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The lockout/tag out (control of hazardous energy) program covers any work, servicing, or
maintenance of/on machines and equipment in which the unexpected start up or energization
of the machine or equipment, or the release of stored energy, could cause injury or death.
Examples of such energy include electrical, air pressure, hydraulic pressure, chemical, thermal,
or springs under tension. If an energy control switch/valve can be locked out, then lockout
procedures must be used. Otherwise, a tag out system must be used.
This procedure establishes the minimum requirements for the lockout of energy
isolating devices whenever maintenance or servicing is done on machines or equipment.
It shall be used to ensure that the machine or equipment is stopped, isolated from all
potentially hazardous energy sources and locked out before employees perform any
servicing or maintenance where the unexpected energizing or start-up of the machine or
equipment or release of stored energy could cause injury
Basic Steps for Lockout/Tag out
To remove energy:
Notify all affected employees.
Shut down using normal stopping procedures.
Isolate from all energy sources.
Lockout (or tag out) from energy source(s).
Release or restrain stored/residual energy.
Verify isolation.
To restore energy:
Check the machine: remove nonessential items; components operationally
intact, and guards installed.
Affected employees notified and clear.
Verify controls are in neutral position.
Remove lockout and reenergize. Except in emergencies, only the person who
attached the lockout device may remove it!
Sequence of Lockout
Notify all affected employees that servicing or maintenance is required on a machine or
equipment and that the machine or equipment must be shut down and locked out.
For the machines or equipment listed below (which have more than one source of
energy requiring lockout), refer to the attached machine/equipment-specific procedures for
the specific procedures to be followed for locking-out the machine or equipment. Those
machines or equipment with specific procedures are:
(The intent here is for you to develop machine-specific procedures, required for multiple
energy source equipment, and attach them to this program.)
If the machine or equipment is operating, shut it down by the normal stopping
procedure (depress stop/off button, open switch, close valve, etc.).
De-activate the energy isolating device(s) (main switch, circuit breaker, flow/control
valve, etc) so that the machine or equipment is isolated from the energy source.
Lockout the energy isolating device(s) with assigned individual lock(s). If more than one
person is exposed to the hazard or is working on the machine or equipment, each person must
attach their individual lock. Only the person who attaches the lock is authorized to remove
their lock.
Dissipate or restrain any stored or residual energy (such as that in capacitors, springs,
elevated machine member, rotating flywheels, hydraulic systems, and air, gas, steam or water
pressure, etc.) by such actions as grounding, repositioning, blocking, bleeding down, etc.
Ensure that the machine or equipment is disconnected from the energy source(s) by
first checking that no persons are exposed, then verify the machine or equipment is isolated by
operating the push/on button or other normal operating control(s) or by testing to make
certain the machine or equipment will not operate. Return operating controls to neutral or off
position after verifying the isolation of the machine or equipment. For any electrical work,
voltage checks will be made of any circuit elements and electrical parts on which work is to be
performed and any exposed adjacent parts.
The machine or equipment is now locked out, and servicing or maintenance may
Restoring the Machine or Equipment to Service
When the servicing or maintenance is complete and the machine or equipment is ready to
return to normal operating condition, the following steps shall be taken.
To restore energy:
Check the machine, make sure nonessential items are removed from the machine, all
components are operationally intact, and all guards are installed.
Clear the work area and notify all affected employees that the lockout/tag out is going
to be removed.
Verify that the controls are in the neutral position.
Remove the lockout/tag out device and reenergize the equipment. Except in
emergencies, only the person who attached the lockout device may remove it!
Notify affected employees that servicing or maintenance is complete and the machine
is ready for use.
Potential Energy and Zero Energy State
Energy Form
Energy Source
Power transmission
Machine power cords
Capacitors (stored electrical
Photovoltaic Arrays
General Guidelines
Turn off power at machine first or
point of operation switch then at
main disconnect switch for the
machine. Lock and tag the main
disconnect switch or remove fuses
from box. Then lock and tag the box
.Fully discharge all capacitive
systems. For example, cycle
machines to drain power from
.Install grounds where necessary
Fluid Pressure
Hydraulic systems including
hydraulic presses, rams,
cylinders or hammers
Air Pressure
including lines, pressure
reservoirs, accumulators air
surge tanks, rams and
.Air actuated valves.
