components of Feedback Loop
Receptor - monitors a controlled condition
Control Center -determines next action
– receives directions from the control center
– produces a response that changes controlled condition
Negative & Positive Feedback Loops
Negative Feedback Loop
original stimulus reversed
most feedback systems in the body are negative
used for conditions that need frequent adjustment
body temperature, blood sugar levels, blood pressure
Positive Feedback Loop
original stimulus intensified
normal childbirth, lactation, blood clotting, B lymphocytes secreting antibodies
Homeostasis of Blood Pressure
Pressure receptors in walls of certain arteries detect increase in BP
Brain receives input and signals heart and blood vessels
Stretch receptors in walls of uterus send signals to brain
Disorder = abnormality of function
Diagnosis: skill of distinguishing one disease from another
– Blood Pressure = force of blood on walls of vessels
Heart rate slows and arterioles dilate (increase in diameter)
BP returns to normal
Positive Feedback during Childbirth
Brain releases hormone (oxytocin) into bloodstream
Uterine smooth muscle contracts more forcefully
More stretch, more hormone, more contraction etc.
Cycle ends with birth of the baby & decrease in stretch
Homeostatic Imbalances
Disease = homeostatic imbalance with distinct…
– Symptoms: changes in body function felt by patient such as nausea
– Signs: changes in body function that can be observed by doctor such as rash or fever
Epidemiology: how disease is transmitted
Pharmacology: how drugs used to treat disease
3-4 Questions:
Level 4
Basic Anatomical Terminology
Regions of the body
Standardized position describing directional terms
Anatomical position
Anatomical planes, sections and directional terms
Anatomical Position
standing upright
facing the observer, head level
eyes facing forward
feet flat on the floor
arms at the sides
palms turned forward
Prone Position = lying face down
Supine Position = lying face up
Common Regional Names
•Clinical terminology based on a Greek or Latin root word. (That is why we do W.O.T.D.)
Planes & Sections
Plane: imaginary flat surface that passes through the body.
Section: one of the 2 surfaces (pieces) that results when the body is cut by a plane passing
through it.
Sagittal Plane (Remember to be specific!!!)
• Sagittal Plane
– divides the body or an organ into left and right sides
• Midsagittal Plane
– produces equal halves
• Parasagittal Plane
– produces unequal halves
Other Planes and Sections
• Frontal or Coronal Plane :divides the body or an organ into front & back (posterior) portions
• Transverse or Horizontal Plane
– cross-sectional
– divides the body or an organ into upper (superior) or lower (inferior) portions
• Oblique Plane: some combination of 2 other planes
Major Directional Terms
Superior & Inferior
• Dorsal or Posterior
– Back of the body
– Brain is posterior to the forehead.
• Ventral or Anterior
– Front of the body
– Sternum is anterior to the heart.
• Superior
– Towards the head
– Eyes are superior to mouth.
• Inferior
– Away from head
– Stomach is inferior to the heart.
Summary: 3-5 Sentences
Draw & Label the following illustrations from the textbook:
Which side is RIGHT???
FIGURE 1.9 Page 18 Old Book /
FIGURE 1.7 P. 20 New Book
Dorsal and ventral body cavities and their subdivisions+
FIGURE: 1.11 (a) Page 22 Old Book
FIGURE 1.8 (B) Page 21 New Book
Divisions of the abdominopelvic cavity into 9 regions
delineated by four planes
3-4 Questions:
Level 5
Medial or Lateral
• Proximal
– nearer to attachment of the limb to the trunk
– The knee is proximal to the ankle.
• Distal
– farther from attachment of the limb to the trunk
– The wrist is distal to the elbow.
• Medial
– nearer to midline of body
– Heart liesmedial to lungs
• Lateral
– farther from midline of body
– The thumb is on the lateral side of the hand.
