LOCKOUT/TAGOUT PROGRAM The lockout/tag out (control of hazardous energy) program covers any work, servicing, or maintenance of/on machines and equipment in which the unexpected start up or energization of the machine or equipment, or the release of stored energy, could cause injury or death. Examples of such energy include electrical, air pressure, hydraulic pressure, chemical, thermal, or springs under tension. If an energy control switch/valve can be locked out, then lockout procedures must be used. Otherwise, a tag out system must be used. Purpose: This procedure establishes the minimum requirements for the lockout of energy isolating devices whenever maintenance or servicing is done on machines or equipment. It shall be used to ensure that the machine or equipment is stopped, isolated from all potentially hazardous energy sources and locked out before employees perform any servicing or maintenance where the unexpected energizing or start-up of the machine or equipment or release of stored energy could cause injury Basic Steps for Lockout/Tag out To remove energy: 1. Notify all affected employees. 2. Shut down using normal stopping procedures. 3. Isolate from all energy sources. 4. Lockout (or tag out) from energy source(s). 5. Release or restrain stored/residual energy. 6. Verify isolation. To restore energy: 1. Check the machine: remove nonessential items; components operationally intact, and guards installed. 2. Affected employees notified and clear. 3. Verify controls are in neutral position. 4. Remove lockout and reenergize. Except in emergencies, only the person who attached the lockout device may remove it! Sequence of Lockout (1) Notify all affected employees that servicing or maintenance is required on a machine or equipment and that the machine or equipment must be shut down and locked out. (2) For the machines or equipment listed below (which have more than one source of energy requiring lockout), refer to the attached machine/equipment-specific procedures for the specific procedures to be followed for locking-out the machine or equipment. Those machines or equipment with specific procedures are: 1. 4. 2. 5. 3. 6. (The intent here is for you to develop machine-specific procedures, required for multiple energy source equipment, and attach them to this program.) (3) If the machine or equipment is operating, shut it down by the normal stopping procedure (depress stop/off button, open switch, close valve, etc.). (4) De-activate the energy isolating device(s) (main switch, circuit breaker, flow/control valve, etc) so that the machine or equipment is isolated from the energy source. (5) Lockout the energy isolating device(s) with assigned individual lock(s). If more than one person is exposed to the hazard or is working on the machine or equipment, each person must attach their individual lock. Only the person who attaches the lock is authorized to remove their lock. (6) Dissipate or restrain any stored or residual energy (such as that in capacitors, springs, elevated machine member, rotating flywheels, hydraulic systems, and air, gas, steam or water pressure, etc.) by such actions as grounding, repositioning, blocking, bleeding down, etc. (7) Ensure that the machine or equipment is disconnected from the energy source(s) by first checking that no persons are exposed, then verify the machine or equipment is isolated by operating the push/on button or other normal operating control(s) or by testing to make certain the machine or equipment will not operate. Return operating controls to neutral or off position after verifying the isolation of the machine or equipment. For any electrical work, voltage checks will be made of any circuit elements and electrical parts on which work is to be performed and any exposed adjacent parts. (8) The machine or equipment is now locked out, and servicing or maintenance may proceed . Restoring the Machine or Equipment to Service When the servicing or maintenance is complete and the machine or equipment is ready to return to normal operating condition, the following steps shall be taken. To restore energy: (1) Check the machine, make sure nonessential items are removed from the machine, all components are operationally intact, and all guards are installed. (2) Clear the work area and notify all affected employees that the lockout/tag out is going to be removed. (3) Verify that the controls are in the neutral position. (4) Remove the lockout/tag out device and reenergize the equipment. Except in emergencies, only the person who attached the lockout device may remove it! (5) Notify affected employees that servicing or maintenance is complete and the machine is ready for use. Potential Energy and Zero Energy State Energy Form Electricity Energy Source Power transmission Machine power cords Motors Solenoids Capacitors (stored electrical energy) Generators Batteries Photovoltaic Arrays General Guidelines Turn off power at machine first or point of operation switch then at main disconnect switch for the machine. Lock and tag the main disconnect switch or remove fuses from box. Then lock and tag the box .Fully discharge all capacitive systems. For example, cycle machines to drain power from capacitors .Install grounds where necessary Fluid Pressure Hydraulic systems including hydraulic presses, rams, cylinders or hammers Air Pressure Pneumatic systems