Kinetic Energy
in supply lines of bins or silos
.Bump test when appropriate
Shut off, lock with chains, built-in
attachments and tag valves. Bleed
off and blank lines as necessary.
Shut off, lock with chains, built-in
attachments and tag valves. Then
bleed-off excess air. If pressure
cannot be relieved, block any
Stop and block machine parts and
ensure that they do not recycle.
Review the entire cycle of
mechanical motion and ensure that
all motions are stopped.Block
material from moving into an area
of work and blank as required.
If possible, lower all suspended
parts and loads to the lowest or rest
position. Block parts and might
move due to gravity, release or
block stored spring energy.
Raised loads
Top or moveable part of a
press or lifting device
liquids Supply linesStorage tanks Shut off with chains, built-in
and gases including and vessels
steam and chemicals
attachments and valves. Bleed-off
excess liquids or gases and blank
the lines as necessary.
Potential Energy
The final and most critical step, in preparing to work on a system following the control of
the hazardous energies involved is the zero-energy verification. This process provides
assurance that the system or component on which you are about to work on, or others will
be in the vicinity of when you are performing work has been put into a safe configuration
without any hazardous energy that can be released. Failure to complete a zero-energy
verification is a failure of the hazardous energy control program.
Tags must not be used alone or in place of lockout devices unless there is no feasible
method of isolating energy sources. If it is not possible to use a lockout device, a tag
is still required. In addition, extra control methods must coincide with placement of a
tag. Some of those extra control methods include physically blocking a switch,
removing a control handle, or removing part of a circuit or pipe.
Tags should state the words DANGER: Do Not Operate, or similar phrasing. Tags
should also include the following information:
Reason for the lockout
Name of the person(s) performing the servicing or maintenance
Contact information for the person who applied the tag
Date and time the tag was put in place
Removing Locks for Testing or Positioning
When lockout/tag out (and isolating) devices must be removed during
maintenance/servicing and machine/equipment and must be re-energized (e.g.
repositioning), the Authorized Employee takes the following sequence of actions:
a) Clears the machine or equipment of tools and materials.
b) Checks the work area to ensure employees are at a safe distance away from equip.
c) Notifies Affected Employees that LO/TO devices will be removed.
d) Checks to see that operating controls are in "off" position.
e) Removes his/her lockout/tag out device, as necessary. (If the Authorized Employee who
attached the lock/tag is not available, the device may be removed according to the
procedure described)
f) Energizes the machine or equipment and proceeds with testing or repositioning.
g) When testing /repositioning is completed, de-energizes the equipment or machine,
applies locks and tags, etc.
Lock Removal Rule
LOTO locks shall not be removed by anyone but the employees who placed the lock, unless
the procedures outlined below are needed and followed. Removing a LOTO device,
belonging to someone else, could result in fatality or serious injury
If the person who applied a LOTO device is not available to remove the device in a timely
manner, the device may be removed by the authorized employee’s supervisor after the
following procedures have been followed:
1. The supervisor must verify that the authorized employee who applied the device is not
2. The supervisor shall ensure that servicing or maintenance has been completed prior to
releasing the machine or equipment from LOTO, and procedures for releasing a piece of
equipment or machinery from LOTO are followed;
3. The supervisor must ensure the authorized employee (who placed the lock) knows that
the device has been removed before other employees engage in their work duties;
4. Verification by the employer that the authorized employee who applied the device is not
at the facility;
5. Making all reasonable efforts to contact the authorized employee to inform them that
their LOTO device has been removed;
6.Ensuring that the authorized employee has this knowledge before they resume work in
that area or department
7. The reason for the lock removal must be documented and maintained for one year.
Group LOTO
When equipment, machine maintenance or servicing is provided by individuals of more than
one job class (i.e. plumbers and electricians), a procedure shall be used that protects all
individuals performing maintenance or servicing. This is accomplished by providing all job
classes with a lock which they control. All locks are secured to a multiple hold lockout hasp.
The hasp is attached to the equipment or machine cutoff switch, valve or combination of
both. Those employees assigned (by their co-workers) to control a lock have the same
responsibility as if they were performing the LOTO by themselves. Lock placement and
removal shall be coordinated between the differing job classes
Group LOTO Guidance:
This guidance provides a sample policy template for group lock-out tag-out procedures.