Dorsal Body Cavity
Near dorsal surface of body
HL 3 Cavities &
Label D & V Cavities
2 subdivisions
Cranial Cavity
Vertebral or Spinal Canal
• holds the brain
• formed by skull
• contains the spinal cord
• formed by vertebral column
Meninges (system of membranes) line dorsal body cavity
Ventral Body Cavity
• Near ventral surface of body
• Visceral Organs (viscera): A group of internal organs housed in the ventral cavity
• 2 subdivisions
– Thoracic Cavity: above diaphragm
– Abdominopelvic Cavity: below diaphragm
• Diaphragm = large, dome-shaped muscle
• Organs called viscera
• Organs covered with serous membrane
Abdominopelvic Cavity
Discuss which
organs are found in
the mediastinum.
Inferior portion of ventral body cavity below diaphragm
Encircled by abdominal wall, bones & muscles of pelvis
Thoracic Cavity
Encircled by ribs, sternum, vertebral column and muscle
Area behind the breastbone
Divided into 2 pleural cavities by mediastinum
Mediastinum contains all thoracic organs except lungs
Midline wall of tissue that contains heart and great vessels, esophagus, trachea & thymus.
Serous Membranes
Thin slippery membrane lines body cavities not open to the outside
parietal layer lines walls of cavities (outside)
visceral layer covers viscera (internal organs) within the cavities
Serous fluid reduces friction
Include name of scan and what it detects. Picture must be of the scan and NOT the machine
Pleural & Pericardial Cavities
3-4 Questions:
Level 5
Parietal Pleura: lines chest wall (outside)
Visceral Pericardium: covers heart (inside)
Parietal Pericardium: lines pericardial sac (outside)
Visceral Peritoneum -serous membrane that covers
the abdominal viscera (organs)
Parietal Peritoneum - serous membrane that lines the abdominal wall
Abdominopelvic Regions & Quadrants
Describe locations of organs or source of pain
Choose a website to
research 7. fMRI
Visceral Pleura: clings to surface of lungs (inside)
Tic-tac-toe grid or intersecting lines through navel
Medical Imaging
Allows visualization of structures without surgery
Useful for confirmation of diagnosis
1. Conventional Radiography
A single burst of x-rays
Moving x-ray beam
Radiopaque material injected into blood vessels
High-frequency sound waves emitted by hand-held device
Body exposed to high-energy magnetic field
Substance that emits positively charged particles is injected into body
Produces 2-D image on film
Known as radiography or x-ray
Poor resolution of soft tissues
Major use is Osteology: study of bones
2. Computed Tomography (CT Scan)
Image produced on a video monitor of a cross-section through body
Computer generated image reveals more soft tissue detail- kidney & gallstones
Multiple scans used to build 3D views
3. Digital Subtraction Angiography(DSA)
Before and after images compared with a computer program
Image of blood vessel is shown on a monitor
4. Ultrasound (US)
Safe, noninvasive & painless
Image or sonogram is displayed on video monitor
Used for fetal ultrasound and examination of pelvic & abdominal organs, heart and blood
flow through blood vessels
5. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
Protons align themselves relative to magnetic field
Pulse of radio waves used to generate an image on video monitor
Cannot use on patient with metal in their body
Reveals fine detail within soft tissues
6. Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
Collision with negatively charged electrons in tissues releases gamma rays
Camera detects gamma rays & computer generates image displayed on monitor
Write letter on separate sheet of paper to turn into teacher.
It will be glue in here after it has been graded. Add any correction below!
Get this signed by your Parent or Guardian
Parents, please add any additional comments or concerns below the progress report with a contact email for me to
respond to if necessary.
You will Glue in the Official NB Check Sheet
After I Grade Them!
In the Space Below, Write down what you still
need to finish before the Notebook Check!
Student Reflection on Unit & Test: Intro To Human Body
Parent/Significant Adult: Review
This Interactive Notebook represents your student's learning to date and should contain the work your student has
completed in Anatomy & Physiology. Please take some time to look back at their unit work with them, read their reflection
above and respond to any of the following:
 The work we found most interesting this unit was on page ________________________because…
 What does the notebook reveal about your student's learning habits or talents?
 The biggest concern or question about this class to date is…
Additional Comments? Questions? Concerns? Contact Me at:
[email protected]
Parent/Significant Adult Signature: _____________________________Date: _____________
Remember to sign their progress report on the previous left page!