including lines, pressure reservoirs, accumulators air surge tanks, rams and cylinders .Air actuated valves. Kinetic Energy BladesFlywheelsMaterials in supply lines of bins or silos .Bump test when appropriate Shut off, lock with chains, built-in lockout devices or lockout attachments and tag valves. Bleed off and blank lines as necessary. Shut off, lock with chains, built-in lockout devices or lockout attachments and tag valves. Then bleed-off excess air. If pressure cannot be relieved, block any possible movement of the machinery. Stop and block machine parts and ensure that they do not recycle. Review the entire cycle of mechanical motion and ensure that all motions are stopped.Block material from moving into an area of work and blank as required. If possible, lower all suspended parts and loads to the lowest or rest position. Block parts and might move due to gravity, release or block stored spring energy. Springs Actuators Counterweights Raised loads Top or moveable part of a press or lifting device Pressurized liquids Supply linesStorage tanks Shut off with chains, built-in and gases including and vessels lockout devices or lockout steam and chemicals attachments and valves. Bleed-off excess liquids or gases and blank the lines as necessary. Potential Energy The final and most critical step, in preparing to work on a system following the control of the hazardous energies involved is the zero-energy verification. This process provides assurance that the system or component on which you are about to work on, or others will be in the vicinity of when you are performing work has been put into a safe configuration without any hazardous energy that can be released. Failure to complete a zero-energy verification is a failure of the hazardous energy control program. Tags Tags must not be used alone or in place of lockout devices unless there is no feasible method of isolating energy sources. If it is not possible to use a lockout device, a tag is still required. In addition, extra control methods must coincide with placement of a tag. Some of those extra control methods include physically blocking a switch, removing a control handle, or removing part of a circuit or pipe. Tags should state the words DANGER: Do Not Operate, or similar phrasing. Tags should also include the following information: Reason for the lockout Name of the person(s) performing the servicing or maintenance Contact information for the person who applied the tag Date and time the tag was put in place Removing Locks for Testing or Positioning When lockout/tag out (and isolating) devices must be removed during maintenance/servicing and machine/equipment and must be re-energized (e.g. repositioning), the Authorized Employee takes the following sequence of actions: a) Clears the machine or equipment of tools and materials. b) Checks the work area to ensure employees are at a safe distance away from equip. c) Notifies Affected Employees that LO/TO devices will be removed. d) Checks to see that operating controls are in "off" position. e) Removes his/her lockout/tag out device, as necessary. (If the Authorized Employee who attached the lock/tag is not available, the device may be removed according to the procedure described) f) Energizes the machine or equipment and proceeds with testing or repositioning. g) When testing /repositioning is completed, de-energizes the equipment or machine, applies locks and tags, etc. Lock Removal Rule LOTO locks shall not be removed by anyone but the employees who placed the lock, unless the procedures outlined below are needed and followed. Removing a LOTO device, belonging to someone else, could result in fatality or serious injury If the person who applied a LOTO device is not available to remove the device in a timely manner, the device may be removed by the authorized employee’s supervisor after the following procedures have been followed: 1. The supervisor must verify that the authorized employee who applied the device is not available 2. The supervisor shall ensure that servicing or maintenance has been completed prior to releasing the machine or equipment from LOTO, and procedures for releasing a piece of equipment or machinery from LOTO are followed; 3. The supervisor must ensure the authorized employee (who placed the lock) knows that the device has been removed before other employees engage in their work duties; 4. Verification by the employer that the authorized employee who applied the device is not at the facility; 5. Making all reasonable efforts to contact the authorized employee to inform them that their LOTO device has been removed; 6.Ensuring that the authorized employee has this knowledge before they resume work in that area or department 7. The reason for the lock removal must be documented and maintained for one year. Group LOTO When equipment, machine maintenance or servicing is provided by individuals of more than one job class (i.e. plumbers and electricians), a procedure shall be used that protects all individuals performing maintenance or servicing. This is accomplished by providing all job classes with a lock which they control. All locks are secured to a multiple hold lockout hasp. The hasp is attached to the equipment or machine cutoff switch, valve or combination of both. Those employees assigned (by their co-workers) to control a lock have the same responsibility as if they were performing the LOTO by themselves. Lock placement and removal shall be coordinated between the differing job classes Group LOTO Guidance: This guidance provides a sample policy template for group lock-out tag-out procedures. 