1. Whenever a group of people perform LOTO work the Group LOTOprocedureshould
provide the same level of protection as if only one person is performing the work.
2. A lockout hasp should be used to allow each person to affix a lockout device to the
energy isolating device.
3. If two groups or more are involved, a coordinator shall be appointed to coordinate the
work. A group lock box may be used.
4. Once all energy sources have been isolated, residual energy released and locked out, all
of the keys to the locks are placed in the group lockbox and the coordinator or supervisor
would then apply their lock on the group lock box.
5. All group-lockout must be performed under the direction of an assigned or authorized
employee as designated by the manager or supervisor. The primary responsibility is to
oversee the group lockout.
6. Each authorized employee involved in the group lockout shall affix a personal lockout
device to the group lockout device at the beginning of their work shift. The lockout devices
are removed when work on the machine or equipment is completed.
7. During a shift change the authorized employee with the primary responsibilities of the
group lockout will coordinate the orderly transfer of lockout devices so that continuity of
protection between off-going and oncoming employees is maintained.
8. When more than one crew or group is involved, an authorized employee shall be
designated to coordinate the work forces and ensure continuous protection.
Roles and Responsibilities
Safety Administrator
•Assure that adequate LOTO procedures are developed and implemented to assure the
safety of employees and/or machinery or equipment. Ensure online access to procedures
via the Human Resources Safety Webpage.
•Assure that all Supervisors receive training on the LO/TO program.
•Assist Department Representatives/Supervisors in determining policy compatibility with
outside contracted employer’s LO/TO policy
. •Assist Supervisors/Foreman with developing equipment specific lockout procedures.
•Conduct an annual LO/TO program review for updates or changes
•Assist with developing equipment specific lockout procedures.
•Assure that LO/TO procedures are applied in their area of operations.
•Assure that employees under their supervision apply LO/TO procedures where necessary.
•Assure that employees under their supervision have received training on how the LO/TO
program functions.
•Assure the availability of locks, tags, lockout box(s), and equipment specific lockout
procedure(s) to all employees who are required to use them.
•Determine who will be the Responsible/Lead (Primary) Authorized Employee for
coordinating multiple source/multiple crew lock outs or five minute safety briefing prior to
•Conduct a periodic inspection of the energy control procedure at least annually to ensure
that the procedure and the provisions of this section are being followed. Certify through
documentation that the inspections required by this section have been accomplished).
•Identify and prioritize equipment list for LO/ TO multiple source equipment specific
procedures to be written
•Ensure outside contractors have a LO/TO policy that complies with all applicable
regulations and is at least as stringent as The Department’s Policy when work is shared with
Authorized Employees
A person who locks out or tags out machines or equipment in order to perform servicing or
maintenance on that machine or equipment.
•Conduct, implement and coordinate hazardous energy isolation LO/TO procedures as
required by this program.
•Verify equipment specific lockout procedure (multiple source) is accomplished, and apply
their own lock and tag on the lock box key section, or, apply their own locks and tags to
each energy isolation point, leave their locks on for the duration of work, and remove their
locks after their work is complete, as required by this program. •They alone, apply their own
locks and tags and no one else’s as required by this program
•Indicate when LO/TO procedures are required before submitting completed work tickets to
•Notify affected employees of the application and removal of LO/TO devices in the work
•Attend LOTO training
Affected Employees
An employee whose job requires him/her to operate or use a machine or equipment on
which servicing or maintenance is being performed under LO/TO, or whose job requires
him/her to work in an area in which such servicing or maintenance is being performed
•Abide by the rules of the LO/TO program.
•Follow instructions of authorized employees.
•Contact supervisor if there are any questions concerning the LO/TO situation. Owner’s
•Ensure outside contractors have a lockout/tag out policy that is at least as strict as The
Departments Policy when work is shared with department employees.
Annual Inspections
1. Each department shall perform an annual self-audit of the Equipment Specific, Simple
Electrical, and Motor Vehicle and Powered Industrial Equipment LOTO procedures used by
their department.