1. Whenever a group of people perform LOTO work the Group LOTOprocedureshould provide the same level of protection as if only one person is performing the work. 2. A lockout hasp should be used to allow each person to affix a lockout device to the energy isolating device. 3. If two groups or more are involved, a coordinator shall be appointed to coordinate the work. A group lock box may be used. 4. Once all energy sources have been isolated, residual energy released and locked out, all of the keys to the locks are placed in the group lockbox and the coordinator or supervisor would then apply their lock on the group lock box. 5. All group-lockout must be performed under the direction of an assigned or authorized employee as designated by the manager or supervisor. The primary responsibility is to oversee the group lockout. 6. Each authorized employee involved in the group lockout shall affix a personal lockout device to the group lockout device at the beginning of their work shift. The lockout devices are removed when work on the machine or equipment is completed. 7. During a shift change the authorized employee with the primary responsibilities of the group lockout will coordinate the orderly transfer of lockout devices so that continuity of protection between off-going and oncoming employees is maintained. 8. When more than one crew or group is involved, an authorized employee shall be designated to coordinate the work forces and ensure continuous protection. Roles and Responsibilities Safety Administrator •Assure that adequate LOTO procedures are developed and implemented to assure the safety of employees and/or machinery or equipment. Ensure online access to procedures via the Human Resources Safety Webpage. •Assure that all Supervisors receive training on the LO/TO program. •Assist Department Representatives/Supervisors in determining policy compatibility with outside contracted employer’s LO/TO policy . •Assist Supervisors/Foreman with developing equipment specific lockout procedures. •Conduct an annual LO/TO program review for updates or changes Supervisors/Foremen •Assist with developing equipment specific lockout procedures. •Assure that LO/TO procedures are applied in their area of operations. •Assure that employees under their supervision apply LO/TO procedures where necessary. •Assure that employees under their supervision have received training on how the LO/TO program functions. •Assure the availability of locks, tags, lockout box(s), and equipment specific lockout procedure(s) to all employees who are required to use them. •Determine who will be the Responsible/Lead (Primary) Authorized Employee for coordinating multiple source/multiple crew lock outs or five minute safety briefing prior to lockout. •Conduct a periodic inspection of the energy control procedure at least annually to ensure that the procedure and the provisions of this section are being followed. Certify through documentation that the inspections required by this section have been accomplished). •Identify and prioritize equipment list for LO/ TO multiple source equipment specific procedures to be written •Ensure outside contractors have a LO/TO policy that complies with all applicable regulations and is at least as stringent as The Department’s Policy when work is shared with employees. Authorized Employees A person who locks out or tags out machines or equipment in order to perform servicing or maintenance on that machine or equipment. •Conduct, implement and coordinate hazardous energy isolation LO/TO procedures as required by this program. •Verify equipment specific lockout procedure (multiple source) is accomplished, and apply their own lock and tag on the lock box key section, or, apply their own locks and tags to each energy isolation point, leave their locks on for the duration of work, and remove their locks after their work is complete, as required by this program. •They alone, apply their own locks and tags and no one else’s as required by this program •Indicate when LO/TO procedures are required before submitting completed work tickets to Supervisor. •Notify affected employees of the application and removal of LO/TO devices in the work area. •Attend LOTO training Affected Employees An employee whose job requires him/her to operate or use a machine or equipment on which servicing or maintenance is being performed under LO/TO, or whose job requires him/her to work in an area in which such servicing or maintenance is being performed •Abide by the rules of the LO/TO program. •Follow instructions of authorized employees. •Contact supervisor if there are any questions concerning the LO/TO situation. Owner’s Representatives •Ensure outside contractors have a lockout/tag out policy that is at least as strict as The Departments Policy when work is shared with department employees. Annual Inspections 1. Each department shall perform an annual self-audit of the Equipment Specific, Simple Electrical, and Motor Vehicle and Powered Industrial Equipment LOTO procedures used by their department. 2. The self-audit is intended to improve the LOTO procedures and to correct or improve any inadequacies. 3. Self-audits must include a visual evaluation of those workers performing the lockout procedures, and are to be performed by an authorized employee who does not use the LOTO procedure(s) being evaluated. 4. Annual self-audits are to be documented using the annual LOTO Self-audit Form. 5. Completed self-audit forms shall be kept on file for a minimum of two years 6.Environmental Health and Safety will regularly audit the lockout –tag-out program by observing activities& employees, review records and procedures,follow-up on documentation,othertasks as necessary. The audit is to ensure that the program and the requirements of this standard are being followed. Lockout/Tag out Risk Assessment and Alternative Methods whenever lockout/tag out is not used for tasks that are routine, repetitive, and integral to the production process (e.g., tasks that are short in duration; relatively minor in duration; occur frequently during the shift, day, or week; are usually performed by operators, set-up, service, or maintenance personnel; do not involve extensive disassembly; represent predetermined cyclical activities; are expected to occur regularly; minimally interrupt the production process; exist even when optimal operating levels are achieved; require taskspecific personnel training), or traditional lockout/tag out prohibits the completion of those tasks, an alternative method of control shall be used. Selection of an alternative method shall be based upon a qualitative risk assessment of the associated machine, equipment, or process and shall take into consideration that existing safeguards provided with the machine, equipment, or process may need to be removed or modified to perform a given task. 1. Identify all tasks: All tasks and activities should e considered, including set-up, installation, removal, maintenance, operating, adjusting, cleaning, troubleshooting, and programming. 2. Identify hazards: Hazards, such as electrical, gravity, mechanical, chemical, thermal, pneumatic, hydraulic, radiation, and human factors associated with each task, should be considered. 3. Assess potential consequences: Assess the most severe injury that could occur with each task. 4. Assess potential exposure to hazards: Evaluate the potential exposure of all persons to the identified hazards. 5. Assess probability of occurrence: Estimate the probability of occurrence of the hazardous event by considering the following factors: Safeguards, safety devices, and safety systems Reliability, history, and failure mode Operational/maintenance demands of task Possibility of defeat or failure of safeguards Accident history of task, activity, machine, equipment, or process Competence of persons performing task Working environment 6. Evaluate the risk: Each identified hazard and task should be evaluated to determine the level of risk. This will determine whether the task is an acceptable risk. 7. Achieve an acceptable level of risk: If the level of risk is found to be acceptable, the process is complete. If the risk(s) is/are determined to be unacceptable, the risk reduction process should be implemented. Risk Reduction If a risk assessment on a task results in an unacceptable risk to an employee, a hierarchical process should be utilized to reduce or control risk: 1. Risk reduction by design: Risk reduction may be achieved by implementing changes to eliminate hazards or reduce risk by substitution. 2. Risk reduction by use of engineered safeguards: This includes safeguards or safety devices utilized to protect employees from hazards that cannot be reasonably eliminated or reduced by design modification. Examples of engineered safeguards include guards (both fixed and interlocked), trapped key devices, and trip devices (light curtains, laser scanners, pressure mats, safety-rated switches, etc.). Examples of safety devices include emergency stop buttons, enabling or hold-to-run devices, etc. 3. Risk reduction by use of warning and alerting techniques: These techniques are utilized to protect employees from hazards that cannot reasonably be eliminated or satisfactorily reduced by design, engineered safeguards, or a combination of these elements. Examples include attendants, audible and visual signals, barricades, signs, and tags. 4. Risk reduction by use of administrative controls: Additional risk reduction may be achieved with safe work procedures, standard practices and checklists, and training. 5. Risk reduction by use of personal protective equipment (PPE): The use of PPE should be considered the last avenue of protection after the previous methods have been considered. Training Lockout/Tag out training will be conducted for all employees who are required to perform work on any equipment as referenced in this program. The training will address all components and procedures of this program. It will include methods to ensure employees understand the purpose and function of the program, that they can recognize applicable lockout/tag out situations, and that they have acquired the knowledge and skills required for applying, using, and removing the locks and tags. Assessment Each machine/equipment-specific lockout procedure must be assessed at least annually to ensure that the procedure remains valid or if any changes are warranted. This assessment must be machine-procedure specific and be documented.