2. The self-audit is intended to improve the LOTO procedures and to correct or improve any
3. Self-audits must include a visual evaluation of those workers performing the lockout
procedures, and are to be performed by an authorized employee who does not use the
LOTO procedure(s) being evaluated.
4. Annual self-audits are to be documented using the annual LOTO Self-audit Form.
5. Completed self-audit forms shall be kept on file for a minimum of two years
6.Environmental Health and Safety will regularly audit the lockout –tag-out program by
observing activities& employees, review records and procedures,follow-up on
documentation,othertasks as necessary. The audit is to ensure that the program and the
requirements of this standard are being followed.
Lockout/Tag out Risk Assessment and Alternative Methods
whenever lockout/tag out is not used for tasks that are routine, repetitive, and integral to
the production process (e.g., tasks that are short in duration; relatively minor in duration;
occur frequently during the shift, day, or week; are usually performed by operators, set-up,
service, or maintenance personnel; do not involve extensive disassembly; represent
predetermined cyclical activities; are expected to occur regularly; minimally interrupt the
production process; exist even when optimal operating levels are achieved; require taskspecific personnel training), or traditional lockout/tag out prohibits the completion of those
tasks, an alternative method of control shall be used.
Selection of an alternative method shall be based upon a qualitative risk assessment of the
associated machine, equipment, or process and shall take into consideration that existing
safeguards provided with the machine, equipment, or process may need to be removed or
modified to perform a given task.
1. Identify all tasks: All tasks and activities should e considered, including set-up,
installation, removal, maintenance, operating, adjusting, cleaning, troubleshooting, and
2. Identify hazards: Hazards, such as electrical, gravity, mechanical, chemical, thermal,
pneumatic, hydraulic, radiation, and human factors associated with each task, should be
3. Assess potential consequences:
Assess the most severe injury that could occur with each task.
4. Assess potential exposure to hazards: Evaluate the potential exposure of all persons to
the identified hazards.
5. Assess probability of occurrence: Estimate the probability of occurrence of the hazardous
event by considering the following factors:
Safeguards, safety devices, and safety systems
Reliability, history, and failure mode
Operational/maintenance demands of task
Possibility of defeat or failure of safeguards
Accident history of task, activity, machine, equipment, or process
Competence of persons performing task
Working environment
6. Evaluate the risk: Each identified hazard and task should be evaluated to determine the
level of risk. This will determine whether the task is an acceptable risk.
7. Achieve an acceptable level of risk: If the level of risk is found to be acceptable, the
process is complete. If the risk(s) is/are determined to be unacceptable, the risk reduction
process should be implemented.
If a risk assessment on a task results in an unacceptable risk to an employee, a hierarchical
process should be utilized to reduce or control risk:
1. Risk reduction by design: Risk reduction may be achieved by implementing changes to
eliminate hazards or reduce risk by substitution.
2. Risk reduction by use of engineered safeguards: This includes safeguards or safety
devices utilized to protect employees from hazards that cannot be reasonably eliminated or
reduced by design modification. Examples of engineered safeguards include guards (both
fixed and interlocked), trapped key devices, and trip devices (light curtains, laser scanners,
pressure mats, safety-rated switches, etc.). Examples of safety devices include emergency
stop buttons, enabling or hold-to-run devices, etc.
3. Risk reduction by use of warning and alerting techniques: These techniques are utilized
to protect employees from hazards that cannot reasonably be eliminated or satisfactorily
reduced by design, engineered safeguards, or a combination of these elements. Examples
include attendants, audible and visual signals, barricades, signs, and tags.
4. Risk reduction by use of administrative controls: Additional risk reduction may be
achieved with safe work procedures, standard practices and checklists, and training.
5. Risk reduction by use of personal protective equipment (PPE): The use of PPE should be
considered the last avenue of protection after the previous methods have been considered.
Lockout/Tag out training will be conducted for all employees who are required to perform
work on any equipment as referenced in this program. The training will address all
components and procedures of this program. It will include methods to ensure employees
understand the purpose and function of the program, that they can recognize applicable
lockout/tag out situations, and that they have acquired the knowledge and skills required for
applying, using, and removing the locks and tags.
Each machine/equipment-specific lockout procedure must be assessed at least annually to
ensure that the procedure remains valid or if any changes are warranted. This assessment
must be machine-procedure specific and be documented.